Τετάρτη, 30 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin

http://orl-medicine.blogspot.com/2016/11/mycobiota-of-ground-red-pepper-and.html

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Paediatric spinal cord infarction : A previously healthy 14-year-old female who began having difficulty breathing at school immediately after experiencing a burning sensation down her neck and back.

http://orl-medicine.blogspot.gr/2016/11/paediatric-spinal-cord-infarction.html

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

2016-11-30T16-42-26Z
Source: Rawal Medical Journal
RMJ.
The Editorial Board of Rawal Medical Journal would like to thank the following individuals who reviewed manuscripts for volume 41, 2016


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PTEN Activation by DNA Damage Induces Protective Autophagy in Response to Cucurbitacin B in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), a natural product, induced both protective autophagy and DNA damage mediated by ROS while the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. This study explored the mechanism of Cuc B-induced DNA damage and autophagy. Cuc B decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Cuc B caused long comet tails and increased expression of γ-H2AX, phosphorylation of ATM/ATR, and Chk1/Chk2. Cuc B induced autophagy as evidenced by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, increased expression of LC3II, phosphorylated ULK1, and decreased expression of phosphorylated AKT, mTOR. Cuc B induced apoptosis mediated by Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase activation. Furthermore, Cuc B induced ROS formation, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). NAC pretreatment dramatically reversed Cuc B-induced DNA damage, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cuc B-induced apoptosis was reversed by NAC but enhanced by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), chloroquine (CQ), and silencing phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). 3-MA and CQ showed no effect on Cuc B-induced DNA damage. In addition, Cuc B increased PTEN phosphorylation and silence PTEN restored Cuc B-induced autophagic protein expressions without affecting DNA damage. In summary, Cuc B induced DNA damage, apoptosis, and protective autophagy mediated by ROS. PTEN activation in response to DNA damage bridged DNA damage and prosurvival autophagy.

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Overview of Pregnancy in Renal Transplant Patients

Kidney transplantation offers best hope to women with end-stage renal disease who wish to become pregnant. Pregnancy in a kidney transplant recipient continues to remain challenging due to side effects of immunosuppressive medication, risk of deterioration of allograft function, risk of adverse maternal complications of preeclampsia and hypertension, and risk of adverse fetal outcomes of premature birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. The factors associated with poor pregnancy outcomes include presence of hypertension, serum creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dL, and proteinuria. The recommended maintenance immunosuppression in pregnant women is calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus/cyclosporine), azathioprine, and low dose prednisone; and it is considered safe. Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil should be stopped 6 weeks prior to conception. The optimal time to conception continues to remain an area of contention. It is important that counseling for childbearing should start as early as prior to getting a kidney transplant and should be done at every clinic visit after transplant. Breast-feeding is not contraindicated and should not be discouraged. This review will help the physicians in medical optimization and counseling of renal transplant recipients of childbearing age.

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Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

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Contact-Free Cognitive Load Recognition Based on Eye Movement

The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM) to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.

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Freeze Dried Quetiapine-Nicotinamide Binary Solid Dispersions: A New Strategy for Improving Physicochemical Properties and Ex Vivo Diffusion

Improving the physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate (QF) enabling enhanced antipsychotic attributes are the main aims of this research. The freeze dried solid dispersion strategy was adopted using nicotinamide (NIC) as highly soluble coformer. The prepared dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Static disc intrinsic dissolution rate and ex vivo diffusion through intestinal tissues were conducted and compared to pure quetiapine fumarate. The results demonstrated a highly soluble coamorphous system formed between quetiapine fumarate and nicotinamide at 1 : 3 molar ratio through H-bonding interactions. The results showed >14-fold increase in solubility of QF from the prepared dispersions. Increased intrinsic dissolution rate (from 0.28 to 0.603 mg cm−2 min−1) and faster flux rate through duodenum (from 0.027 to 0.041 mg cm−2 h−1) and jejunum (0.027 to 0.036 mg cm−2 h−1) were obtained. The prepared coamorphous dispersion proved to be effective in improving the drug solubility and dissolution rate and ex vivo diffusion. Therefore, binary coamorphous dispersions could be a promising solution to modify the physicochemical properties, raise oral bioavailability, and change the biopharmaceutics classification (BCS) of some active pharmaceutical ingredients.

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Pinoresinol Diglucoside Alleviates oxLDL-Induced Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Deposition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is one of the initiators and promoters of atherosclerosis. Eucommia lignans were shown to possess antihypertensive effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pinoresinol diglucoside (PD), a Eucommia lignan, on oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. HUVECs were treated with oxLDL and/or PD followed by assessing radical oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, nitrogen oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity with specific assays kits, mRNA levels with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein levels with western blot. PD abolished oxLDL-induced ROS and MDA production, apoptosis, upregulation of lectin-like oxidized LDL recptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB), and activation of p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases)/NF-κB signaling. Meanwhile, PD alleviated oxLDL-caused inhibition of SOD activity, eNOS expression, and NO production. These data demonstrated that PD was effective in protecting endothelial cells from oxLDL-caused injuries, which guarantees further investigation on the clinical benefits of PD on cardiovascular diseases.

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Vector Spaces of New Special Magic Squares: Reflective Magic Squares, Corner Magic Squares, and Skew-Regular Magic Squares

The definition of a regular magic square motivates us to introduce the new special magic squares, which are reflective magic squares, corner magic squares, and skew-regular magic squares. Combining the concepts of magic squares and linear algebra, we consider a magic square as a matrix and find the dimensions of the vector spaces of these magic squares under the standard addition and scalar multiplication of matrices by using the rank-nullity theorem.

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Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

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Calcium Apatite Deposition Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

Calcium apatite deposition disease (CADD) is a common entity characterized by deposition of calcium apatite crystals within and around connective tissues, usually in a periarticular location. CADD most frequently involves the rotator cuff. However, it can theoretically occur in almost any location in the musculoskeletal system, and many different locations of CADD have been described. When CADD presents in an unexpected location it can pose a diagnostic challenge, particularly when associated with pain or swelling, and can be confused with other pathologic processes, such as infection or malignancy. However, CADD has typical imaging characteristics that usually allows for a correct diagnosis to be made without additional imaging or laboratory workup, even when presenting in unusual locations. This is a review of the common and uncommon presentations of CADD in the appendicular and axial skeleton as well as an updated review of pathophysiology of CADD and current treatments.

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Variations of the Physicochemical Parameters and Metal Levels and Their Risk Assessment in Urbanized Bagmati River, Kathmandu, Nepal

During post-monsoon 2013, surface water samples were collected form 34 sites from the Bagmati River and its tributaries within the Kathmandu Valley to assess the river water quality. The physical parameters were measured on site and major ions (Na+, , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, , and ) and 17 elements in water were analyzed in the laboratory. Conductivity ranged from 21.92 to 846 S/cm, while turbidity ranged from 2.52 to 223 NTU and dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged from 0.04 to 8.98 mg/L. The ionic and elemental concentrations were higher in the lower section where the population density is high compared to the headwaters. The large input of wastewater and organic load created anoxic condition by consuming dissolved oxygen along the lower belt of the river. The concentration of the elements was found to be in the order of Mn > Zn > Ti > Rb > Cr > Cu > Sc > Ni > V > Li > Co > Mo > Cd > Y > Ga > Be > Nb. The concentration of Mn, Cd, Cr, Co, and Zn was particularly higher in urban and semiurban sections. Enrichment factor (EF) calculations for Cd, Co, and Zn showed their highly enriched values indicating that these elements originated from anthropogenic sources. Preliminary risk assessments were determined by the hazard quotient (HQ) calculations in order to evaluate the health risk of the metals. The values of elements were found to be in the order Sb > Mn > Cr > V > Co > Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Li > Mo with all averaged HQ values less than 1, indicating no or limited health risk of metals from the river to the local residence. However the values of Sb in some parts of the Bagmati were close to unity indicating its possible threat. Anthropogenic activities like industrial activities, municipal waste water, and road construction besides the river appear to control the chemical constituent of the river water. Overall the river was highly polluted with elevated concentrations of major ions and elements and there is a need for restoration projects.

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STLIS: A Scalable Two-Level Index Scheme for Big Data in IoT

The rapid development of the Internet of Things causes the dramatic growth of data, which poses an important challenge on the storage and quick retrieval of big data. As an effective representation model, RDF receives the most attention. More and more storage and index schemes have been developed for RDF model. For the large-scale RDF data, most of them suffer from a large number of self-joins, high storage cost, and many intermediate results. In this paper, we propose a scalable two-level index scheme (STLIS) for RDF data. In the first level, we devise a compressed path template tree (CPTT) index based on S-tree to retrieve the candidate sets of full path. In the second level, we create a hierarchical edge index (HEI) and a node-predicate (NP) index to accelerate the match. Extensive experiments are executed on two representative RDF benchmarks and one real RDF dataset in IoT by comparison with three representative index schemes, that is, RDF-3X, Bitmat, and TripleBit. Results demonstrate that our proposed scheme can respond to the complex query in real time and save much storage space compared with RDF-3X and Bitmat.

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Changing States of Multistage Process Chains

Generally, a process describes a change of state of some kind (state transformation). This state change occurs from an initial state to a concluding state. Here, the authors take a step back and take a holistic look at generic processes and process sequences from a state perspective. The novel perspective this concept introduces is that the processes and their parameters are not the priority; they are rather included in the analysis by implication. A supervised machine learning based feature ranking method is used to identify and rank relevant state characteristics and thereby the processes’ inter- and intrarelationships. This is elaborated with simplified examples of possible applications from different domains to make the theoretical concept and results more feasible for readers from varying domains. The presented concept allows for a holistic description and analysis of complex, multistage processes sequences. This stands especially true for process chains where interrelations between processes and states, processes and processes, or states and states are not fully understood, thus where there is a lack of knowledge regarding causations, in dynamic, complex, and high-dimensional environments.

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Analytical Model of Waterflood Sweep Efficiency in Vertical Heterogeneous Reservoirs under Constant Pressure

An analytical model has been developed for quantitative evaluation of vertical sweep efficiency based on heterogeneous multilayer reservoirs. By applying the Buckley-Leverett displacement mechanism, a theoretical relationship is deduced to describe dynamic changes of the front of water injection, water saturation of producing well, and swept volume during waterflooding under the condition of constant pressure, which substitutes for the condition of constant rate in the traditional way. Then, this method of calculating sweep efficiency is applied from single layer to multilayers, which can be used to accurately calculate the sweep efficiency of heterogeneous reservoirs and evaluate the degree of waterflooding in multilayer reservoirs. In the case study, the water frontal position, water cut, volumetric sweep efficiency, and oil recovery are compared between commingled injection and zonal injection by applying the derived equations. The results are verified by numerical simulators, respectively. It is shown that zonal injection works better than commingled injection in respect of sweep efficiency and oil recovery and has a longer period of water free production.

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Rhinosporidiosis: A Rare Cause of Proptosis and an Imaging Dilemma for Sinonasal Masses

Background. Rhinosporidiosis is a common disease entity in tropical countries; however, it can be encountered in other parts of the world as well due to increasing medical tourism. It may mimic other more malignant and vigorous pathologies of the involved part. Case Report. We present a case of a 36-year-old male presenting with proptosis due to involvement of nasolacrimal duct which is rare. We will discuss typical CT and MRI features of the disease which were present in the case. Conclusion. For a surgeon and a radiologist, this is a necessary differential to be kept in mind for sinonasal masses. CT and MRI are invaluable investigations. However, FNAC is confirmatory. Both clinical and radiological aspects are required to reach correct diagnosis.

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Revealing Seed Coat Colour Variation and Their Possible Association with Seed Yield Parameters in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.)

The seed coat colour variation of 70 common vetch genotypes were determined by using uniform colour scale and their possible correlation with seed yield parameters including the number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pod, pod dimension, and seed yield (kg/da) was determined. The results revealed presence of highly significant () variations for both the seed yield and the seed coat colour parameters measured. The number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pod, and seed yield ranged from 5.8 to 16.03, from 5.2 to 7.66, and from 143.37 to 531.1, respectively. The lightness value varied from 19.00 to 40.28 while chromaticity and values ranged from −0.16 to 8.99 and from 0.79 to 22.11, respectively. The highest correlation coefficients were determined between and (), and and (). The seed coat colour traits and seed yield parameters generally showed weak negative correlations. Seed yellowness () and seed yield had correlation coefficient of −0.25, while correlation between and seed yield was determined as −0.23. The results indicated that lightness and yellowness of seed coat may be used as an important parameter to prescreen high yield genotypes of common vetch.

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Platelets miRNA as a Prediction Marker of Thrombotic Episodes

The blood platelets are crucial for the coagulation physiology to maintain haemostatic balance and are involved in various pathologies such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The studies of recent years have shown that anucleated platelets are able to succeed protein synthesis. Additionally, mRNA translation in blood platelets is regulated by miRNA molecules. Recent works postulate the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and ischemic episodes. This review article describes clinical studies that presented blood platelets miRNAs expression profile changes in different thrombotic states, which suggest use of these molecules as predictive biomarkers.

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IWKNN: An Effective Bluetooth Positioning Method Based on Isomap and WKNN

Recently, Bluetooth-based indoor positioning has become a hot research topic. However, the instability of Bluetooth RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) promotes a huge challenge in localization accuracy. To improve the localization accuracy, this paper measures the distance of RSSI vectors on their low-dimensional manifold and proposes a novel positioning method IWKNN (Isomap-based Weighted -Nearest Neighbor). The proposed method firstly uses Isomap to generate low-dimensional embedding for RSSI vectors. Then, the distance of two given RSSI vectors is measured by Euclidean distance of their low-dimensional embeddings. Finally, the position is calculated by WKNN. Experiment indicates that the proposed approach is more robust and accurate.

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Tricky gene mutations detected by free, fast, easy-to-use new software

Scientists have developed an easy-to-use software tool that can detect important genetic mutations that previously needed to be identified by a separate test. The software, called DECoN, accurately and quickly detects changes in copy number of blocks of...

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Genetic analysis of arsenic metabolism in Micrococcus luteus BPB1, isolated from the Bengal basin

Abstract

A highly arsenic-metabolizing bacterial strain was isolated from an agricultural field known for arsenic contamination near Munshiganj (Bangladesh). Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strain was identified as Micrococcus luteus and designated as strain BPB1. Arsenate and arsenite minimal inhibitory concentrations of 650 mM and 7.5 mM, respectively, were observed for strain BPB1, slightly higher than the figures observed in its close relative M. luteus DSM 20030T. Such observations were consistent with the presence of arsenic-metabolizing genes in the genome of M. luteus. We describe this strain as having an MSH/Mrx-dependent class of arsenate reductase, and an arsenite transporter family in the ACR3(1) group. Besides an intracellular arsenic resistance mechanism, experiments carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated the ability of BPB1 to sequester arsenate in extracellular polymeric substances on its cell surface.



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Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu

Dementia and cognitive impairment have become the major concerns worldwide due to a significantly aging population, increasing life span and lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In light of limited pharmaceutical drug choices and the socioeconomic implications of these conditions, the search for safe and effective alternatives from natural sources has gained many attractions within the medical food and dietary supplement industry. Two polyphenol extracts derived from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu containing free-B-ring flavonoids and flavans, respectively, were combined into a proprietary blend called UP326. A similar bioflavonoid composition, UP446, has been reported with modulation of pathways related to systemic inflammation. To test the effect of UP326 on memory and learning, a radial arm water maze (RAWM) and contextual fear conditioning (CF) were utilized in aged F344 rats fed with UP326 at doses of 3, 7, and 34 mg/kg for 11 weeks. The 7 and 34 mg/kg dosage groups had significantly fewer errors than aged vehicle control animals and their performance was equivalent to young animal controls. In a separate human clinical trial, test subjects orally given 300 mg of UP326 BID for 30 days showed marked improvement in speed and accuracy of processing complex information in computer tasks and reduced their standard deviation of performance compared to baseline and the placebo group. This data suggest that UP326 may help maintain memory, sustain speed of processing, and reduce the number or memory errors as we age.

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Short Time and Low Temperature Reaction between Metal Oxides through Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

This work demonstrates the possibility of synthesis of cadmium tungstate at low temperatures using oxide precursors. Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) scintillator was produced via microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction using the precursors CdO and WO3. The methodology was based on microwave radiation for heating, which is remarkably faster than the solid-state route or conventional hydrothermal procedure. CdWO4 monoclinic (wolframite) structure was successfully obtained at 120°C for synthesis times as short as 20 min. This route does not require the use of templates or surfactants and yields self-assembled nanorods with size of around 24 ± 9 nm width and 260 ± 47 nm length. The growth mechanism for the formation of CdWO4 involves microwave-induced dissociation of the reagents and solvation of Cd2+ and ions, which are free to move and start the nucleation process. The luminescence properties of the produced nanoparticles were investigated, presenting a broad emission band at around 500 nm, which is comparable to that observed for samples produced using other chemical routes. This result highlights the great potential of the proposed method as a low-cost and time saving process to fabricate luminescent oxide nanoparticles.

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Differentially Coexpressed Disease Gene Identification Based on Gene Coexpression Network

Screening disease-related genes by analyzing gene expression data has become a popular theme. Traditional disease-related gene selection methods always focus on identifying differentially expressed gene between case samples and a control group. These traditional methods may not fully consider the changes of interactions between genes at different cell states and the dynamic processes of gene expression levels during the disease progression. However, in order to understand the mechanism of disease, it is important to explore the dynamic changes of interactions between genes in biological networks at different cell states. In this study, we designed a novel framework to identify disease-related genes and developed a differentially coexpressed disease-related gene identification method based on gene coexpression network (DCGN) to screen differentially coexpressed genes. We firstly constructed phase-specific gene coexpression network using time-series gene expression data and defined the conception of differential coexpression of genes in coexpression network. Then, we designed two metrics to measure the value of gene differential coexpression according to the change of local topological structures between different phase-specific networks. Finally, we conducted meta-analysis of gene differential coexpression based on the rank-product method. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of DCGN and the superior performance of DCGN over other popular disease-related gene selection methods through real-world gene expression data sets.

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Presence of DQ2.2 Associated with DQ2.5 Increases the Risk for Celiac Disease

Background. Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically determined immune-mediated disorder in which gluten immunogenic peptides are presented to CD4 T cells by HLA-DQ2.5, DQ8, DQ2.2, and their combinations. Our aim is to establish a risk gradient for celiac disease based on HLA-DQ profile in a brazilian representative population and the relevance of DQ2.2 in celiac disease development. Materials and Methods. 237 celiac patients and 237 controls (both groups with 164 females and 73 males) were included. All samples were tested for the presence of predisposing HLA-DQ alleles using the PCR-SSP method. Results were considered significant when . Disease risk was expressed as 1 :  for each HLA-DQ category described at this study. Results. DQ2.5 and/or DQ8 were detected in 224 celiac patients (94.5%) and 84 controls (35.4%). Eight celiac patients (3.4%) and 38 controls (16%) disclosed only DQ2.2. Even though DQ2.2 (β2/β2 or β2/x) showed a low CD risk of 1 : 251 and 1 : 550, respectively, the genotype DQ2.5/DQ2.2 (β2/β2) showed high CD risk of 1 : 10 (). The disease risk gradient ranged from 1 : 3014 to 1 : 7. Conclusion. Our study allowed the determination of a risk gradient for celiac disease development in at-risk population, showing that DQ2.2 variant was relevant when associated with DQ2.5.

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From the Kalman Filter to the Particle Filter: A Geometrical Perspective of the Curse of Dimensionality

The aim of this contribution is to provide a description of the difference between Kalman filter and particle filter when the state space is of high dimension. In the Gaussian framework, KF and PF give the same theoretical result. However, in high dimension and using finite sampling for the Gaussian distribution, the PF is not able to reproduce the solution produced by the KF. This discrepancy is highlighted from the convergence property of the Gaussian law toward a hypersphere: in high dimension, any finite sample of a Gaussian law lies within a hypersphere centered in the mean of the Gaussian law and of radius square-root of the trace of the covariance matrix. This concentration of probability suggests the use of norm as a criterium that discriminates whether a forecast sample can be compatible or not with a given analysis state. The contribution illustrates important characteristics that have to be considered for the high dimension but does not introduce a new approach to face the curse of dimensionality.

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Efficacy of Synbiotics for Treatment of Bacillary Dysentery in Children: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

Bacillary dysentery is a major cause of children’s admission to hospitals. To assess the probiotic and prebiotic (synbiotics) effects in children with dysentery in a randomized clinical trial, 200 children with dysentery were studied in 2 groups: the synbiotic group received 1 tablet/day of synbiotic for 3–5 days and the placebo group received placebo tablets (identical tablet form like probiotics). The standard treatment was administered for all patients. Duration of hospitalization, dysentery, fever, and the weight loss were assessed in each group. It was concluded that there was no significant difference in both groups in the baseline characteristics. The mean duration of dysentery reduced (). The mean duration of fever has been significantly reduced in the synbiotic group ( days) in comparison to the placebo group ( days) (). Average amount of weight loss was significantly lower in the synbiotic group in comparison to that in the placebo group ( grams and grams, resp.; ). There was no significant difference in the mean duration of hospitalization in both groups (). The use of synbiotics as an adjuvant therapy to the standard treatment of dysentery significantly reduces the duration of dysentery, fever, and rate of weight losses. The trial is registered with IRCT201109267647N1.

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Clinically Meaningful Use of Blood Tumor Markers in Oncology

Before the introduction of modern imaging techniques and the recent developments in molecular diagnosis, tumor markers (TMs) were among the few available diagnostic tools for the management of cancer patients. Easily obtained from serum or plasma samples, TMs are minimally invasive and convenient, and the associated costs are low. Single TMs were traditionally used but these have come under scrutiny due to their low sensitivity and specificity when used, for example, in a screening setting. However, recent research has shown superior performance using a combination of multiple TMs as a panel for assessment, or as part of validated algorithms that also incorporate other clinical factors. In addition, newer TMs have been discovered that have an increased sensitivity and specificity profile for defined malignancies. The aim of this review is to provide a concise overview of the appropriate uses of both traditional and newer TMs and their roles in diagnosis, prognosis, and the monitoring of patients in current clinical practice. We also look at the future direction of TMs and their integration with other diagnostic modalities and other emerging serum based biomarkers, such as circulating nucleic acids, to ultimately advance diagnostic performance and improve patient management.

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Lung Cancer Classification Employing Proposed Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Based Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier

A proposed real coded genetic algorithm based radial basis function neural network classifier is employed to perform effective classification of healthy and cancer affected lung images. Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is proposed to overcome the Hamming Cliff problem encountered with the Binary Coded Genetic Algorithm (BCGA). Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) classifier is chosen as a classifier model because of its Gaussian Kernel function and its effective learning process to avoid local and global minima problem and enable faster convergence. This paper specifically focused on tuning the weights and bias of RBFNN classifier employing the proposed RCGA. The operators used in RCGA enable the algorithm flow to compute weights and bias value so that minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is obtained. With both the lung healthy and cancer images from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database and Real time database, it is noted that the proposed RCGA based RBFNN classifier has performed effective classification of the healthy lung tissues and that of the cancer affected lung nodules. The classification accuracy computed using the proposed approach is noted to be higher in comparison with that of the classifiers proposed earlier in the literatures.

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Comparison on the Surface Structure Properties along with Fe(II) and Mn(II) Removal Characteristics of Rice Husk Ash, Inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Powder, and Rice Husk

This study selected solid wastes, such as rice husk ash (RHA), inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae powder (ISP), and rice husk (RH), as the potential adsorbents for the removal of Fe(II) and Mn(II) in aqueous solution. The structural characteristics, functional groups, and elemental compositions were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier translation infrared spectrum (FT-IR) analyses, respectively. Then the influence on the Fe(II) and Mn(II) removing efficiency by the factors, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial Fe(II) and Mn(II) concentration, and contact time, was investigated by the static batch test. The adsorption isotherm study results show that Langmuir equation can better fit the Fe(II) and Mn(II) adsorption process by the three adsorbents. The maximum adsorption amounts for Fe(II) were 6.211 mg/g, 4.464 mg/g, and 4.049 mg/g by RHA, ISP, and RH and for Mn(II) were 3.016 mg/g, 2.229 mg/g, and 1.889 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics results show that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model can better fit the Fe(II) and Mn(II) adsorption process. D-R model and thermodynamic parameters hint that the adsorption processes of Fe(II) and Mn(II) on the three adsorbents took place physically and the processes were feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic.

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Outcome of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy with and without Haglund’s Deformity

Purpose. To compare the results of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) with or without Haglund’s deformity. Methods. Between September 2014 and May 2015, all patients who underwent ESWT were retrospectively enrolled in this study. A total of 67 patients were available for follow-up and assigned into nondeformtiy group () and deformtiy group (). Clinical outcomes were evaluated by VISA-A Score and 6-point Likert scale. Results. The VISA-A score increased in both groups, from at baseline to at months after treatment in nondeformity group () and from at baseline to at months after treatment in deformity group (). However, there was a greater improvement in VISA-A Score for the nondeformity group compared with deformity group (). For the 6-point Likert scale, there were decreases from at baseline to at the follow-up time point in nondeformity group () and from at baseline to at the follow-up time point in deformity group (). There was no significant difference in improvement of the 6-point Likert scale between both groups (). Conclusions. ESWT resulted in greater clinical outcomes in patients without Haglund’s deformity compared with patients with Haglund’s deformity.

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Nonparametric de-noising filter optimization using structure-based microscopic image classification

Abstract

The Local Polynomial Approximation (LPA) is a nonparametric filter that performs pixel-wise polynomial fit on a certain neighborhood. This filter can be supported by the Intersection of Confidence Interval rule (ICI) as an adaptation algorithm to identify the most suited neighborhood at which the polynomial assumptions provide superior fit for the observations. However, the LPA-ICI is considered to be a near-optimal de-noising filter. Moreover, the ICI rule has several parameters that affect its performance. The current study applied an optimization algorithm, namely the Particle swarm optimization (PSO) to determine the optimal ICI parameter values for microscopic images de-noising. As the ICI parameters are image's structure based, bag-of-features classifier is used to classify the images based on their structure into different classes. Afterward, a generated optimal ICI parameters' table was created using the LPA-ICI-PSO for further direct use without optimization. This table included the optimal ICI parameters based on the image structure. Based on the image category, the generated table can be used to attain the suitable ICI optimal parameters without using PSO. This guarantees less computational time along with the optimal de-noising compared to the LPA-ICI as established by the performance metrics. The experimental results established the superiority of the proposed LPA-ICI-PSO over the classical LPA-ICI filter.



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Clinico mycological study of dermatophytosis

2016-11-30T04-28-41Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
B. Janardhan, G. Vani.
Background: Dermatophytoses is common, more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries including India. Though not life threatening as it can cause great discomfort particularly in immunosuppressive conditions. It remains a general public health problem, which is prevalent in all age groups and both sexes. Aims: To study clinicomycological profile of patients. Methods: The Cross Sectional study was done on clinically diagnosed cases of Dermatophytosis with sample size of 200 cases for one and half year period. Results: The males to female ratio are 1.86:1. The common age group affected was 31-40years. Dermatophytosis was common in active workers, more common in urban than rural population particularly in low socioeconomic group of people and in summer season. Tinea corporis was the common clinical variant. 133 cases were both KOH and culture positive. The KOH mount was positive in 90% cases. In the present study 144 patients (72%) had positive culture results and 47 cases were KOH positive but culture negative, 11 cases were culture positive but KOH negative and 9 cases were both KOH and culture negative. Microsporum audoinii was isolated in 2%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 14%, Trichophyton rubrum in 52% and Trichophyton violaceum in 4%. Conclusions: Tinea corporis and Tinea cruris were the most common clinical types. Tinea corporis was predominantly a disease of adult males whereas Tinea capitis was seen mainly in pre- pubertal age group. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount and cultures were done for all the cases. T. rubrum was the commonest species isolated from most clinical types followed by T. mentagrophytes except T. capitis where T. violaceum was isolated.


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Limitation of Simultaneous Analysis of T-Cell Receptor and κ-Deleting Recombination Excision Circles Based on Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients

Aim of Study: We used a triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to classify our common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients into distinct groups according to the amount of their T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and #x03BA;-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs). Materials and Methods: TREC and KREC analysis was performed using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. The T- and B-lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. Results: The copy number of TRECs and KRECs was significantly reduced in CVID patients compared to healthy controls. The TREC copy number was inversely correlated with age in both healthy subjects and patients; however, the KREC copy number was inversely correlated with age only in CVID patients. Moreover, no association was seen between TREC/KREC copy number and clinical manifestations such as bronchiectasis, splenomegaly, granulomata, autoimmune cytopenias, organ-specific autoimmunity, enteropathy and lymphoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: TREC and KREC quantification might be a useful tool to differentiate between CVID and combined immunodeficiency, but considering the results of this study a classification of CVID patients in certain groups is hardly possible.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016;171:136-140

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Calcitriol Reduces Eosinophil Necrosis Which Leads to the Diminished Release of Cytotoxic Granules

Background: Asthma severity and eosinophilia correlate with a deficiency in vitamin D and its active metabolite calcitriol. Calcitriol modulates numerous leukocyte functions, but its effect on eosinophils is not fully understood. We postulated that calcitriol exerts a direct effect on eosinophil biology by modulating cell survival. Methods: Purified peripheral blood eosinophils from atopic donors were incubated in the presence of calcitriol for up to 14 days with or without IL-5. The effect of calcitriol on eosinophil viability was measured using the annexin-V/propidium iodide flow cytometry assay. We also examined the release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in media using a flow cytometry assay with anti-EPX antibodies, and the enzymatic activity of EPX was measured by an OPD-based colorimetric assay. Results: We observed that calcitriol sustained cell viability in eosinophils with a concurrent reduction of necrotic cells. This effect was amplified by the addition of IL-5. In parallel, we observed that a physiological dose of calcitriol (10 nM) significantly reduced eosinophil necrosis and cytolytic release of EPX in media when coincubated with IL-5. Conclusion: These results suggest that calcitriol may exert a direct effect on eosinophils by reducing necrosis and the cytolytic release of inflammatory mediators like EPX.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016;171:119-129

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Disease Manifestation and Inflammatory Activity as Modulators of Th17/Treg Balance and RORC/FoxP3 Methylation in Systemic Sclerosis

Background: There is much evidence that T cells are strongly involved in the pathogenesis of localized and systemic forms of scleroderma (SSc). A dysbalance between FoxP3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs) and inflammatory T-helper (Th) 17 cells has been suggested. Methods: The study aimed (1) to investigate the phenotypical and functional characteristics of Th17 and Tregs in SSc patients depending on disease manifestation (limited vs. diffuse cutaneous SSc, dcSSc) and activity, and (2) the transcriptional level and methylation status of Th17- and Treg-specific transcription factors. Results: There was a concurrent accumulation of circulating peripheral IL-17-producing CCR6+ Th cells and FoxP3+ Tregs in patients with dcSSc. At the transcriptional level, Th17- and Treg-associated transcription factors were elevated in SSc. A strong association with high circulating Th17 and Tregs was seen with early, active, and severe disease presentation. However, a diminished suppressive function on autologous lymphocytes was found in SSc-derived Tregs. Significant relative hypermethylation was seen at the gene level for RORC1 and RORC2 in SSc, particularly in patients with high inflammatory activity. Conclusions: Besides the high transcriptional activity of T cells, attributed to Treg or Th17 phenotype, in active SSc disease, Tregs may be insufficient to produce high amounts of IL-10 or to control proliferative activity of effector T cells in SSc. Our results suggest a high plasticity of Tregs strongly associated with the Th17 phenotype. Future directions may focus on enhancing Treg functions and stabilization of the Treg phenotype.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016;171:141-154

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The Efficacy of Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis May Vary with the Time of Day

Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a safe and effective treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR). However, many issues regarding SLIT remain to be resolved, including the optimal timing of administration. This study investigated the effect of time of day on SLIT efficacy with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic outcome. Methods: We performed prophylactic SLIT at different times of day (10 a.m. or 10 p.m.) in 2 mouse models of AR: an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR model and Cry j 1-induced AR model, and compared the effects. Results: In the OVA-induced AR model, mice sublingually receiving OVA at 10 a.m. exhibited a greater decrease in total and OVA-specific IgE levels than mice treated at 10 p.m. In addition, mice treated at 10 a.m. exhibited reductions in OVA-specific IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 production by splenocytes relative to mice treated at 10 p.m. Furthermore, we observed a more efficient capture of sublingually administered OVA in submandibular lymph nodes at 10 a.m. than at 10 p.m. in mice. Similar results were observed in the Cry j 1-induced AR model using Japanese cedar pollen extract for SLIT. Conclusions: Given the allergen-specific antibody and T cell responses, we suggest that SLIT may be more effective in the resting phase than in the active phase (note that mice are nocturnal animals). Thus, we propose that a chronotherapeutic approach should be considered for SLIT to maximize its effectiveness.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016;171:111-118

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Seeing reason: How to change minds in a ‘post-fact’ world

changingminds_main-800x533.jpg

We all skew evidence-based information to fit our beliefs – figuring out when and why could show us how to restore the delusion-busting power of facts

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Five minutes . . . with Tim Hodgetts

“On 23 November a group of civilian and military clinicians launched citizenAID (www.citizenaid.org), a system for the general public to be empowered to do the right thing in a bombing, shooting, or...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=tqqSpKbxk1I:92SQyjssTbY:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=tqqSpKbxk1I:92SQyjssTbY:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=tqqSpKbxk1I:92SQyjssTbY:F7zBnMy recent?i=tqqSpKbxk1I:92SQyjssTbY:-BTjWOF


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Coping with self management

Patient activation, self management, shared decision making . . . all of these sound great. I would be very happy to self manage—if I could figure out how.Seven years ago I was diagnosed with stage 4...
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Letter to the Editor



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Response to BDRA-16-0130.R1 – Letter to the Editor



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Τρίτη, 29 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Effect of laser acupuncture in mild benign hypertensive female patients

2016-11-29T16-49-37Z
Source: International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS)
Mohamed K. Seyam, Ghada M. Shawky.
Background: Recent studies have found that acupuncture treatments lower blood pressure. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical technique of inserting needles at particular points on the body to balance the opposing forces of yin and yang and the smooth flow of qi. Laser acupoint technique is considers as saving time because it is performed in less time than needles acupuncture. Purpose: The aim of this study was to study the effect of laser acupuncture on lowering the primary type of hypertension in old female adults. Materials and Methods: Thirty female mild hypertensive patients with ranged age 50-59 years were enrolled in the study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure evaluated by Mercury sphygmomanometer. Baseline blood pressure measured for each subject prior to the initiation of the treatment and after enrolled in of treatment program. The anthropometric data including age, duration of hypertension, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) was collected for both experimental and six weeks control groups. Results: after treating hypertension patients by the laser acupuncture for 6 weeks (twice per week session), both the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased significantly (P

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Effect of Recasting of Ni-Cr Base Metal Dental Casting Alloys on the Corrosion Rate, Compositional Changes and Ion Release in Artificial Saliva and Saline Solution

2016-11-29T16-49-37Z
Source: International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS)
K Jayaprakash, K Harish Kumar Shetty, A Nityananda Shetty, Bantarahalli Thopegowda Nandish, Sowmya Rao.
Background: Environmental concerns are increasing rapidly, and the industry and public are more concerned about natural resources and recycling. Today, it is equally important to take into account cost, ecological factors in production and recycling of materials used in various fields. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate corrosion rate, compositional changes and ion release of recasted Ni-Cr dental casting alloy Materials and Methods: Commercially available Ni -Cr alloy (Bellabond) was used in the study. The recasting was done without any addition of new alloys and recasted up to six times. Corrosion rate was determined by Tafel extrapolation method in artificial saliva in pH 2.3, 6.7 and in 0.9% saline solution at pH 7.3. The compositional changes were studied by Inductively coupled Plasma Atomic emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method. Ion release during storage in artificial saliva and saline solution for one week and four weeks was detected by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results: The corrosion rate was found slightly increased with recasting numbers up to six times. The quantities of ions released increased as the recasting number increases. These changes were not clinically significant. During recasting procedure, there was a change in their alloy compositions, which increases the corrosion rate in recasted alloys. Conclusion: The recasting technique can be accepted in dental practices. This study showed the possibilities of safe usage of recasted alloys up to certain generations in dentistry and in later stages if it is not suitable for dentistry it can be directed to other fields of industries, where the biocompatibility is not a major requirement. This lowers the environmental burden, health hazards and protects imbalance of natural resources.


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Appraise the Health-Related Quality of Life among Trauma Patients

2016-11-29T16-49-37Z
Source: International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS)
Ravi Kant Jain, Neelesh Dhadse, Chirag Sethi, Ravindra Kumar, Susmit Kosta.
Background: Limb injures is revolve a life-changing event that can cause significant disruptions in many important areas of life. Objectives: The objective of our study was to appraise the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and psychosocial factors associated with pain and disability in patients following Upper limb (UL) and lower limb (LL) trauma patients Materials and methods: A sample of convenience 300 adult male and female patients who met the inclusion criteria was included. A short form (36) health status questionnaire was filled by a single author from each patient after one year of follow up. This part was utilized to assess the QOL among limbs traumas patients. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than 0.7 in five of the eight domains of SF 36 except mental health, social function and general health. Chronbachs α was higher the 0.8 all the domains except in social function domain. There was no difference in Health Related Quality of Life in patients with upper and lower limb trauma. However there was significant difference in 4 domains related to physical components of SF 36 survey form between male and females. Conclusion: Both upper and lower limb trauma similarly affects the Health Related Quality of Life in all age group of patients.


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An epidemiological study on tobacco use in urban Shimoga, Karnataka

2016-11-29T07-29-39Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Kanchana Nagendra, Mangala Belur, Nandini C.
Background: Tobacco is commonly smoked or chewed or inhaled. Smoking is a leading cause of many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as well as has significant adverse effects on pregnancy. About 1.3 billion people worldwide smoke, and the number of smokers continues to rise. More than 40% of the worlds smokers live in just two countries, i.e. China and India. India only has around 10% of worlds smokers. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of use of different forms of tobacco in urban population of Shimoga. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Shimoga study was conducted during February 1, 2016, to July 30, 2016, for 6 months. Data were collected from household members aged 15-64 years. The calculated sample size was 2000. Participants were interviewed using a pre-structured and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from the WHO Steps I and II, approaches for NCDs risk factors surveillance, after modifying to suit the local requirements (questions about tobacco use were considered for the study). Results: The prevalence of current smoking in the free-living population of urban city was 15.3%; among them, almost all subjects were daily smokers (prevalence - 15.2%). The prevalence of daily smoking habit was 30.1% among male users. The study revealed that 17.7% of the subjects were current oral tobacco users, while a few were former chewers (0.4%). Conclusion: This community based study demonstrated high prevalence of tobacco use among productive population of urban Shimoga.


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A community-based study on prevalence of hypertension in urban Shimoga, Karnataka

2016-11-29T07-29-39Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Kanchana Nagendra, Anirudh Krishna Menon, Mangala Belur, Nandini C.
Background: It is one of the major and independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and cardiac and renal failure. The recent WHO report states that considering the prevalence of any diseases, hypertension ranks fourth in the world. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of hypertension in an urban population of Shivamogga. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Urban Shivamogga Study was conducted during February 1st to July 30th 2016 for 6 months. Data were collected from household members aged 15-64 years. The calculated sample size was 2000. Subjects were interviewed using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire adopted from WHO Steps I and II, approaches for NCD risk factors surveillance, after modifying to suit the local requirements (questions about hypertension were considered for study). Results: The prevalence of high blood pressure in the present study was 26.5%, which was more prevalent in males (27.6%) compared females (25.3%). History of hypertension in the present study was 12.05%. This is finding is consonance with a study conducted by Nath et al. Conclusion: This community-based study demonstrated high prevalence of Hypertension among productive population of urban Shivamogga.


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Occupational health status of construction workers: A review

2016-11-29T07-29-39Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Gourab Biswas, Arkajit Bhattacharya, Rina Bhattacharya.
In the development of a country, construction industry has a significant role. About 350 million people of the world are directly involved in this sector, and the number is growing at a fast rate in the cities. Due to several occupational health risks, this sector is placed top of the list according to workplace accidents and injuries. Workers of this sector expose several types of fatal occupational health hazards daily. Moreover, socioeconomically poor people, particularly from rural areas, are engaged in this sector. Research on occupational health is highly needed to give safety and awareness to the mason workers. Present work is a review of researches from the available published articles to get a broad spectrum of occupational health problems of construction workers. Standard databases are used to collect articles on occupation, health, and working environment. Musculoskeletal disorders are very common among the construction workers. Workplace injuries are mainly due to improper use of personal protective equipments.


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A Comparative Study Of Thoracic Epidural Anaesthesia Using Bupivacaine And General Anaesthesia For Elective Breast Surgeries.

2016-11-29T07-13-36Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Manoj Sahu, Ladhu Lakra, Usha Suwalka, Azzizul Haq.
Introduction And Aim: Major surgery induced profound physiological changes in the perioperative period, characterized by increases in sympathoadrenal and other neuroendocrine activity and also increased cytokine production. Because epidural anesthesia can attenuate this stress response to surgery, improve the quality of postoperative analgesia in comparison with systemic opioids, and hasten recovery of gut function, it has been suggested that conducting surgery under epidural anesthesia (either as the sole anesthetic or in combination with general anesthesia) may reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality compared with general anesthesia alone. This clinical study was therefore under taken to evaluate the usefulness of employing the thoracic segmental epidural blocks for various breast surgeries. Method: The study included 60 patients of elective breast surgeries of age group 20 to 60 years after approval from institutional ethic committee. Informed written consent from all patients was taken. After thorough pre anesthetic check up and premedication in 30 patients of group T Epidural catheter was inserted at T5-6 level and 10 CC of 0.25% bupivacaine were injected for all patients and in 30 patients of group G conventional general anesthesia were given. The parameter studied were 1.Intra operative hemodynamic changes 2. Post operative analgesia 3. Post operative side effects shivering, nausea and vomiting, backache and respiratory effect 4. Recovery time and 5. Duration of hospital stay. Result: Baseline demographic variables were similar in two groups. Intra operative hemodynamic changes were significant in early perioperative period in both groups. There was higher incidence of post operative side effects and intravenous analgesic requirement in group G compared to group T. Recovery time and duration of hospital stay were also higher in group G compared to group T. Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia compared to general anesthesia has different sets of intra operative hemodynamic changes. In both type of anesthesia this intra operative hemodynamic changes are easily manageable. Thoracic epidural has better postoperative outcome with much better post operative pain management which leads to decrease in recovery time and duration of hospital stay. So it can be considered that thoracic epidural anesthesia is better alternative for elective breast surgeries than general anesthesia.


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Risk perception and practice towards road traffic safety among medical students

2016-11-29T04-51-50Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Syed Hasan Nawaz Zaidi, Pandab Chandra Paul, Pankaj Mishra, Ankur Srivastav.
Background: Road traffic injuries are a major but neglected epidemic. WHO has declared road traffic accidents (RTA) as the number one cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. India has witnessed 31.3% of the road traffic deaths among 15 to 29 years individuals in the year 2011 as reported by national crime records bureau. This study is aimed to learn and study risk perception and practice of road safety measures among medical students. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students with an objective A 297 M.B.B.S. students were selected by convenient sampling technique. The study period was May-August, 2016. The information collected was analysed using SPSS version 16 & Microsoft excels 2007 software. Results: Majority of boys (82% and 98%) and girls (55% & 66%) had a satisfactory understanding of traffic rules and traffic signs & signals, respectively. While exploring on the helmet use, only 36% of girls were aware of its importance. About the factors responsible for the crash severity, participants showed a lesser concern to the seat-belts & child restraints (59% boys and 39% girls). Notably only 52% of male participants were in view that alcohol consumption sometimes increases the severity while driving. Conclusions: Abidance to road safety was not found satisfactory. Adequate interventions and reorientation training towards road safety need to be introduced among young drivers.


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Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated socio-demographic factors among the food handlers of Bagalkot city, Karnataka, India

2016-11-29T04-51-50Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Waseem Anjum, Pavan S. Kalasker, Kurre Bhaskar.
Background: Growing urbanization and lifestyle changes lead people to dine away from home more often, contributing to the unregulated opening of eating establishments that often have inadequate hygiene conditions. Hence a study was undertaken to know prevalence and determinants of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Bagalkot city, Karnataka, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among food handlers of 46 food establishments enlisted in Bagalkot hotel and refreshment association. A total of 266 food handlers were interviewed using proforma regarding socio-demographic data and personal hygiene followed by stool examination for intestinal parasites. Results: Out of 266 food handlers, 39 (14.7%) were tested positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Most common parasite isolated was A. Lumbricoides (5.3%) followed by E. Histolytica (1.5%), Giardia (1.5%), T. Solium (0.8%), T. Trichura (0.8%) and H. Nana (0.8%). Mixed infections constituted 4.1%.Female gender, rural residence and socio-economic status and personal hygiene was significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Conclusions: Strict hygienic practices, complete treatment of infected persons and regular surveillance is important for controlling intestinal parasitic infections.


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Products based on olive oil, betaine, and xylitol in the post-radiotherapy xerostomia



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Δευτέρα, 28 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2 different antiretroviral regimens in tertiary care hospital: A retrospective observational study

2016-11-28T12-22-25Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Reshma S R, Mangala Gowri S R, Vaneeth Agarwal, Narendranath Sanji, Navin Patil, Dinakar KR, Keerthisagar J.
Background: Highly active retroviral therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV infection. Although many regimens have reduced the plasma virus load in patients, there are many cases of long-term toxicity, adverse effects, and drug resistance. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between combination of stavudine lamivudine nevirapine (SLN) and stavudine lamivudine efavirenz (SLE) (antiretroviral regimens) in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) center of CG Hospital, a tertiary care center at Davangere. Data were collected for the duration of 12 months (June 2012 to May 2013). The study was conducted after obtaining the permission from the institutional ethical committee and incharge officer. Prescriptions of the patients were collected, and relevant information was entered in the preformed pro forma and analyzed. Results: In total of 144 cases, 94 patients received combination therapy of SLN whereas 50 patients received combination therapy of SLE. To compare the baseline parameters such as CD4 counts, weight and hemoglobin with post-treatment values Dunns multiple comparison test was applied. To compare the changes in the parameters between the 2 therapies unpaired t-test was applied. There was a statistically significant improvement in CD4 counts in both the therapies but between group comparisons showed no statistical difference, inspite of clinical improvement more pronounced in patients receiving SLN combination. Hemoglobin levels have improved significantly post therapy in both the groups. Conclusion: In this study, there was clinically significant improvement in all the parameters considered for analyses in patients receiving SLN compared to SLE therapy but fails to show statistical significance.


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The anxiolytic effect of bee pollen hydroalcoholic extract in mice

2016-11-28T12-22-25Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Neda Sistani Karampour, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Azam Malmir.
Background: Anxiety is a common human mental disorder. Medicinal therapy of this disease is associated with many side-effects. Thus, search for new medication with fewer side-effects seems inevitable. Bee pollen (often referred to as a life-giving dust) has various therapeutic properties. Aims and Objectives: In this study, potential anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen was examined in mice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 20-25 g male mice in three groups of eight. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen at 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg doses, diazepam at 1 mg/kg dose, and saline at 10 ml/kg dose. 30 min after injection, animals were studied in elevated plus maze device for 5 min. Results: The results obtained showed significantly longer presence in open arms of elevated plus maze device of animals that received 800 and 1600 mg/kg doses of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen compared to animals that received diazepam. However, no significant difference was observed between 1600 and 800 mg/kg doses. Conclusion: The above results confirmed anxiolytic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen on mice.


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Manganese induced hematological alteration in Wistar rats

2016-11-28T11-36-56Z
Source: Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science
Milan Chandel, Gyan Chand Jain.
Aim: Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that act as cofactor in many cellular enzymes. The present study was designed to evaluate toxic effects of manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H2O) on marker hematological parameters in rats after sub chronic exposure and after 60 days of treatment withdrawal. Method: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. In group I, the rats were treated with vehicle (0.5 ml distilled water) and served as control. The rats in group II, III and IV were exposed to MnCl2 (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o. respectively) for 120 days. Half of the rats of group IV were followed by 60 days post exposure recovery period and served as group V. Results: The results of the study showed significant dose dependent decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) value, platelet count and significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) count after MnCl2 exposure, Whereas no significant changes were observed in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after treatment. Scanning electron microscopic study of blood showed a dose dependent increase in abnormal shaped RBCs in MnCl2 treated rats. Most of the effects in these parameters were recovered after 60 days of treatment withdrawal. Conclusion: The results of the study reveals that MnCl2 exposure resulted in hematological toxicity in rats and most of the changes in these parameters recovered when Mn exposure was ceased.


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An epidemiological study of self-medication among urban adults of Aligarh

2016-11-28T09-58-41Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Anees Ahmad, Mohd Tabish Khan, Najam Khalique, Mohd Athar Ansari, Mohd Maroof.
Background: Self prescribing is usually defined as medication that is taken on the patients own initiative or on the advice of a pharmacist or lay person. In developing countries like India, private pharmacies are the predominant drug dispensers and prescription only drugs are available for sale in official pharmacies without a prescription. Modern medicament though of prime importance to humanity is potentially hazardous when administered indiscriminately in the form of self-medication. Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of self-medication among urban adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 424 adults aged 18 years and above residing in registered field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre. The sample was drawn using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. The interview was taken using predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Out of 424, 395 adults responded to the questionnaire. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Tests of proportion were used. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 83%. Pain was the most common symptom for self-medication. The source of drugs was mainly medical store. Lack of time, mild illnesses were the most common reason for not seeking medical advice. The majority of them were unaware of the adverse effects related to self-medication. Conclusion: Higher prevalence, as well as low awareness of side effects of self-medication, was seen. Awareness regarding the adverse consequence related to self-medication should be raised to lower the prevalence of self-medication.


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Profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositives attending Integrated Counseling and Testing Center of a Medical College in Chhattisgarh

2016-11-28T09-58-41Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Srishti Dixit, Divya Sahu, Aditi Chandrakar, Prem Sagar Panda, Shanta P Khes, Somen Kumar Pradhan.
Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most important public health problems of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Hence, it is necessary to understand the sociodemographic profile and risk behavior pattern of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals for better implementation of interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic profile, risk behavior pattern, and source of referral of HIV seropositive clients attending Integrated Counseling and Testing Center (ICTC). Materials and Methods: A crosssectional study was done on all HIV-seropositive attendees who attended ICTC from July 2015 to October 2015. Results: Out of all 274 individuals, 61.31% were male, 58.39% were of 20-39 years age, 77.01% were married, and 34.39% had completed primary education. Most common occupation among males is government or private service (20.83%) and almost half of the females were homemakers (49.06%). 174 (63.50%) individuals stated heterosexual transmission as the risk behavior. 3.66% of individuals got infected because of parent to child transmission. 37.23% of individuals visited ICTC voluntarily. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of social and demographic and behavioral factors, which will help, interrupt, and control the transmission of HIV/AIDS.


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Refractive errors among school-going children in Hyderabad

2016-11-28T09-58-41Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Mohammed Zain Ur-Rehman, Sultan Rizwan Ahmad, Mariya Syed.
Background: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of eye problem worldwide. Children are more vulnerable because it starts in school age and can hinder the learning process and educational achievement. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of known case of refractive error among school-going children and its socioeconomic characteristics, and attitude of the students toward corrective measure. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted among school-going children from 6th to 10th standard from three schools. Permission was taken from the respective schools authority and consent was taken from parents through school. Each school had about 300 students, making a total of 900. Students are known to have refractive errors were included in the study. Out of 900, 190 were known to be affected. Data were collected using predesigned questionnaire and analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of known case of refractive error was 21%. Maximum (51%) were between 11 and 12 years of age. About 95% of affected students had myopia. Majority of the students (54.2%) had blurring of vision as their initial complaint. Regarding family history of refractive errors, 65% of the students fathers were affected, 49% mothers were affected, and 43% of the siblings were affected. Almost 100% of the students used glasses and only 50% of the students get their eyes checked every 6 months. About 48% of students spent >2 h in front of screen and 47% students spent


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Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors among youths in Bengaluru urban district, India

2016-11-28T06-02-34Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Naveen Ramesh, Dwayne Mascarenhas, Roger Manuel, Rathnaprabha GK, Pretesh R Kiran.
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one among the leading causes of death world over and in India. Risk factors for CVD have their beginnings early in life, and early detection and correction could have far-reaching implications in arresting the rising trend of mortality and morbidity due to CVD. Objectives: This study was done with the objective of assessing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among college attending youths in Bengaluru urban district and to study the factors associated with these risks. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 1267 college students, aged 15-24 years in five colleges of Bengaluru urban district. Modified National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey questionnaire and glazer stress scale were administered to elicit prevalence of risk factors. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Data were analyzed for frequencies, means and standard deviations and proportions compared using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity was 82%, stress was 56%, and that of unhealthy dietary habits was 42%. Alcohol consumption was reported by 25% of the students, tobacco consumption by 14%, both in the smoked and smokeless forms. On examination, 11.4% of the students were hypertensive, 24.9% underweight, and 6.1% overweight of them 0.4% were obese. A positive family history of CVD or death was positive among 50.4% of young adults. Conclusions: The present study shows the presence of several cardiovascular risk factors among college students. Interventions in the form of health education among youth adults regarding the need for adopting healthy lifestyles as well as regarding the ill effects of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, and managing stress could help address the burden of modifiable risk factors.


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Σάββατο, 26 Νοεμβρίου 2016

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ON OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMARKERS IN AFRICAN CAT FISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) FROM ASEJIRE RIVER IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

2016-11-26T17-32-23Z
Source: Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science
Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Abiola Muhammad Adeosun.
Background: Fishes are widely used as model organisms for the assessment of the quality of aquatic environment and can therefore serve as bioindicators of environmental pollution. In this study, the activities of Superoxide dismutase, Catalase , Glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and Malondialdehyde formation were determined in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Asejire River in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The River receives effluents discharged from various industries and it is suspected to be polluted. Materials and Methods: Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Asejire River and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Results: A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Asejire River compared with control. Superoxide dismutase, Catalase and GST activities decreased in the organs of the fish. There was also a decrease in GSH concentration in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Asejire River compared with control but GSH concentration increased in the gills of the fish. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there was induction of oxidative stress in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Asejire River reflecting the pollution status of the River.


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Παρασκευή, 25 Νοεμβρίου 2016

FACTORS AFFECTING PREWEANING SURVIVABILITY OF KIDS IN AN ORGANIZED GOAT FARM

2016-11-25T21-55-21Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Muthukumar Subramaniyan, Thamil Vanan Thanga, Meenakshisundaram Subramanian, Hemalatha Senthilnayagam.
A study was carried out to find out the factors influencing kid survivability in an organized goat farm with more than 500 breedable Tellicherry does at Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. Detailed study was carried out in all the 52 kids died out of 551 live kids born during the study period of nine months. The influence of dam weight at kidding, birth weight, dams milk yield, litter size, kid sex, age of susceptibility and parity on kid survivability were studied. The chi square analysis of the data revealed that significantly higher survival rate were recorded in kids born to dams of 25-40 kg body weight with 300-500 ml of milk yield per day with more than 1.5 kg birth weight, kids born as singles and after third parity survived better (P

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Occupational Exposure to Oxyacetylene Flame Could Predispose to Macrocytic Anaemia in Welders in Nnewi, South East Nigeria

2016-11-25T17-31-12Z
Source: Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science
Nancy Ibeh, John Aneke, Chide Okocha, Emmanuel Obeagu.
Background: Oxyacetylene flame is known to contain a number deleterious components which could be of potentially occupational health importance. Objective: To evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to oxyacetylene flame on haematological indices in a population of welders in Nnewi, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 subjects were randomly selected, comprising of 50 apparently healthy welders and controls, respectively. Subjects were further stratified into those that consumed alcohol and/or tobacco products and those who did not. Three milliliter (3ml) of venous blood was collected from each participant and dispensed into potassium- ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (K-EDTA) containers for full blood count determination. This was done using the Sysmex® automated haematology analyser, Model Number: PCE 210. Results were expressed as means ± SD while the students t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for comparison of means; P was significant at


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Evaluation of response to therapy in thyroid carcinoma patients after radioactive iodine therapy

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
Lebriz Uslu Besli, Ilhami Uslu.
Radioactive iodine therapy is an important treatment modality for differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients. Radioactive iodine, similar to elementary iodine, is concentrated in the thyroid follicular cells after oral application, and it can damage the remnant or malignant thyroid cells. Unlike many antineoplastic drugs, radioactive iodine can easily be applied without causing serious side effects. Radioactive iodine was first used for the treatment of a differentiated thyroid carcinoma patient in 1949. In Turkey, it has been used in many nuclear medicine centers for treatment of both differentiated thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroid patients since 1954. For evaluation of response to therapy with radioactive iodine, different clinical, biochemical, scintigraphic, and radiological imaging modalities are available. Today, many international guidelines aid the clinicians in the assessment of therapy response after radioiodine application. This review aims to discuss the methods recommended in current guidelines for therapy response assessment in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients after radioactive iodine therapy.


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First transapical aortic valve replacement at bagcilar training and research hospital

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
Nihan Kayalar, Kamil Boyacioglu, Serkan Ketenciler, Ibrahim Yildizhan, Vedat Erentug.
Transcatheter-based aortic valve procedures have undergone a tremendous evolution and have led to great changes in the treatment of aortic valvular disease. In patients with severe peripheral arterial disease, transapical aortic valve implantation is an important alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement. Hereby we present our first case of transapical aortic valve implantation in an 80 year-old patient. An 80-year old female patient applied with dyspnea on minimal exertion (NYHA Class III). Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic stenosis (gradients of 76/45 mmHg, aortic valve area of 0.72 cm2). Patient had a history of coronary artery bypass grafting and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Calculated Euroscore was 16.4% and due to the high surgical risk and presence of diffuse vascular disease, transapical aortic valve implantation was decided to be the optimal choice for the patient. The procedure was performed in the catheter laboratory under general anesthesia via a 5-6 cm anterolateral thoracotomy and via transapical approach. Fluoroscopy was used to guide the catheter across the native valve and direct deployment of the stent at the level of the annulus. A 26 mm Edwards Novoflex (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) aortic valve was used. Postoperative echocardiography showed no transvalvular gradient and aortic regurgitation. Aorta flow was 1.1 m/s. Transcatheter-based aortic valve procedures avoid the risks associated with open heart surgery and therefore are generally indicated in patients with high surgical risk. Although TAVI is the first alternative to SAVR in high risk patients, TA-TAVI is a safe and effective option in those unsuitable for TAVI.


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Late surgical treatment of iatrogenic femoral vein ligation during open inguinal hernia repair

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
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Vascular complications during inguinal hernia repair are rarely seen; however, iliac vein ligation may be performed by the inexperienced surgeon. Here, we present a case of iatrogenic external iliac vein ligation diagnosed and surgically treated about one day after surgery. A 58-year-old male patient with bilateral inguinal hernia underwent open bilateral inguinal hernia repair. On the first postoperative day, severe edema, increased warmth and pain of the right leg developed. Duplex ultrasonography (USG) examination of the right lower extremity revealed acute thrombosis of deep veins. The patient was taken to vascular surgery about 24 hours after the inguinal hernia repair operation. It was detected that the right external iliac vein had been ligated iatrogenically during the initial operation. It was repaired with a duplicated saphenous vein patch. The diameter of the right leg decreased dramatically early after operation. The patient was discharged on the 3rd day postoperatively. On follow-up, the patients complaints regressed dramatically; we did not observe any complications and at six months, computerized tomography venography showed absence of stenosis of iliac vein. Major vascular complications after inguinal hernia repair operations must be kept in mind because of close proximity of the surgical area to main vascular structures. The surgical treatment of deep vein thrombosis after ligation of the iliac vein provides an efficient and quick repair if proper surgical techniques are used.


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Cutaneous metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma seen in the left gluteal region and axilla

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
Ozan Beytemur, Cem Albay, Oktay Adanir, Asuman Chiomet Amet, Mehmet Akif Gulec.
Pancreatic cancer is usually high-grade and metastatic when diagnosed. Skin metastasis is very rare and is usually found in the periumbilical area. Non-umbilical metastasis is extremely rare. Only 19 cases have been reported in the literature. Only one case in the buttock has been described: thus our case is the second one known. In this note, we present a cutaneous metastasis of a pancreatic cancer case that was admitted to the clinic with a mass each on the left buttock and in the left axilla, surgically treated for palliation. We include a review of the literature.


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Root compression due to swollen oxidized regenerated cellulose after cervical disc surgery

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
Azmi Tufan, Feyza Karagoz Guzey, Abdurrahim Tas, Cihan Isler, Murat Yucel, Ozgur Aktas, Mustafa Vatansever, Yucel Hitay.
Oxidized regenerated cellulose is a hemostatic material that is frequently used in neurosurgery. While it is often left in place to avoid postoperative hematoma, in rare cases it may cause neural tissue compression. A case with severe radicular pain due to swollen oxidized regenerated cellulose after anterior cervical disc surgery was reported. A 37-year-old female was operated for a C5-6 disc herniation. After anterior microdiscectomy, severe radicular pain developed due to a retained piece of swollen oxidized regenerated cellulose. Complaints resolved completely after removal of the material causing the compression. Neurological deficits may develop with even a small amount of oxidized regenerated cellulose left behind on the surface of the dura after spinal surgery. We need to keep in mind that this is foreign material that should be used in small quantities. If possible, it must be removed after hemostasis has been achieved.


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Factors affecting the outcome in traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
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Objective: To define risk factors affecting the outcome in traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Material and Methods: Forty-four patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage were evaluated retrospectively. They were divided into three groups according to their age: elderly (?65 years), adult (16-64 years), and children (


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Comparing the rate of radiological and clinical adjacent segment degeneration after simple anterior cervical discectomy versus discectomy plus fusion

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
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Objective: To evaluate and compare the radiological changes on adjacent mobile segments and clinical findings in patients having undergone single-segment simple anterior cervical discectomy versus discectomy plus intervertebral fusion. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients were treated with discectomy plus fusion and 20 patients with simple discectomy. Clinical pictures of the patients were evaluated with ODOM criteria before and 1 year after operation, and their improvement rates were calculated. The disc heights of superior and inferior adjacent segments, superior and inferior foramen heights, superior and inferior end plate heights of superior and inferior adjacent segments, new osteophyte development, segmental angulation and loss of cervical lordosis were evaluated on cervical radiographies before and 1 year after operation. Results: Although there were new degenerative findings in adjacent mobile segments in all patients when preoperative and postoperative measurements were compared, these radiological findings did not translate into clinical findings. In the fusion group, radiological degeneration findings were seen more frequently statistically; however, clinical results were not different between the two groups. On the other hand, loss of lordosis was significantly more frequent in the simple discectomy group. Conclusion: Although adding fusion to single-segment anterior cervical discectomy caused more frequent radiological degenerative changes in adjacent segments after 1 year compared to simple discectomy, clinical results were similar. It was thought that longer follow-up was necessary to observe clinical adjacent segment disease that was expected to become more frequent because of excessive mobility due to fusion.


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Surgical management of cardiac myxomas in elderly patients

2016-11-25T16-24-28Z
Source: Bagcilar Medical Bulletin
Kamil Boyacioglu, Arzu Antal Donmez, Mehmet Aksut, Ilknur Akdemir, Serkan Ketenciler, Taylan Adademir, Nihan Kayalar, Vedat Erentug.
Objective: Cardiac myxoma usually presents during early adulthood. There is generally a tendency for prompt surgical resection. However, advanced age of patients presenting with this disease may increase the operative risk due to other cardiac and non-cardiac problems. Therefore, we evaluated elderly patients who underwent surgery for myxoma to review the management of treatment. Methods: Between September 1985 and March 2012, a total of 17 consecutive patients over 65 years of age (5 male, 12 female; mean age: 69.3±3.5 years) who had undergone surgical resection for cardiac myxoma were analyzed retrospectively. Echocardiography had been performed in all patients to diagnose the myxoma and evaluate other cardiac pathologies. Coronary angiography had been performed in all patients except in two cases who underwent emergency surgery. Results: Thirteen patients (76.4%) survived the operation. Two patients who underwent emergency operation died early and four patients died during the follow-up time. Concomitant procedures included coronary artery bypass grafting in two, radiofrequency ablation in one, mitral valve reconstruction in one and femoral embolectomy in one patient. Conclusions: In an era of aging population, myxoma tends to be diagnosed more frequently in elderly and high-risk patients. Complete preoperative assessment of these patients is a more appropriate approach in stable patients than the traditional emergency surgery applied to all cases.


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Exploring the potential of genome editing CRISPR-Cas9 technology

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Publication date: 30 January 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 599
Author(s): Vijai Singh, Darren Braddick, Pawan Kumar Dhar
CRISPR-Cas9 is an RNA-mediated adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from viruses or plasmids. Herein we discuss the recent development of CRISPR-Cas9 into a key technology for genome editing, targeting, and regulation in a wide range of organisms and cell types. It requires a custom designed single guide-RNA (sgRNA), a Cas9 endonuclease, and PAM sequences in the target region. The sgRNA-Cas9 complex binds to its target and creates a double-strand break (DSB) that can be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or by the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway, modifying or permanently replacing the genomic target sequence. Additionally, we highlight recent advances in the repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 for repression, activation, and loci imaging. In this review, we underline the current progress and the future potential of the CRISPR-Cas9 system towards biomedical, therapeutic, industrial, and biotechnological applications.



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Functional characterization of arylsulfatase B mutations in Indian patients with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI)

Publication date: 30 January 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 599
Author(s): Anusha Uttarilli, Divya Pasumarthi, Prajnya Ranganath, Ashwin B Dalal
MPS VI is an autosomal recessive disorder which occurs due to the deficiency of N-acetyl galactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B - ARSB) involved in catabolism of dermatan sulfate resulting from disease-causing variations in the ARSB gene. Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) search revealed 200 different mutations in ARSB worldwide. In the present study we carried out molecular and functional analyses to characterize the mutations reported by us in Indian population. Mutation analysis of 19 MPS VI patients revealed presence of a total of 15 different mutations of which twelve were novel [p.Asp53Asn (c.157G>A; p.D53N), p.Leu98Arg (c.293T>G; p.L98R), p.Tyr103Serfs*9 (c.306_312delCTACCAG+146del; p.Y103Sfs*9), p.Phe166Leufs*18 (c.496delT; p.F166Lfs*18), p.Ile220Serfs*5 (c.659_660delTA; p.I220Sfs*5), p.Ile350Phe (c.1048A>T; p.I350F), p.Trp353* (c.1059G>A; p.W353*), p.His393Arg (c.1178A>G; p.H393R), p.Ser403Tyrfs* (c.1208delC; p.S403Yfs*), p.Pro445Leu (c.1334C>T; p.P445L), p.Trp450Leu (c.1349G>T; p.W450L) and p.Trp450Cys (c.1350G>C; p.W450C)] and three were known mutations [p.Asp54Asn (c.160G>A; p.D54N), p.Ala237Asp (c.710C>A; p.A237D) and p.Ser320Arg (c.960C>G; p.S320R)]. Functional characterization using site-directed mutagenesis followed by cell transfection assays, immunoblot, reverse transcriptase PCR and immunofluorescence studies for the putative pathogenic variants detected in our MPS VI patient cohort helped us to confirm the pathogenic potential of the variants in ARSB.

Graphical abstract

image


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Functional polymorphisms in PD-L1 gene are associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

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Publication date: 30 January 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 599
Author(s): Shin Yup Lee, Deuk Kju Jung, Jin Eun Choi, Cheng Cheng Jin, Mi Jeong Hong, Sook Kyung Do, Hyo-Gyoung Kang, Won Kee Lee, Yangki Seok, Eung Bae Lee, Ji Yun Jeong, Kyung Min Shin, Seung Soo Yoo, Jaehee Lee, Seung Ick Cha, Chang Ho Kim, Jae Yong Park
IntroductionThis study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in immune checkpoints can predict the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection.Materials and methodsTwelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 genes were selected and genotyped. A total of 354 patients with early stage NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection were enrolled. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) was analyzed.ResultsAmong the 12 SNPs investigated, PD-L1 rs4143815C>G, rs822336G>C, and rs822337T>A were significantly associated with worse survival outcomes in multivariate analyses. When the three SNPs were combined, OS decreased in a dose-dependent manner as the number of bad genotypes increased (Ptrend=0.0003). In the luciferase assay, rs4143815 G allele exhibited a decreased transcription activity compared with C allele (P=0.001), and the rs822336C-rs822337A haplotype had a decreased promoter activity compared with the rs822336G-rs822337T haplotype (P=0.004). Patients with higher expression of PD-L1 mRNA had a better survival compared with lower expression (P=0.03).ConclusionsPD-L1 polymorphisms may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to understand the role of PD-L1 in the antitumor immunity and prognosis in NSCLC.



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