Δευτέρα, 28 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2 different antiretroviral regimens in tertiary care hospital: A retrospective observational study

2016-11-28T12-22-25Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Reshma S R, Mangala Gowri S R, Vaneeth Agarwal, Narendranath Sanji, Navin Patil, Dinakar KR, Keerthisagar J.
Background: Highly active retroviral therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV infection. Although many regimens have reduced the plasma virus load in patients, there are many cases of long-term toxicity, adverse effects, and drug resistance. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between combination of stavudine lamivudine nevirapine (SLN) and stavudine lamivudine efavirenz (SLE) (antiretroviral regimens) in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) center of CG Hospital, a tertiary care center at Davangere. Data were collected for the duration of 12 months (June 2012 to May 2013). The study was conducted after obtaining the permission from the institutional ethical committee and incharge officer. Prescriptions of the patients were collected, and relevant information was entered in the preformed pro forma and analyzed. Results: In total of 144 cases, 94 patients received combination therapy of SLN whereas 50 patients received combination therapy of SLE. To compare the baseline parameters such as CD4 counts, weight and hemoglobin with post-treatment values Dunns multiple comparison test was applied. To compare the changes in the parameters between the 2 therapies unpaired t-test was applied. There was a statistically significant improvement in CD4 counts in both the therapies but between group comparisons showed no statistical difference, inspite of clinical improvement more pronounced in patients receiving SLN combination. Hemoglobin levels have improved significantly post therapy in both the groups. Conclusion: In this study, there was clinically significant improvement in all the parameters considered for analyses in patients receiving SLN compared to SLE therapy but fails to show statistical significance.


http://ift.tt/2fJLmfg

The anxiolytic effect of bee pollen hydroalcoholic extract in mice

2016-11-28T12-22-25Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Neda Sistani Karampour, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Azam Malmir.
Background: Anxiety is a common human mental disorder. Medicinal therapy of this disease is associated with many side-effects. Thus, search for new medication with fewer side-effects seems inevitable. Bee pollen (often referred to as a life-giving dust) has various therapeutic properties. Aims and Objectives: In this study, potential anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen was examined in mice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 20-25 g male mice in three groups of eight. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen at 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg doses, diazepam at 1 mg/kg dose, and saline at 10 ml/kg dose. 30 min after injection, animals were studied in elevated plus maze device for 5 min. Results: The results obtained showed significantly longer presence in open arms of elevated plus maze device of animals that received 800 and 1600 mg/kg doses of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen compared to animals that received diazepam. However, no significant difference was observed between 1600 and 800 mg/kg doses. Conclusion: The above results confirmed anxiolytic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of bee pollen on mice.


http://ift.tt/2gpkrUF

Manganese induced hematological alteration in Wistar rats

2016-11-28T11-36-56Z
Source: Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science
Milan Chandel, Gyan Chand Jain.
Aim: Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that act as cofactor in many cellular enzymes. The present study was designed to evaluate toxic effects of manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H2O) on marker hematological parameters in rats after sub chronic exposure and after 60 days of treatment withdrawal. Method: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. In group I, the rats were treated with vehicle (0.5 ml distilled water) and served as control. The rats in group II, III and IV were exposed to MnCl2 (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o. respectively) for 120 days. Half of the rats of group IV were followed by 60 days post exposure recovery period and served as group V. Results: The results of the study showed significant dose dependent decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) value, platelet count and significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) count after MnCl2 exposure, Whereas no significant changes were observed in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after treatment. Scanning electron microscopic study of blood showed a dose dependent increase in abnormal shaped RBCs in MnCl2 treated rats. Most of the effects in these parameters were recovered after 60 days of treatment withdrawal. Conclusion: The results of the study reveals that MnCl2 exposure resulted in hematological toxicity in rats and most of the changes in these parameters recovered when Mn exposure was ceased.


http://ift.tt/2gbJZXq

An epidemiological study of self-medication among urban adults of Aligarh

2016-11-28T09-58-41Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Anees Ahmad, Mohd Tabish Khan, Najam Khalique, Mohd Athar Ansari, Mohd Maroof.
Background: Self prescribing is usually defined as medication that is taken on the patients own initiative or on the advice of a pharmacist or lay person. In developing countries like India, private pharmacies are the predominant drug dispensers and prescription only drugs are available for sale in official pharmacies without a prescription. Modern medicament though of prime importance to humanity is potentially hazardous when administered indiscriminately in the form of self-medication. Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of self-medication among urban adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 424 adults aged 18 years and above residing in registered field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre. The sample was drawn using systematic random sampling with probability proportionate to size. The interview was taken using predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Out of 424, 395 adults responded to the questionnaire. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Tests of proportion were used. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 83%. Pain was the most common symptom for self-medication. The source of drugs was mainly medical store. Lack of time, mild illnesses were the most common reason for not seeking medical advice. The majority of them were unaware of the adverse effects related to self-medication. Conclusion: Higher prevalence, as well as low awareness of side effects of self-medication, was seen. Awareness regarding the adverse consequence related to self-medication should be raised to lower the prevalence of self-medication.


http://ift.tt/2gAo8WE

Profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositives attending Integrated Counseling and Testing Center of a Medical College in Chhattisgarh

2016-11-28T09-58-41Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Srishti Dixit, Divya Sahu, Aditi Chandrakar, Prem Sagar Panda, Shanta P Khes, Somen Kumar Pradhan.
Background: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most important public health problems of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Hence, it is necessary to understand the sociodemographic profile and risk behavior pattern of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals for better implementation of interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic profile, risk behavior pattern, and source of referral of HIV seropositive clients attending Integrated Counseling and Testing Center (ICTC). Materials and Methods: A crosssectional study was done on all HIV-seropositive attendees who attended ICTC from July 2015 to October 2015. Results: Out of all 274 individuals, 61.31% were male, 58.39% were of 20-39 years age, 77.01% were married, and 34.39% had completed primary education. Most common occupation among males is government or private service (20.83%) and almost half of the females were homemakers (49.06%). 174 (63.50%) individuals stated heterosexual transmission as the risk behavior. 3.66% of individuals got infected because of parent to child transmission. 37.23% of individuals visited ICTC voluntarily. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of social and demographic and behavioral factors, which will help, interrupt, and control the transmission of HIV/AIDS.


http://ift.tt/2ftwgMD

Refractive errors among school-going children in Hyderabad

2016-11-28T09-58-41Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Mohammed Zain Ur-Rehman, Sultan Rizwan Ahmad, Mariya Syed.
Background: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of eye problem worldwide. Children are more vulnerable because it starts in school age and can hinder the learning process and educational achievement. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of known case of refractive error among school-going children and its socioeconomic characteristics, and attitude of the students toward corrective measure. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted among school-going children from 6th to 10th standard from three schools. Permission was taken from the respective schools authority and consent was taken from parents through school. Each school had about 300 students, making a total of 900. Students are known to have refractive errors were included in the study. Out of 900, 190 were known to be affected. Data were collected using predesigned questionnaire and analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of known case of refractive error was 21%. Maximum (51%) were between 11 and 12 years of age. About 95% of affected students had myopia. Majority of the students (54.2%) had blurring of vision as their initial complaint. Regarding family history of refractive errors, 65% of the students fathers were affected, 49% mothers were affected, and 43% of the siblings were affected. Almost 100% of the students used glasses and only 50% of the students get their eyes checked every 6 months. About 48% of students spent >2 h in front of screen and 47% students spent


http://ift.tt/2gAgNXl

Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors among youths in Bengaluru urban district, India

2016-11-28T06-02-34Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Naveen Ramesh, Dwayne Mascarenhas, Roger Manuel, Rathnaprabha GK, Pretesh R Kiran.
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one among the leading causes of death world over and in India. Risk factors for CVD have their beginnings early in life, and early detection and correction could have far-reaching implications in arresting the rising trend of mortality and morbidity due to CVD. Objectives: This study was done with the objective of assessing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among college attending youths in Bengaluru urban district and to study the factors associated with these risks. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 1267 college students, aged 15-24 years in five colleges of Bengaluru urban district. Modified National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey questionnaire and glazer stress scale were administered to elicit prevalence of risk factors. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Data were analyzed for frequencies, means and standard deviations and proportions compared using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity was 82%, stress was 56%, and that of unhealthy dietary habits was 42%. Alcohol consumption was reported by 25% of the students, tobacco consumption by 14%, both in the smoked and smokeless forms. On examination, 11.4% of the students were hypertensive, 24.9% underweight, and 6.1% overweight of them 0.4% were obese. A positive family history of CVD or death was positive among 50.4% of young adults. Conclusions: The present study shows the presence of several cardiovascular risk factors among college students. Interventions in the form of health education among youth adults regarding the need for adopting healthy lifestyles as well as regarding the ill effects of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, and managing stress could help address the burden of modifiable risk factors.


http://ift.tt/2fsskM8

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις