Πέμπτη, 17 Μαρτίου 2016

Endoscopic detection of the gastric lesions of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

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Endoscopic detection of the gastric lesions of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Ecancermedicalscience. 2016;10:625

Authors: Iwamuro M, Kimura K, Kondo E, Nada T, Nakamura E, Takata K, Tanaka T, Otsuka F, Yoshino T, Okada H

Abstract
An 82-year-old Japanese man presented with a gastric involvement of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Although gastrointestinal lesions were not detected on computed tomography, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a slight elevation of the gastric mucosa, with changes in mucosal colour and the presence of abnormal microvessels. This led to the prompt detection of gastric involvement in lymphoma. This case highlights the usefulness of detailed observation of the gastric mucosa for the endoscopic detection of gastric involvement of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

PMID: 26981154 [PubMed]



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Dabrafenib in metastatic melanoma: a monocentric 'real life' experience.

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Dabrafenib in metastatic melanoma: a monocentric 'real life' experience.

Ecancermedicalscience. 2016;10:624

Authors: Cocorocchio E, Gandini S, Alfieri S, Battaglia A, Pennacchioli E, Tosti G, Spadola G, Barberis M, Leo MD, Riviello C, Pala L, Intelisano A, Martinoli C, Ferrucci PF

Abstract
Dabrafenib is a potent BRAF-kinase inhibitor. Its activity was evaluated on 40 consecutive metastatic melanoma patients (pts) harboring the V600BRAF mutations. Dabrafenib was administered orally at the dosage of 150 mg b.i.d. daily. ORR was 82%, with 7% CR, 62% PR, 13% SD and 18% PD. The median PFS and OS were seven and 17 months, respectively (median follow-up: 8.5 months). Increased risk of progression was found in pts with elevated LDH, ECOG PS >1 and more than two metastatic sites. Grade 3-4 adverse events were recorded in 4 pts. In this retrospective analysis, Dabrafenib confirmed its role as the standard clinical option in metastatic melanoma pts.

PMID: 26981153 [PubMed]



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Oral and maxillofacial considerations in Gardner's syndrome: a report of two cases.

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Oral and maxillofacial considerations in Gardner's syndrome: a report of two cases.

Ecancermedicalscience. 2016;10:623

Authors: Pereira DL, Carvalho PA, Achatz MI, Rocha A, TardinTorrezan G, Alves FA

Abstract
Gardner's syndrome (GS) is a genetic disorder characterised by intestinal polyps, multiple osteomas, and soft-tissue tumours. Dentists play an important role in the syndrome diagnosis considering that craniomaxillofacial osteomas are a major criteria for Gardner's syndrome diagnosis. This study aimed to describe the main stomatological manifestation of GS and the importance of dentists in its diagnosis. Two patients presenting GS were evaluated. The first one had two osteomas in the mandible and GS was suspected. The colonoscopy confirmed the presence of polyposis and a prophylactic proctocolectomy was performed. The other patient had a late-stage diagnosis of GS and developed a rectum adenocarcinoma. The presence of craniomaxillofacial osteomas are a hallmark of the disease. Early-stage GS diagnosis may enable early diagnosis and preventive strategies in carriers. Other dental abnormalities, such as supernumerary teeth, hypercementosis and odontomas, can also be observed.

PMID: 26981152 [PubMed]



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Cardiomyocyte loss is not required for the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in female mice

Abstract

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in response to hypertension and increased afterload frequently progresses to heart failure. It is under debate whether the loss of cardiomyocytes contributes to this transition. To address this question, female C57BL/6 wild-type mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and developed compensated LV hypertrophy after 1 week, which progressed to heart failure characterized by reduced ejection fraction and pulmonary congestion 4 weeks post-TAC. Quantitative, design-based stereology methods were used to estimate number and mean volume of LV cardiomyocytes. DNA strand breaks were visualized using the TUNEL method 6 weeks post-TAC to quantify the number of apoptotic cell nuclei. The volume of the LV myocardium as well as the cardiomyocyte mean volume increased progressively after TAC. In contrast, the number of LV cardiomyocytes remained constant 1 and 4 weeks post-TAC in comparison to sham-operated mice. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the number of cardiomyocyte nuclei stained for DNA strand breaks at 6 weeks post-TAC. It was concluded that the loss of cardiomyocytes is not required for the transition from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure induced by TAC in the female murine heart.



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Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure

Abstract

Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a ketone at the C-20 position, minimizing the potential for side effects, including IOP elevation. In early pivotal clinical trials of LE ophthalmic suspension for conjunctivitis (allergic, giant papillary), anterior uveitis, and post-operative inflammation, LE had minimal impact on IOP over short-term (<28 days) and long-term (≥28 days) use. Since then, new LE formulations—including a gel, an ointment, and a suspension of LE in combination with tobramycin—have become commercially available. Multiple studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of LE for inflammatory conditions have been reported, including those requiring longer-term treatment such as photorefractive keratectomy, corneal transplantation, and dry eye disease. We review the available published data on the effect of LE on IOP and report on the cumulative incidence of clinically significant IOP elevations (≥10 mm Hg from baseline) with short-term and long-term LE use. In all studies, LE consistently demonstrated a low propensity to elevate IOP, regardless of formulation, dosage regimen, or treatment duration, including in known steroid responders. The cumulative proportion of patients exhibiting clinically significant IOP increases was 0.8% (14/1725 subjects) in studies evaluating short-term LE treatment and 1.5% (21/1386 subjects) in long-term studies. Furthermore, use of LE was associated with significantly lower rates of IOP elevation ≥10 mm Hg as compared to prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone (when used in combination with tobramycin). The cumulative data to date substantiates a favorable IOP-safety profile for LE with both short-term and long-term use.



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Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

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Effects of Two-Phase Treatment with the Herbst and Preadjusted Edgewise Appliances on the Upper Airway Dimensions

Aims. To assess the effects of two-phase treatment with the Herbst and the preadjusted edgewise appliances on upper airway dimensions and to investigate the correlation between changes in the upper airway dimensions and skeletal morphologies. Methods. A total of 27 Chinese male adolescents aged years were selected. Lateral cephalograms were collected to assess the skeletal morphology and upper airway dimensions. Results. Following Herbst appliance treatment, the upper airway space was significantly enlarged, with the retropalatal (U-MPW) increasing by  mm (), the retroglossal (PASmin) increasing by  mm (), and the hypopharynx (V-LPW) enlarging by  mm (). PASmin was found to show a negative correlation to the mandibular plane angle (MnPl-SN) by (). There was no significant change () in upper airway dimensions during the second-phase treatment. Conclusions. Herbst appliance treatment increased the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal airway dimensions among adolescents with Class II malocclusion, and the effects were maintained throughout the second treatment phase with a preadjusted edgewise appliance. There was a negative correlation between the change in the depth of the retroglossal pharynx and the mandibular plane angle.

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The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cupping therapy (CT) in changes on skin surface temperature (SST) for relieving chronic neck and shoulder pain (NSP) among community residents. A single-blind experimental design constituted of sixty subjects with self-perceived NSP. The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. The cupping group received CT at SI 15, GB 21, and LI 15 acupuncture points, and the control group received no intervention. Pain was assessed using the SST, visual analog scale (VAS), and blood pressure (BP). The main results were SST of GB 21 acupuncture point raised from 30.6°C to 32.7°C and from 30.7°C to 30.6°C in the control group. Neck pain intensity (NPI) severity scores were reduced from 9.7 to 3.6 in the cupping group and from 9.7 to 9.5 in the control group. The SST and NPI differences between the groups were statistically significant (). One treatment of CT is shown to increase SST. In conjunction with the physiological effect the subjective experience of NSP is reduced in intensity. Further studies are required to improve the understanding and potential long-term effects of CT.

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Structural Characterizations of Palladium Clusters Prepared by Polyol Reduction of [PdCl4]2− Ions

Palladium nanoparticles are of great interest in many industrial fields, ranging from catalysis and hydrogen technology to microelectronics, thanks to their unique physical and chemical properties. In this work, palladium clusters have been prepared by reduction of [PdCl4]2− ions with ethylene glycol, in the presence of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizer. The stabilizer performs the important role of nucleating agent for the Pd atoms with a fast phase separation, since palladium atoms coordinated to the polymer side-groups are forced at short distances during nucleation. Quasispherical palladium clusters with a diameter of ca. 2.6 nm were obtained by reaction in air at 90°C for 2 hours. An extensive materials characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other characterizations (TGA, SEM, EDS-SEM, and UV-Vis) has been performed in order to evaluate the structure and oxidation state of nanopalladium.

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Acetabular fractures in skeletally immature rugby players

Since the introduction of professionalism to the sport of rugby union, an increasing rate of injury has been noted in the playing population. In addition, overall participation numbers have increased globally, with more amateurs and young people involved in the sport. Acetabular fractures are generally seen after violent trauma and can be associated with poor long-term outcomes. We have previously described two acetabular fractures in young patients (16 and 24 years of age) sustained during rugby matches. We present a case series of four closed, isolated acetabular fractures in three skeletally immature male patients (13–16 years of age), two of which required open reduction and internal fixation. Three of these fractures occurred in conjunction with hip dislocations. All injuries were sustained while engaged in playing rugby union, two during seasonal match play and one during a training drill.



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Exposure to a diet high in fat attenuates dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex

Abstract

A key factor in the development of obesity is the overconsumption of food calorically high in fat. Overconsumption of food high in fat not only promotes weight gain but elicits changes in reward processing. No studies to date have examined whether consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet alters structural plasticity in brain areas critical for reward processing, which may account for persistent changes in behavior and psychological function by reorganizing synaptic connectivity. To test whether dietary fat may induce structural plasticity we placed rats on one of three dietary conditions: ad libitum standard chow (SC), ad libitum 60 % HF (HF-AL), or calorically matched 60 % HF (HF-CM) for 3 weeks and then quantified dendritic spine density and type on basal and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer V of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens. Our results demonstrate a significant reduction in the density of thin spines on the apical and basal segments of dendrites within the infralimbic, but not prelimbic, mPFC.



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Recurrent KRAS G12V pathogenic mutation in adenomatoid odontogenic tumours.

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Recurrent KRAS G12V pathogenic mutation in adenomatoid odontogenic tumours.

Oral Oncol. 2016 Mar 12;

Authors: Gomes CC, de Sousa SF, de Menezes GH, Duarte AP, Pereira TD, Moreira RG, de Castro WH, Villacis RA, Rogatto SR, Diniz MG, Gomez RS

PMID: 26979257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Transport in the Lung and Kidney

Renal and lung epithelial cells are exposed to some significant concentrations of H2O2. In urine it may reach 100 μM, while in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung it is estimated to be in micromolar to tens-micromolar range. Hydrogen peroxide has a stimulatory action on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) single-channel activity. It also increases stability of the channel at the membrane and slows down the transcription of the ENaC subunits. The expression and the activity of the channel may be inhibited in some other, likely higher, oxidative states of the cell. This review discusses the role and the origin of H2O2 in the lung and kidney. Concentration-dependent effects of hydrogen peroxide on ENaC and the mechanisms of its action have been summarized. This review also describes outlooks for future investigations linking oxidative stress, epithelial sodium transport, and lung and kidney function.

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The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons)

The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well.

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 332: Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters.

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Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in B cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma



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Principles of metadata organization at the ENCODE data coordination center.

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Principles of metadata organization at the ENCODE data coordination center.

Database (Oxford). 2016;2016

Authors: Hong EL, Sloan CA, Chan ET, Davidson JM, Malladi VS, Strattan JS, Hitz BC, Gabdank I, Narayanan AK, Ho M, Lee BT, Rowe LD, Dreszer TR, Roe GR, Podduturi NR, Tanaka F, Hilton JA, Cherry JM

Abstract
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data Coordinating Center (DCC) is responsible for organizing, describing and providing access to the diverse data generated by the ENCODE project. The description of these data, known as metadata, includes the biological sample used as input, the protocols and assays performed on these samples, the data files generated from the results and the computational methods used to analyze the data. Here, we outline the principles and philosophy used to define the ENCODE metadata in order to create a metadata standard that can be applied to diverse assays and multiple genomic projects. In addition, we present how the data are validated and used by the ENCODE DCC in creating the ENCODE Portal (http://ift.tt/14MXLHa).Database URL: http://ift.tt/1uP1gVJ.

PMID: 26980513 [PubMed - in process]



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An ophthalmology code of ethics in Canada: enhancing our practice patterns.

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An ophthalmology code of ethics in Canada: enhancing our practice patterns.

Can J Ophthalmol. 2015 Aug;50(4):253-4

Authors: McAlister C, Braga-Mele R, El-Defrawy S, Hillson T

PMID: 26257215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Late-life suicide: Insight on motives and contributors derived from suicide notes.

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Late-life suicide: Insight on motives and contributors derived from suicide notes.

J Affect Disord. 2015 Oct 1;185:17-23

Authors: Cheung G, Merry S, Sundram F

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were: (i) to investigate the proportion of older people writing suicide notes in New Zealand; (ii) to compare the socio-demographic and clinical variables of older suicide note writers and non-note writers; and (iii) to perform a thematic analysis of the content of suicide notes.
METHODS: The Coronial Services provided records of all suicide cases aged 65 years and over (n=225) between July 2007 and December 2012. We were able to determine whether there was a suicide note written in 212 cases. The content of 39 coroners/medical examiners' excerpts and 5 suicide notes was available for thematic analysis using a general inductive approach.
FINDINGS: 88 (41.5%) older people left a suicide note. Logistic regression showed that female gender (OR=2.8, 95% CI=1.4-5.7, p=0.005) and Caucasian ethnicity (OR=13.7, 95% CI=1.7-111.0, p=0.014) are significantly associated with older people writing suicide notes. 33.3% of those who left a suicide note gave health-related reasons for their suicide and a significant proportion (73.3%) of them had underlying medical conditions. Another common theme is around people leaving specific instructions and wishes.
CONCLUSIONS: Apart from gender and ethnicity, suicide note writers are similar to non-writers on broad socio-demographic and clinical factors. Suicide notes indicated free will in and reasons for their suicide and emotional/farewell messages to their loved ones. Many documented poor quality of life or physical illness but the progression of these factors to suicide in older people should be further researched.

PMID: 26142690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Hepatitis C treatment in the elderly: New possibilities and controversies towards interferon-free regimens.

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Hepatitis C treatment in the elderly: New possibilities and controversies towards interferon-free regimens.

World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun 28;21(24):7412-26

Authors: Vespasiani-Gentilucci U, Galati G, Gallo P, De Vincentis A, Riva E, Picardi A

Abstract
Due to the progressive aging of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) population which have acquired the infection during its maximum spread after the Second World War, the management of the elderly HCV-infected patient is emerging as a hot topic. Unfortunately, although it is recognized that the progression of HCV-related liver disease gets faster with aging, and that even extra-hepatic manifestations of HCV infection are probably worse in the elderly, till now, treatment attempts in this population have been significantly limited by the well-known contraindications and side effects of interferon (IFN). The arrival of several new anti-HCV drugs, and the possibility to combine them in safe and effective anti-viral regimens, is relighting the hope of a cure for many elderly patients who had been cut out of IFN-based treatments. However, although these new regimens will be certainly more manageable, it should be underscored that IFN-free doesn't mean free from any contraindication or side-effect. Moreover, one issue which promises to become central is that of the possible interactions between antiviral therapy and the multiple drugs frequently assumed by elderly patients because of comorbidities. In this review, we will revise the epidemiology pointing to HCV as an infection of the elderly, the evidences that HCV harms the health of the aged patient more than that of the young one, and the available experiences of HCV treatment in the elderly with the "old" IFN-based regimens and with the newer drugs. We will conclude that the availability of IFN-free regimens should prompt us to change our mind and consider a significantly larger number of possible candidates among elderly patients, who would take significant advantage from viral eradication. Rather than the anagraphic age, drug-drug interactions and, mainly in case of economic restrictions, an evaluation of life expectancy dependent on liver disease with respect to that dependent on comorbidities, are likely to be the key issues guiding treatment indication in the next future. The sooner we will change our mind with respect to an a priori obstacle for anti-HCV treatment in the elderly, the sooner we will begin to spare many aged HCV patients from avoidable liver-related complications.

PMID: 26139987 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Web-Based Remote Monitoring Systems for Self-Managing Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

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Web-Based Remote Monitoring Systems for Self-Managing Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2015 Jul;17(7):498-509

Authors: Mushcab H, Kernohan WG, Wallace J, Martin S

Abstract
This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for viability and impact of Web-based telemonitoring for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus. A review protocol included searching Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed using the following terms: telemonitoring, type 2 diabetes mellitus, self-management, and web-based Internet solutions. The technology used, trial design, quality of life measures, and the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were extracted. This review identified 426 publications; of these, 19 met preset inclusion criteria. Ten quasi-experimental research designs were found, of which seven were pre-posttest studies, two were cohort studies, and one was an interrupted time-series study; in addition, there were nine randomized controlled trials. Web-based remote monitoring from home to hospital is a viable approach for healthcare delivery and enhances patients' quality of life. Six of these studies were conducted in South Korea, five in the United States, three in the United Kingdom, two in Taiwan, and one each in Spain, Poland, and India. The duration of the studies varied from 4 weeks to 18 months, and the participants were all adults. Fifteen studies showed positive improvement in HbA1c levels. One study showed high acceptance of the technology among participants. It remains challenging to identify clear evidence of effectiveness in the rapidly changing area of remote monitoring in diabetes care. Both the technology and its implementations are complex. The optimal design of a telemedicine system is still uncertain, and the value of the real-time blood glucose transmissions is still controversial.

PMID: 25830528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Moderate to severe vasomotor and sexual symptoms remain problematic for women aged 60 to 65 years.

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Moderate to severe vasomotor and sexual symptoms remain problematic for women aged 60 to 65 years.

Menopause. 2015 Jul;22(7):694-701

Authors: Gartoulla P, Worsley R, Bell RJ, Davis SR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms in older postmenopausal women and, hence, the need for treatment options for women of this age.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 among 2,020 women aged 40 to 65 years and living independently across Australia. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS), as measured by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the current use of prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms.
RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate to severe VMS was as follows: 2.8% in premenopausal women, 17.1% in perimenopausal women, 28.5% in postmenopausal women younger than 55 years, 15.1% in postmenopausal women aged 55 to 59 years, and 6.5% in postmenopausal women aged 60 to 65 years. Prescription therapy for menopausal symptoms was used by 135 women: 120 (5.9%) women using hormone therapy and 15 (0.7%) women using nonhormonal medication. The factors positively associated with moderate to severe VMS were smoking (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3; P < 0.05) and a body mass index of 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2) (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; P < 0.05); education beyond high school was inversely associated (odds ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In this large, representative, community-based sample of women, there is a high prevalence of untreated moderate to severe VMS even in women aged 60 to 65 years. The use of vaginal estrogen and nonhormonal prescription therapy with proven efficacy for treatment of menopausal symptoms is strikingly low, suggesting that menopause remains an undertreated condition.

PMID: 25706184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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The relationship between quality of life and the severity of psoriasis in Turkey.

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The relationship between quality of life and the severity of psoriasis in Turkey.

Eur J Dermatol. 2015 Apr;25(2):169-76

Authors: Çakmur H, Derviş E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis experience a low quality of life and high treatment burden:
OBJECTIVES: To assess psoriatic patient quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in the Northeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Additionally, we evaluated the correlation between the DLQI and the clinical severity of psoriasis and examined demographic data and their relationship with the DLQI and psoriasis severity:
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study at the University of Kafkas, Kars, Turkey. 127 adult patients were included in the study. The Turkish version of the DLQI was used. To measure psoriasis severity, the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Body Surface Area (BSA) were simultaneously evaluated. The patient demographics were compared with quality of life and the severity of psoriasis:
RESULTS: DLQI scores ranged from "very large" to "extremely large" in 61% of the patients. The psoriasis severity (BSA and PASI) was "mild" in 63% of patients. The quality of life was significantly affected in cigarette smokers and in patients whose disease included nail involvement. The PASI and BSA scores of patients with scalp and nail involvement were significantly higher. A significant, positive correlation was found between disease duration and the severity of psoriasis. BSA correlated with PASI:
CONCLUSION: The quality of life of psoriasis patients is strongly reduced. A significant relationship was found for DLQI with nail psoriasis and smoking. A linear, positive correlation was detected between the DLQI and BSA but not between the DLQI and PASI.

PMID: 25655046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Conscientious objection and waiting time for voluntary abortion in Italy.

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Conscientious objection and waiting time for voluntary abortion in Italy.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2015;20(4):272-82

Authors: Bo M, Zotti CM, Charrier L

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether a correlation exists in Italy between conscience-based refusal by physicians to perform an abortion and waiting times for elective abortion.
METHODS: Data on the number of objectors and of elective abortions performed within different time intervals were retrieved from annual Italian ministerial reports. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated between an indicator of the increase in workload for non-objectors when conscientious objection is exercised by physicians refusing to provide an abortion and the proportion of women whose request for an abortion was met within 14 days, or later, in 13 regions in Italy.
RESULTS: An inverse correlation emerged between the workload for non-objectors and the proportion of abortions performed within 14 days of the request in seven regions (statistically significant in Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany). There was a direct correlation between increased workload and the proportion of abortions performed later than 21 days in nine regions. The same trends were highlighted at national level.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that when data spanning at least more than a decade are available, a trend toward an inverse correlation can be noted between the workloads for non-objectors and timely access to elective abortion. This holds organisational and ethical implications.

PMID: 25592398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and menopausal symptoms in relation to overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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Adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and menopausal symptoms in relation to overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Menopause. 2015 Jul;22(7):750-7

Authors: Sayón-Orea C, Santiago S, Cuervo M, Martínez-González MA, Garcia A, Martínez JA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the relationship of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, as well as the presence of menopausal symptoms, with overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.
METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 8,954 Spanish perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and all women were interviewed to assess their adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, using a validated questionnaire and the Menopause and Health subscale of the validated Cervantes Scale. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between categories of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the odds of being overweight/obese. Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association between menopausal symptoms and the odds of being overweight/obese (reference categories: participants in the low-adherence category and participants with no menopausal problems).
RESULTS: After adjustment for relevant confounders, the odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese among women in the highest category of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was 0.68 (0.60-0.78; P for trend <0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese was 3.05 (1.98-4.71) for the category "severe problems" in comparison with the category "no problems."
CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet) is inversely associated with overweight/obesity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The occurrence of low to severe problems during perimenopause or postmenopause is positively associated with overweight/obesity. Therefore, high adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and a body mass index of 25kg/m(2) or lower might improve quality of life in women at these stages.

PMID: 25513984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Predictors of initial levels and trajectories of anxiety in women before and for 6 months after breast cancer surgery.

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Predictors of initial levels and trajectories of anxiety in women before and for 6 months after breast cancer surgery.

Cancer Nurs. 2014 Nov-Dec;37(6):406-17

Authors: Kyranou M, Puntillo K, Dunn LB, Aouizerat BE, Paul SM, Cooper BA, Neuhaus J, West C, Dodd M, Miaskowski C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of breast cancer, in combination with the anticipation of surgery, evokes fear, uncertainty, and anxiety in most women.
OBJECTIVE: Study purposes were to examine in patients who underwent breast cancer surgery how ratings of state anxiety changed from the time of the preoperative assessment to 6 months after surgery and to investigate whether specific demographic, clinical, symptom, and psychosocial adjustment characteristics predicted the preoperative levels of state anxiety and/or characteristics of the trajectories of state anxiety.
INTERVENTIONS/METHODS: Patients (n = 396) were enrolled preoperatively and completed the Spielberger State Anxiety inventory monthly for 6 months. Using hierarchical linear modeling, demographic, clinical, symptom, and psychosocial adjustment characteristics were evaluated as predictors of initial levels and trajectories of state anxiety.
RESULTS: Patients experienced moderate levels of anxiety before surgery. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and uncertainty about the future, as well as lower levels of life satisfaction, less sense of control, and greater difficulty coping, predicted higher preoperative levels of state anxiety. Higher preoperative state anxiety, poorer physical health, decreased sense of control, and more feelings of isolation predicted higher state anxiety scores over time.
CONCLUSIONS: Moderate levels of anxiety persist in women for 6 months after breast cancer surgery.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinicians need to implement systematic assessments of anxiety to identify high-risk women who warrant more targeted interventions. In addition, ongoing follow-up is needed to prevent adverse postoperative outcomes and to support women to return to their preoperative levels of function.

PMID: 24633334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Impact of late effects on health-related quality of life in survivors of pediatric brain tumors: motility disturbance of limb(s), seizure, ocular/visual impairment, endocrine abnormality, and higher brain dysfunction.

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Impact of late effects on health-related quality of life in survivors of pediatric brain tumors: motility disturbance of limb(s), seizure, ocular/visual impairment, endocrine abnormality, and higher brain dysfunction.

Cancer Nurs. 2014 Nov-Dec;37(6):E1-E14

Authors: Sato I, Higuchi A, Yanagisawa T, Murayama S, Kumabe T, Sugiyama K, Mukasa A, Saito N, Sawamura Y, Terasaki M, Shibui S, Takahashi J, Nishikawa R, Ishida Y, Kamibeppu K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Survivors of pediatric brain tumors are often affected by late effects, such as motility disturbance of limb(s), seizure, ocular/visual impairment, endocrine abnormality, and higher brain dysfunction, resulting from the disease and its treatment. Appropriate provision of supportive care will require understanding the effects of these experiences on survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQOL).
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the relationships between late effects and specific aspects of the HRQOL of pediatric brain tumor survivors.
METHODS: We distributed questionnaires for measuring HRQOL to 138 survivors and their parents at 8 hospitals and 1 clinic in Japan and simultaneously surveyed late effects using information provided by the survivors' attending physicians. We compared the HRQOL of survivors with and survivors without specific late effects.
RESULTS: A total of 106 survivors and their parents returned the questionnaires to the researchers. The HRQOL of survivors 18 years or older was negatively affected by all 5 late effects, indicating that their higher impairment was associated with diminished HRQOL. The HRQOL of survivors aged 12 to 17 years was negatively affected by 2 late effects (ocular/visual impairment and motility disturbance of the limbs). A part of the HRQOL subdomain (motor and cognitive functioning) of survivors aged 12 to 17 years was positively related to ocular/visual impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: Five late effects influenced the HRQOL of pediatric brain tumor survivors.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nurses and other health professionals should provide specific care designed to support aspects of HRQOL affected by late effects. For example, survivors with ocular/visual impairment may be expected to require additional emotional support, and those with seizures or endocrine abnormalities may be expected to require additional support for sleep disorders.

PMID: 24633333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 82: Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized.

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Clinical significance of the expression of autophagy-associated marker, beclin 1, in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant endocrine therapy

Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NAE) has been employed to improve surgical outcomes for hormone receptor-positive breast cancers in postmenopausal women. Endocrine responsiveness is estimated by expressions of ...

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The Many Faces of Stress: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders



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TiO2-Based Nanomaterials for Advanced Environmental and Energy-Related Applications



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Pathogens, Vol. 5, Pages 32: Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils), are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions.

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Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 associated with Behçet’s disease

Little information is available regarding the association between vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (VIN3) and Behçet’s disease (BD). We report here concomitant VIN3 and genital ulcers in a patient with...

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Pragmatics in language change and lexical creativity

This essay examines language change and linguistic creativity as revealed by remodelling, especially as a source for euphemisms and euphemistic dysphemisms and as a function of verbal play. Within the scope of...

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Ethnicity and spatiotemporal parameters of bilateral and unilateral transtibial amputees in a 100-m sprint

Similar to able-bodied sprinters, most of the medals for the 100-m sprint in past Paralympic Games and IPC Athletics World Championships were dominated by West African (WA) and Caucasian (CC) amputee sprinters...

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 368: Resveratrol Inhibition of Cellular Respiration: New Paradigm for an Old Mechanism

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Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, RSV) has emerged as an important molecule in the biomedical area. This is due to its antioxidant and health benefits exerted in mammals. Nonetheless, early studies have also demonstrated its toxic properties toward plant-pathogenic fungi of this phytochemical. Both effects appear to be opposed and caused by different molecular mechanisms. However, the inhibition of cellular respiration is a hypothesis that might explain both toxic and beneficial properties of resveratrol, since this phytochemical: (1) decreases the production of energy of plant-pathogenic organisms, which prevents their proliferation; (2) increases adenosine monophosphate/adenosine diphosphate (AMP/ADP) ratio that can lead to AMP protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which is related to its health effects, and (3) increases the reactive oxygen species generation by the inhibition of electron transport. This pro-oxidant effect induces expression of antioxidant enzymes as a mechanism to counteract oxidative stress. In this review, evidence is discussed that supports the hypothesis that cellular respiration is the main target of resveratrol.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 395: Intronic Polymorphisms in the CDKN2B-AS1 Gene Are Strongly Associated with the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Artery Disease in the Saudi Population

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Recent genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the chromosome 9p21.3 conferring the risk for CAD (coronary artery disease) in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. We performed a genetic association study to investigate the effect of 12 candidate SNPs within 9p21.3 locus on the risk of CAD in the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 250 Saudi CAD patients who had experienced an myocardial infarction (MI) and 252 Saudi age-matched healthy controls were genotyped using TaqMan assay. Controls with evidenced lack of CAD provided 90% of statistical power at the type I error rate of 0.05. Five percent of the results were rechecked for quality control using Sanger sequencing, the results of which concurred with the TaqMan genotyping results. Association analysis of 12 SNPs indicated a significant difference in the genotype distribution for four SNPs between cases and controls (rs564398 p = 0.0315, χ2 = 4.6, odds ratio (OD) = 1.5; rs4977574 p = 0.0336, χ2 = 4.5, OD = 1.4; rs2891168 p = 1.85 × 10 − 10, χ2 = 40.6, OD = 2.1 and rs1333042 p = 5.14 × 10 − 9, χ2 = 34.1, OD = 2.2). The study identified three protective haplotypes (TAAG p = 1.00 × 10 − 4; AGTA p = 0.022 and GGGCC p = 0.0175) and a risk haplotype (TGGA p = 2.86 × 10 − 10) for the development of CAD. This study is in line with others that indicated that the SNPs located in the intronic region of the CDKN2B-AS1 gene are associated with CAD.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 377: Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

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Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA.

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IJMS, Vol. 17, Pages 392: Spatial Temporal Dynamics and Molecular Evolution of Re-Emerging Rabies Virus in Taiwan

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Taiwan has been recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health as rabies-free since 1961. Surprisingly, rabies virus (RABV) was identified in a dead Formosan ferret badger in July 2013. Later, more infected ferret badgers were reported from different geographic regions of Taiwan. In order to know its evolutionary history and spatial temporal dynamics of this virus, phylogeny was reconstructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods based on the full-length of glycoprotein (G), matrix protein (M), and nucleoprotein (N) genes. The evolutionary rates and phylogeographic were determined using Beast and SPREAD software. Phylogenetic trees showed a monophyletic group containing all of RABV isolates from Taiwan and it further separated into three sub-groups. The estimated nucleotide substitution rates of G, M, and N genes were between 2.49 × 10−4–4.75 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year, and the mean ratio of dN/dS was significantly low. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated around 75, 89, and 170 years, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis suggested the origin of the epidemic could be in Eastern Taiwan, then the Formosan ferret badger moved across the Central Range of Taiwan to western regions and separated into two branches. In this study, we illustrated the evolution history and phylogeographic of RABV in Formosan ferret badgers.

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of screen time behaviour among North American indigenous populations

Summary

Screen time (computer, television, video game and smartphone/tablet activity) is associated with increased obesity and other health risks. This systematic review evaluates screen time among North American Indigenous populations and compares it with that of North American Europeans. Electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE and EMBASE) were searched, and citations cross-referenced. Included articles reported screen time among First Nations/American Indians, Métis, Inuit/Alaskan Natives or Native Hawaiians. From 788 citations evaluated, 40 identified articles report television, video game, computer and/or overall screen time. Overall screen time was 3.65 ± 1.26 h day−1 (n = 2,242, 8 articles) among Indigenous children/youth and 3.61 ± 2.95 h day−1 (n = 155, 1 article) among adults. Among children/youth, 66.0% (n = 11 256, 9 articles) reported less than 2 h day−1 of television screen time, while only 52.8% (n = 2,458, 1 article) of adults reported this volume. Screen time was generally greater among male population, youth, First Nations/American Indians and overweight/obese individuals. Indigenous children/youth reported greater overall screen time than North American Europeans (4.81 ± 2.84 h day−1, n = 1,182 vs. 3.40 ± 2.81 h day−1, n = 2,785; 3 articles; p < 0.0001). Screen time is common among North American Indigenous populations. Further research evaluating interventions to reduce screen time and chronic disease risks is required. © 2016 World Obesity



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Vietnam to produce cancer drugs - VietNamNet Bridge


VietNamNet Bridge

Vietnam to produce cancer drugs
VietNamNet Bridge
This product has been successfully tested in the laboratory, on mice bearing human cancer cells. Specifically, the experts of the Military Medical Academy transplanted human cancer cells in mice, including lung cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer ...



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Biosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors

The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5–20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase onto a screen-printed platinum electrode. An electrochemical method was utilized for the quantitative detection of glucose in both buffer solution and saliva samples. A standard spectrophotometric technique was used as a reference method to validate the glucose content of each sample. The disposable glucose sensors have a detection limit of 0.41 mg/dL, a sensitivity of 0.24 μA·s·dL·mg−1, a linear range of 0.5–20 mg/dL in buffer solution, and a response time of 30 s. A study of 10 healthy subjects was conducted, and SG levels between 1.1 to 10.1 mg/dL were successfully detected. The results revealed that the noninvasive SG monitoring could be an alternative for diabetes self-management at home. This paper is not intended to replace regular BG tests, but to study SG itself as an indicator for the quality of diabetes care. It can potentially help patients control and monitor their health conditions, enabling them to comply with prescribed treatments for diabetes.

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GABAA Receptor Modulation by Phenyl Ring Compounds Is Associated with a Water Solubility Cut-Off Value

Background: The modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is associated with a molar water solubility cut-off effect of approximately 1.1 mmol/l and hence are unaffected by significantly less soluble compounds. However, compounds with this molar water solubility are still able to modulate #x03B3;-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. We hypothesized that GABAA receptor modulation by phenolic compounds would exhibit cut-off at a molar water solubility value less than 1.1 mmol/l. Methods: GABAA receptors consisting of human α1 and rat β2 and #x03B3;2s subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and drug responses were measured using standard 2-electrode voltage clamp techniques. Twenty substituted phenols and benzenes of similar size and molecular volume were studied at saturated aqueous concentrations. Reversible and statistically significant change in GABAA receptor current that was 10% or greater in magnitude from the baseline response defined a positive drug effect. Results: All phenyl ring compounds with a molar water solubility value equal to or greater than 0.46 mmol/l positively modulated GABAA receptor currents. No compounds with a molar water solubility value equal to or less than 0.10 mmol/l had any effect on GABAA receptor currents. Saturated solutions of phenols with 2,6-dimethyl and 2,6-diisopropyl substituents also caused channel opening in the absence of GABA. Conclusions: The molar water solubility cut-off for GABAA receptor modulation by phenyl ring compounds lies between 0.10 and 0.46 mmol/l. Data suggest that hydrocarbons, perhaps including inhaled anesthetics, might modulate GABAA receptors by displacing water from one or more low-affinity amphipathic binding sites to induce conformational changes that increase ion conductance.
Pharmacology 2016;98:13-19

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Sugar levy and rise in tobacco tax in the UK could help decrease cancer rates: https://t.co/PjzzQ7r9cQ

Sugar levy and rise in tobacco tax in the UK could help decrease cancer rates: https://t.co/PjzzQ7r9cQ

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RT @COHAInc : Mom may have been right... https://t.co/Y1mXrD41lH

RT @COHAInc : Mom may have been right... https://t.co/Y1mXrD41lH

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Issue Information



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Transition Form Factors of in QCD

The form factors of the semileptonic decay are calculated by using the QCD sum rule technique. The results obtained are then used to estimate the decay widths of this transition in all lepton channels. The orders of decay rates indicate that this transition is accessible at LHC for all lepton channels.

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Data Gathering Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Comparison

We study the problem of data gathering in wireless sensor networks and compare several approaches belonging to different research fields; in particular, signal processing, compressive sensing, information theory, and networking related data gathering techniques are investigated. Specifically, we derived a simple analytical model able to predict the energy efficiency and reliability of different data gathering techniques. Moreover, we carry out simulations to validate our model and to compare the effectiveness of the above schemes by systematically sampling the parameter space (i.e., number of nodes, transmission range, and sparsity). Our simulation and analytical results show that there is no best data gathering technique for all possible applications and that the trade-off between energy consumptions and reliability could drive the choice of the data gathering technique to be used. In this context, our model could be a useful tool.

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Research on Mathematical Model of Composite Micromachining of Laser and Electrolysis Based on the Electrolyte Fluid

A new technology of composite micromachining of laser and electrolysis is presented through a combination of technological advantages of laser processing and electrolytic machining. The implication of its method is that laser processing efficiently removes metallic materials and that pulse electrolytic machining removes recast layer and controls shape precisely. Machining accuracy and efficiency can be improved. The impacts that electrolyte fluid effectively cools the microstructure edge in the laser machining process and that gas-liquid two-phase flow makes the electrolyte conductivity produce uneven distribution in the electrolytic processing are considered. Some approximate assumptions are proposed on the actual conditions of machining process. The mathematical model of composite micromachining of laser and electrolysis based on the electrolyte fluid is built. The validity of the model can be verified by experimentation. The experimental results show that processing accuracy meets accuracy requirements which are ±0.05 mm. Machining efficiency increases more than 20 percent compared to electrolytic processing.

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