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Δευτέρα, 7 Νοεμβρίου 2016



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See inside a condom factory and what it takes to keep sex safe

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It starts with wood and ends in foil packets – what happens in between? Some condoms take a pounding without even leaving the factory to test their durability

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See inside a condom factory and what it takes to keep sex safe

It starts with wood and ends in foil packets – what happens in between? Some condoms take a pounding without even leaving the factory to test their durability

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HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOFT TISSUE TUMORS (A STUDY OF 140 CASES) IN TERTIARY CARE CENTER

2016-11-07T23-22-35Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Jobanputra G.P., Parikh U.R., Goswami H.M..
Background: Soft tissue tumors are defined as mesenchymal proliferations which occur in the extraskeletal nonepithelial tissues of the body, excluding the viscera, coverings of brain and lymphoreticular system. Soft tissue tumours are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are classified on a histogenetic basis according to the adult tissue they resemble Objective: To study the incidence of Soft tissue tumors at Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and to study the morphological incidence of various Soft tissue tumors among different age groups and sex. Methods: In the Present Study, all operated cases; excised biopsies and resected specimens are taken into consideration. After processing detail microscopic examination was carried out. Results: The peak age of incidence of soft tissue tumors was between 3rd to 4th decades of age, with the male: female ratio 1.37:1. Benign tumors (89.3%) are more common than malignant tumors (10%). Most common soft tissue tumor is Lipomatous tumors. Conclusion: The study can contribute to epidemiologic knowledge of soft tissue tumors.


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EFFECT OF GENDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF NEWBORNS OF UDAIPUR DISTRICT

2016-11-07T23-22-35Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Neha Vijay, Ghanshyam Gupta.
Introduction: The health and growth of fetus is entirely depending upon the mental and physical health of a mother. Apart from maternal factor one more important infantile factor affects the anthropometric parameters of newborn i.e. the gender of babies. Aim: the aim of study was to know the effect of gender on anthropometric parameters of newborns of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Method: A Cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, RNT Medical College and Hospitals, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. All the anthropometric parameters of 1422 newborns were taken from; newborns delivered at Government health institutes of Udaipur district, at Pannadhay Ward of Maharana Bhopal Government Hospital of RNT Medical College and Hospitals. Results: Mean values of Birth weight, Crown Heel Length, Head Circumference, Chest Circumference, Foot Length and Skin Fold Thickness were significantly higher in male. Mean values for Abdominal Circumference, Thigh Circumference, Mid arm Circumference and Calf Circumference was also higher in male; however it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The anthropometric parameters of newborns revealed a significant difference between male and female newborns.


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CHANGES IN BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN THE HAEMOLYMPH OF FIFTH INSTAR LARVAE OF PHILOSAMIA RICINI DURING THERMAL STRESS

2016-11-07T23-22-35Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Shuchita Chandorkar, Shobha Shouche, JPN Pathak.
Haemolymph of Philosamia ricini is a water reservoir which maintains homeostasis. When the insect is exposed to stresses naturally then it passes through various changes in biochemical composition. Fifth instar larvae of eri silk worm Philosamia ricini were kept under thermal stress of low and high temperature to observe the changes in carbohydrates, proteins and free amino acids. At high temperature carbohydrates showed a significant increase and a significant decrease at low temperature. Proteins and amino acids showed a significant decrease at high temperature and increase at low temperature.


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Ceratonia siliqua pod extract ameliorates Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis and oxidative stress

Schistosomiasis is a prevalent parasitic disease found predominantly in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the developing world, with the second highest socioeconomic and public health burden despite strenuous...

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Complementary and alternative medicine: attitudes, knowledge and use among surgeons and anaesthesiologists in Hungary

Despite their worldwide popularity the question of using non-conventional treatments is a source of controversy among medical professionals. Although these methods may have potential benefits it presents a pro...

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Acupuncture with different acupoint combinations for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture is beneficial for controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, the effect of different acupoint combinations on controlling CINV remains unknown. This study aims to compare...

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Fermented rice bran supplementation mitigates metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

Previous study shown that enzyme treated-rice bran effectively improved hypertension and glucose intolerance in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). However, dual fermentation of rice bran’s ef...

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Efficacy of acupuncture for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndromes: study protocol for a randomized, sham acupuncture-controlled trial

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects many adult men worldwide. The currently available therapies offer little or no proven benefit for CP/CPPS. We designed this study to assess th...

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Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among Hawassa University medical students, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Mental distress is a mental health problem expressed with variable levels of depressive, anxiety, panic or somatic symptoms. Owing to several factors tertiary level students are among the population with highe...

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Pharmacokinetics of a new imidazoline receptor agonist in rat plasma after intragastric and intravenous administration

2016-11-07T16-00-39Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Kulikov Aleksandr, Avtina Tatyana, Pokrovsky Mikhail, Korokin Mikhail.
3-(1h-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,2- trimethylcyclopentancarboxylic acid (C7070) is a novel synthetic imidazoline receptor agonist - potential antidiabetic agent. This study aimed to obtain the pharmacokinetic profiles in rats. Additionally, an HPLC MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify C7070 in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic profiles of intragastric and intravenous administration routes at singles doses of 50 mg/kg, were studied in rats. The elimination half-life of intravenously administered C7070 was approximately 154,1 min. The maximum plasma level of C7070 was reached approximately 170 min (2,8 h) after intragastric administration, with a Cmax value of 17,6 μg/mL and an AUC (o-t) value of 6964 μg*min-1/mL; the oral bioavailability was approximately 18%.


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A prospective study of adverse effects and compliance of intravenous iron sucrose for the treatment of severe anemia in ante- and post-natal women

2016-11-07T08-16-08Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Ashutosh D Jogia, Bhavesh R Kanabar, Jinesh B Rathod.
Background: Anemia is a leading cause of maternal death in the world. About half of it occur in southeast Asia and among them, 80% occur in India. Nowadays, intravenous (IV) iron sucrose is started for the therapy of severe anemia. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the adverse effect and compliance of IV iron sucrose injections in ante- and post-natal women. Materials and Methods: Totally 406 patients having hem oglobin between 4 and 7 g/dL were included in the study. IV iron sucrose was started as per the national guidelines. At every follow-up visit, patients were examined and asked about adverse effects. The number of patients lost to follow-up was recorded, and the patients were contacted on phone about adverse effects. Recorded data were entered in MS Excel 2016. Chi-square test was used for analysis, and the results were published as percentage. Results: The most common adverse effect experienced by women was swelling at injection site (8.87%) followed by muscle/joint pain (2.7%) and pruritus (2.7%). Anaphylaxis was observed in


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Ruxolitinib-associated tuberculosis – A rare complication of a novel drug!

2016-11-07T08-16-08Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Vinod R Patil, Chandrakala S, Nilesh P Wasekar, Farah Jijina, Aniket B Mohite.
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, abnormal cytokine expression, abnormal proliferation of megakaryocytes, and splenomegaly. Ruxolitinib (INCB018424) is a novel nonspecific Janus-like kinase inhibitor available for the management of PMF as it reduces spleen size and gives significant symptomatic relief. Very few case reports are available depicting opportunistic infections associated with this drug. We present a case of 35-year-old female - A known case of PMF on follow-up since 7 years. She was started on ruxolitinib in view of symptomatic progressive splenomegaly and weight loss. She was asymptomatic till 4th month of starting drug when she developed fever, body ache, and right axillary swelling. The right axillary lymph node biopsy revealed necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenopathy of tuberculous etiology (acid-fast bacilli [AFB] positive). X-ray of the chest was normal. She was started on antituberculosis (TB) treatment, and ruxolitinib was also continued. Patient is currently asymptomatic and has gained weight. She is on continuation phase of anti-TB treatment.


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Study of variations in lipid profile in different trimesters of pregnancy

2016-11-07T08-16-08Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Manish Kumar Mishra, Rina Sharma, Deependra Sharma, Avanish Mishra, Diwaker Sharma.
Background: This study has been conducted to show a correlation of rise in lipid profile in all three trimesters when compared with nonpregnant controls. Objectives: As previous studies showed that increased lipid profile during pregnancy may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. Hence, the aim of our study is to monitor the lipid profile values during all the three trimesters of pregnancy and prevent the complications in both mother and fetus. Materials and Methods: A total 180 pregnant patients were taken with 60 in each trimester. 60 healthy nonpregnant women were taken as control subjects. In both study and control groups, we estimated lipid profile which includes total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Results: In comparison between study and control groups, the levels of TC, serum TGs, and HDL were significantly high in all the three trimesters, but the levels of LDL were significantly high in the second and third trimesters only. Conclusion: Deranged lipid metabolism in pregnancy is associated with complications in mother and fetus. Therefore, it is recommended to get lipid profile done as a routine investigation in all the three trimesters of pregnancy to avoid maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.


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Clinical And Embryological Rationale Of Occipitalization Of Atlas

2016-11-07T04-31-28Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Alok Saxena,Kishor Kumar Agarwal,Amal Rani Das.
Introduction Anatomical variations have always been fascinating topics for research, revealing the hidden and rare findings. We have observed a skull assimilated with first cervical vertebra (atlas) leaving some perforations along the line of fusion. Atlas does not bear body like other cervical vertebrae, forms atlano-occpital joint which allow flexion, extension particularly nodding movement to the head. Case Report We have come across with total fusion of atlas with skull during undergraduate medical teaching. The skull was completely examined. The lateral mass showed complete fusion with occipital condyles. Anterior arch was completely fused with occipital bone whereas there were some perforations along the line of fusion between posterior arch and occipital bone. Conclusion Occpitalization of atlas may severe complications ranges from headache to spinal cord compression. This condition may be characterised by headache, cervical pain, postural abnormality, restricted flexion and extension of neck specially nodding movement, pain and numbness in the upper limb(s).


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ORAL LICHEN PLANUS: AN UPDATE

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Md. Asad Iqubal, Mobeen Khan, Umesh Chandra Chaudhary, Swetarchi, Bushra Farhat, Nazish Akhtar.
Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease affecting approximately 1.5 to 2% of the world population. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucosal condition. It has various oral manifestations, the reticular form being the most common. The course of the disease is usually unpredictable with bouts of remission and exacerbation being common. The most widely accepted treatment for lesions of OLP involves topical or systemic corticosteroids to modulate the patients immune response.


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A STUDY OF NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN THE NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Sungdirenla Jamir, Arunkumar Singh Ngangom, Davina Hijam, Chubalemla Longkumer, Abhishek Dubey, M. Amuba Singh, Kh. Ibochouba Singh.
Neonatal jaundice is yellow colouration of the skin and the sclera of newborn babies due to accumulation of bilirubin. This is associated with hyperbilirubinaemia, a condition where bilirubin level is raised in the circulation. Objectives: To assess the etiological factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and therapeutic interventions in a tertiary care hospital in the north eastern region of India. Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur for a period of two years. One hundred fifty newborns with jaundice aged up to 28 days, both term and preterm were included in this study. Careful clinical assessments were done to assess the possible etiologies. Serum bilirubin was determined by colorimetric method as described by Jendrassik and Grof [12]. Monitoring of serum bilirubin was done by serial measurements once a day in the morning. Results: Significant hyperbilirubinemia (TSB>15mg %) was seen in 58 (38.7%) neonates while 92 (61.3%) had TSB


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A STUDY TO EVALUATE DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND STRESS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS - AN INSTITUTION BASED PILOT STUDY

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Tarpan Shah, Megha D. Patel, Hiral Shah.
Introduction: At colleges nationwide, large percentage of college students are feeling overwhelmed, sad, hopelessness and so depressed that they are unable to function well. It is seen that Anxiety disorders affect a lot to adults every year, and its levels among college students have been rising since long. The objective of the present study was to explore the severity of depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate physiotherapy students. Methodology: 246 undergraduate physiotherapy students from one institute have been selected for the study purpose .Questionnaire based survey study was done. A DASS 21 questionnaire was given to the students and the aim of the study was explain to them. Duly completed forms were taken away for research study purpose. Result: Among all of total 246 students; Depression-145 were reported under normal category, 52 of them in mild, 35 in moderate level, 10 in severe category and 4 had fallen in the extremely severe category. The Anxiety scale reported 125 in normal, 34 in mild, 49 in moderate level, 20 in severe and 18 of them have been under extremely severe category. The study reported 159 normal cases for Stress scale, 35 were in mild, 31 in moderate, 20 in severe and 1 case in extremely severe score. Conclusion: Present study revealed maximum number of students in the normal category and some students in raised level of anxiety and stress among undergraduate Physiotherapy students. Discussion: Consequently it is advised that the institute should take appropriate steps for reducing the level of depression and stress by undertaking counseling of the students and help them to cope up with their difficulties up to the institutional limit.


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PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIPHERAL RETINAL DEGENERATION IN MYOPIC INDIAN ADULTS

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Nutan Bedi, Sharda Punjabi.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between peripheral retinal lesions and axial length of the myopic patients. Material and Methods: A sample of 360 eyes from 224 myopic patients was examined at eye out patient department of tertiary care hospital from July 2008 to March 2010. Sonography was used for measurement of axial length of Eye ball and peripheral retina was studied by indirect ophthalmoscope examination and slit lamp microscopy. Chi square test for these qualitative variables with 5% significance was used for statistical analysis. Results: The average age was 45.32±11.34 years and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 dioptres. The peripheral retina showed benign changes including pigment clumps in 128 eyes (35.55%), paving stone degeneration in 102 eyes (28.33%). Snowflakes degenerations were present in 40 eyes (11.11%) and white without pressure degeneration was found in 18 eyes (5%) of patients While 36 eyes (10%) of patients had lattice degeneration, and only 36(10%) patients had normal peripheral retina. Conclusions: Myopia is a pathological condition associated with peripheral retinal lesions and it can also predispose to various retinal disorders, so it important to diagnose early and treat these patients so that future complications can be minimize.


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CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EWINGS SARCOMA FAMILY OF TUMORS: SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON ROLE OF FRIEND LEUKEMIA INTEGRATION - 1(FLI-1) ANTIBODY AND OCCURRENCE OF TUMOR ON RARE SITES

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Alka Mittal, Jayanti Mehta, Kalpana Mangal, Alpana Jain, Neetu Agarwal, Madan Kumar Solanki.
Objective: Ewings sarcoma /Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is one of the aggressive malignant round cell tumors affecting mainly children and adolescents. This study aimed to emphasize the role of FLI-1 antibody along with CD99 in diagnosing ES/PNET and to keep this tumor in differential diagnosis even at some rare sites. Material and Method: This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 May 2016 and included 58 patients of ES/PNET. Histopathological and IHC findings were reviewed and the diagnosis of ES/PNET was confirmed. The tumors were further categorized into classic Ewings, PNET and atypical subtypes. Panel of IHC markers included vimentin, CD99, FLI-1, PanCK, LCA, Desmin, Myogenin, NSE, Synaptophysin, S100 and Chromogranin. Results: Clinical Findings- We studied 58 patients of ES / PNET of whom 63% (37/58) were males, 37% (21/58) were females. The age ranged between 3- 65 years (mean 20 years). Histological Findings: 57% of cases (33/58) exhibited classic morphology, 40% (23/58) were classified as PNET. There were only two cases of atypical Ewings sarcoma including large cell and Clear cell variant. Immunohistochemical Findings: Strong membranous CD99 expression was seen in 100%, FLI -1 nuclear staining in 85% , NSE in 50%, S100 in 30%, Synaptophysin in 10% and EMA in 2% (1/58) cases. All other markers included in the panel were negative. Tumor on Rare Sites: 10 Cases were of primary extradural spinal PNET, 1 intramedullary spinal, 2 brain parenchyma, 2 nose & nasopharynx , and one rare case of urinary bladder. Conclusion: Clinical details, histomorphology and IHC includingCD99 and monoclonal FLI-1antibodies may help in supporting diagnosis of EFT if cytogenetic and FISH techniques are not available at any centre.


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AUDITORY PLASTICITY AND COCHLEAR IMPLANTS IN CHILDREN- A REVIEW

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Muhammed Ayas, Hakam Yaseen, Ahmed Munzer Alwaa.
Aim: The review article is aimed at highlighting the importance of Auditory Plasticity for the positive outcomes in cochlear implantation, which is intrinsic to the critical age period. Method: Various electronic databases such as PubMed/ Medline, Science Direct, CINHAL etc. were used to extract the articles. The keywords used for the search engine were auditory plasticity, deprivation, and cortical re organization, cochlear implants. Discussion: The current review suggests that auditory plasticity is important in achieving proper wiring of acoustic sensation in the congenial hearing loss cases. Critical age period for the intake of new information and learning occurs before 3.5 years of age and post critical period the language learning is delayed. Conclusion: Auditory plasticity and its related functions are critical in influencing the outcome after the CI in children. The advent of electrophysiology into clinical research has paved a path breaking journey in understanding the complex processing of auditory signals in the primary and secondary cortical areas.


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INCIDENCE OF VARIOUS FUNGAL SPECIES IN OCULAR INFECTIONS

2016-11-07T02-16-15Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Amrita Bajpai, Rajesh Bareja, Munesh Sharma, Vashishth Mishra, Hiba Sami.
Background: The fungi are significant pathogens causing ocular infections due to their frequent involvement and difficulty in establishing definitive diagnosis. The present study was aimed to detect various fungal and bacterial agents that can cause ocular infections. Material & Methods: An ophthalmologist collected the corneal scrapping that was smeared onto two slides and stained with Grams stain and mounted with 10% KOH (potassium hydroxide) for microscopic examination. Material collected was inoculated directly onto 5% sheeps blood agar in the form of C streak, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), and sent to the Microbiology department for further processing and identification of causative agent. Results: Out of three hundred and sixty samples, ten cases were found to be fungal culture positive. Aspergillus species were accounting for 40% cases followed by Curvularia species (30%), Alternaria species (1%), Fusarium species (1%) and Scytalidium dimidiatum (1%). Conclusion: Fungal infection is a life threatening condition, which needs early diagnosis and treatment to save the patients eye.


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Functional outcome and result of intra-articular injection hyaluronic acid in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee

2016-11-07T01-40-29Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Deepak Chaudhary, Yasir Ali Khan.
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease of joints in adults around the world. Worldwide, it is estimated to be the fourth leading cause of disability. Objective of the study was to assess functional outcome and results of injection of hyaluronic acid in symptomatic osteoarthritis knee. Methods: It was a prospective clinical study with 3 months of follow-up. Clinically proven sixty patients of osteoarthritis knee (OA) included in study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria on OPD basis after getting written and informed consent, treated by weekly intra articular injection of Hyaluronic acid (20 mcg/2ml) in affected knee joint for 5 weeks by single author . Functional outcome and clinical assessment was done by pain at visual analogue score (VAS) and by knee range of movements, patients global assessment of treatment and physician global assessment of treatment. The occurrences of adverse events were also assessed at 3 month. Results: Sixty patients participated in study and reported statistically significant improvement in VAS score in mild and moderate osteoarthritis of knee from 4.46±0.52 and 6.57±0.72 points respectively pre-treatment level to 2.26±0.43 and 4.36±0.24 points respectively at three months post Hyaluronic acid injection follow up, improvement in joint tenderness and patients & physicians global assessment score also improved significantly clinically as well as statistically in mild to moderate group while in severe group no clinical and statistically significant improvement was observed in any parameters, change in range of motion at three months was not significant in any group. Conclusions: Visco-supplementation with intra articular injection hyaluronic acid should be considered as safe and effective modality of treatment in selected group of mild to moderate osteoarthritis before mechanical changes takes place and patient complies with regular exercise, weight control and postural habits.


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A randomized control trial: effect of tranexamic acid on the need of post-operative blood transfusion following total hip replacement surgery

2016-11-07T01-40-29Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Deepak Chaudhary, Yasir Ali Khan.
Background: Total hip replacement surgery is one of the most advanced and technically demanding surgeries in orthopaedics in which blood loss is inevitable. Most of the patients are elderly with multiple co morbidities and the estimated one-year mortality is about 25%. Objective of the study was to assess the need of post-operative blood transfusion in total hip replacement surgery in patients given tranexamic acid versus control. Methods: It was a randomized controlled trial. Hundred patients of both sexes undergoing total hip replacement surgery included in study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria after getting written and informed consent. Equal patients 50-50 (50%) divided in two groups tranexamic acid group and control group based on a computer-generated random number table. The tranexamic acid group received two doses of 10mg/kg body weight of tranexamic acid just before surgery and two hours later intravenously. The control group received two doses of 10mg/kg body weight of normal saline at similar intervals. Numbers of blood transfusions required postoperatively were noted based on the postoperative haemoglobin readings. Results: Mean post-op haemoglobin for the tranexamic acid group was 10.4±2.6 g/dl and for the control group it was 8.6±2.4 g/dl (p=0.007). Eight patients (16%) in intervention group required blood transfusion compared to 22 (44%) in control group (p=0.009). The relative risk (RR) for transfusion was 0.51 when TXA was administered compared to when placebo was administered. Conclusions: Perioperative tranexamic acid is a safe and useful method of reducing intra op bleeding and need of post-operative blood transfusion postoperatively in THR patients.


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Retinoblastoma – pattern, presentation and management: a quintessential experience of 5 years

2016-11-07T01-40-29Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Anvesh Karthik Yalavarthy, Manjunath I. Nandennavar, Shashidhar V. Karpurmath.
Background: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. It accounts for 10-15% of cancers that occur in infants. Objective of the study was to determine the pattern, presentation and management of Retinoblastoma (RB) patients at a tertiary cancer care center in South India, during a period of 5 years (1st November 2009 to 1st December 2014). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed as having retinoblastoma obtained from hospital information system and our cancer registry. Data sought was demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, investigations done, the methods of management and the treatment outcome of retinoblastoma patients. Results: Total number of cases studied was 31 and total number of eyes studied was 47. Out of 31 cases, 58% were female. 52% had bilateral involvement. The median age at presentation was 24 months. The commonest mode of presentation was leukocoria (55%) followed by proptosis (22%). Out of 47 eyes studied, 87% were advanced tumours belonging to Group D or Group E. Metastasis to the central nervous system was noted in 22.6% patients belonging to either Group D or Group E. Out of the 31 patients, 64.6% patients underwent enucleation. 6 out of 31 cases succumbed to death. Conclusions: Retinoblastoma continues to be a challenge in developing countries. Lack of awareness and inaccessibility to proper healthcare facilities are major stumbling blocks in achieving high cure rates. Educating the public and healthcare professionals, importance of early diagnosis and prompt referral are vital in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the disease.


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Neonatal outcomes as per gestational age in late preterm births: a retrospective study

2016-11-07T00-10-25Z
Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ankur Gupta, Soujanya B. S., Kamath K. Madhava.
Background: Late preterm infants (34 week to 36 week + 6 days of gestation) are physiologically immature and have limited compensatory responses to the extra-uterine environment. Aim of the study was to compare the incidence of neonatal complications of late preterm infants compared to those born at term gestation and admitted in neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in south India. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed late preterm deliveries reported in 24 months period. Late preterm were divided in 3 sub-groups according to gestational age at delivery: 34 week + 6 days, 35 week + 6 days, 36 week + 6 days of gestation. The incidence of major clinical complications was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Z- test. All babies admitted from March 2014 to February 2016 were retrospectively studied. Results: Among late preterm deliveries 53% were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of which 35% presented with neonatal jaundice, 27% Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and sepsis 18 % .The incidence of RDS, jaundice and sepsis was significantly higher at 34 0/6 and 35 0/6 weeks of gestation, compared to full-term infants. Finally, the incidence of jaundice and RDS results significantly higher in all the 3 subgroups of late preterm, in contrast to full term infants. Conclusions: Results demonstrated an increased risk of morbidity in the late preterm period in contrast with term infants. Results also displayed that the gestational age at delivery of late preterm can influence the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes


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