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Κυριακή, 14 Μαΐου 2017

Localization and distribution of gonadal proteins in the oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae)

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Publication date: Available online 14 May 2017
Source:Acta Histochemica
Author(s): Antonio-Rubio Nivia Rocio, Villagrán-SantaCruz Maricela, Moreno-Mendoza Norma
Among vertebrates, several specific proteins are involved in the function and development of gonads. Several genes such as SOX9, FOXL2, DDX4, IFITM3, and DPPA3, are active during embryonic differentiation and maintain their expression in adult tissues, playing important roles in the function and development of the line cell, where these are produced. Among reptiles, molecular mechanisms for sex differentiation have been analyzed in turtles, crocodiles, and some lizards, while in adult stages such studies are scarce. The aim of this study was to locate and analyze the distribution of important gonadal proteins in adult and embryonic ovaries and testes of the oviparous lizard Sceloporus aeneus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Adult specimens and embryos of the lizard S. aeneus were collected in Milpa Alta, a suburb located Southwest of Mexico City. Expression of gonadal proteins was analyzed using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that SOX9 is located in Sertoli cells of embryonic and adult testes. FOXL2 is expressed in follicular cells of adult ovaries. DDX4 and IFITM3 are located in germ line cells as well as in follicular cells of adult ovaries. DPPA3 was observed in somatic and germ line cells of adult and embryonic gonads. Our observations show that important molecules of vertebrate ovaries and testes are conserved in S. aeneus and it is suggested that these may have a similar role during gonadal development and function.



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Editorial Board ((ofc))

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Publication date: May 2017
Source:Acta Histochemica, Volume 119, Issue 4





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Determination of Damage in Reinforced Concrete Frames with Shear Walls Using Self-Organizing Feature Map

The paper presents the use of a self-organizing feature map (SOFM) for determining damage in reinforced concrete frames with shear walls. For this purpose, a concrete frame with a shear wall was subjected to nonlinear dynamic analysis. The SOFM was optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA) in order to determine the number of layers, number of nodes in the hidden layer, transfer function type, and learning algorithm. The obtained model was compared with linear regression (LR) and nonlinear regression (NonLR) models and also the radial basis function (RBF) of a neural network. It was concluded that the SOFM, when optimized with the GA, has more strength, flexibility, and accuracy.

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Therapeutic effect of microneedling and autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of atrophic scars: A randomized study

Summary

Background

New treatments and techniques were being added over the last few years to treat atrophic scars with variable results and adverse effects.

Aim of the work

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of microneedling, autologous platelet-rich plasma, and combination of both procedures in the treatment of atrophic scars.

Patients and methods

This study included 90 patients with atrophic scars and were classified randomly into three groups: I: 28 patients treated with microneedling, one session every 4 weeks; II: 34 patients treated with intradermal injection of platelet-rich plasma, one session every 2 weeks; and III: 28 patients treated with alternative sessions of each microneedling and platelet-rich plasma, 2 weeks between each session, for a maximum of six sessions.

Results

There was a statistically significant improvement in the appearance of atrophic scars, with reduction in the scores associated with the clinical evaluation scale for atrophic scarring in all groups, but the improvement was more obvious in group III.

Conclusions

Although a single treatment may give good results, combination between skin needling and platelet-rich plasma is more effective, safe with less number of sessions in all types of atrophic scars.



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The effect of autologous activated platelet-rich plasma injection on female pattern hair loss: A randomized placebo-controlled study

Summary

Background

Hair is an essential part of a woman's appearance and attractiveness. This is reflected in the predominantly psychological morbidity that can be associated with female pattern hair loss. Platelet-rich plasma(PRP) has been used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss.

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

Materials and methods

Thirty female patients with female pattern hair loss were randomly assigned to receive autologous PRP injection into a selected area, and another area was injected with normal saline as a placebo. Sessions were performed weekly for a maximum total of four sessions. Patients were followed up 6 months after the end of last session. The outcome was assessed both subjectively and objectively.

Results

There was a statistical significant difference between PRP and placebo areas (P<.005) regarding both hair density and hair thickness as measured by a folliscope. The hair pull test became negative in PRP-injected areas in 25 patients (83%) with average number of three hairs. Global pictures showed a significant improvement in hair volume and quality together with a high overall patient satisfaction in PRP-injected sites, and these results were maintained during the 6-month follow- up.

Conclusion

Platelet-rich plasma injections can be regarded as an alternative for the treatment of female pattern hair loss with minimal morbidity and a low cost-to-benefit ratio.



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Incubatory environment of the scalp impacts pre-emergent hair to affect post-emergent hair cuticle integrity

Summary

Objectives

To determine whether the oxidative stress transmitted to newly grown hair from an unhealthy scalp has physical consequences to the cuticular condition and function.

Methods

A uniquely designed 24-week clinical study included 8 weeks of pretreatment with a cosmetic shampoo and 16 weeks of treatment with either a potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT) antidandruff shampoo or a placebo cosmetic shampoo. This clinical design allowed the growth and acquisition of hair samples under conditions of varying but known scalp health as a result of treating a dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) population. Two complementary methods were used to characterize the integrity of the cuticular surface. Hair surface hydrophobicity was assessed by quantifying water wetting force using a Wilhelmy balance method. Surface structure and porosity were assessed using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) to gravimetrically quantify water sorption.

Results

Chemical oxidative stress to pre-emergent hair has been shown to have negative consequences to hair surface structure. Compared to a placebo shampoo control, use of a potentiated ZPT shampoo improved scalp health and significantly improved the following attributes associated with healthy hair: hair surface hydrophobicity (surface energy) and cuticular moisture barrier effectiveness (dynamic vapor sorption).

Conclusions

Pre-emergent hair can be negatively impacted by the oxidative stress that occurs with an unhealthy scalp, possibly due to metabolic activity of resident microbes. Manifestations of the oxidative stress include altered cuticle surface properties that are responsible for its protective function; these effects are similar in type to those observed by bleaching post-emergent hair. These alterations have the potential to make the hair, once emerged from the scalp, more susceptible to the cumulative physical and chemical insults responsible for hair feel and look, fiber integrity, and overall retention.



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T-cell Receptor Signaling Activates an ITK/NF-{kappa}B/GATA-3 axis in T-cell Lymphomas Facilitating Resistance to Chemotherapy

Purpose: T-cell lymphomas are a molecularly heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) that account for a disproportionate number of NHL disease-related deaths due to their inherent and acquired resistance to standard multiagent chemotherapy regimens. Despite their molecular heterogeneity and frequent loss of various T cell–specific receptors, the T-cell antigen receptor is retained in the majority of these lymphomas. As T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement activates a number of signaling pathways and transcription factors that regulate T-cell growth and survival, we examined the TCR's role in mediating resistance to chemotherapy.

Experimental Design: Genetic and pharmacologic strategies were utilized to determine the contribution of tyrosine kinases and transcription factors activated in conventional T cells following TCR engagement in acquired chemotherapy resistance in primary T-cell lymphoma cells and patient-derived cell lines.

Results: Here, we report that TCR signaling activates a signaling axis that includes ITK, NF-B, and GATA-3 and promotes chemotherapy resistance.

Conclusions: These observations have significant therapeutic implications, as pharmacologic inhibition of ITK prevented the activation of this signaling axis and overcame chemotherapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2506–15. ©2016 AACR.



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FDA Approval Summary: Sonidegib for Locally Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma

On July 24, 2015, the FDA approved sonidegib (ODOMZO; Novartis) for the treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) not amenable to curative surgery or radiotherapy. The approval was based on data from one randomized, double-blind, noncomparative trial of two doses of sonidegib administered to 230 hedgehog inhibitor–naïve patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC, n = 36) or laBCC (n = 194). Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive sonidegib 800 mg (n = 151) or 200 mg (n = 79) daily. The objective response rate (ORR) for patients with laBCC was 58% [95% confidence interval (CI), 45–70] in the 200 mg group and 44% (95% CI, 35–53) in the 800 mg group. The median duration of response for patients with laBCC was nonestimable (NE) in the 200 mg arm and 15.7 months (95% CI, NE) in the 800 mg arm. The ORR for patients with mBCC was 8% (95% CI, 0.2–36) and 17% (95% CI, 5–39) in patients treated with 200 and 800 mg, respectively. The most common adverse events occurring in ≥10% of patients were muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, nausea, fatigue, increased serum creatine kinase, decreased weight, and diarrhea. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2377–81. ©2017 AACR.



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miRNA-487a Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) harbors highly metastatic properties, accounting for postoperative recurrence and metastasis. However, the mechanisms for metastasis and recurrence remain incompletely clear. This study aimed to investigate the role of hsa-miR-487a (miR-487a) in promoting the proliferation and metastasis of HCC and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Experimental Design: 198 HCC samples were analyzed for association between miR-487a expression and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. The roles of miR-487a in proliferation and metastasis were validated both in vivo and in vitro. The upstream regulator and downstream targets of miR-487a were determined using a dual luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Our results demonstrate that upregulated miR-487a correlates with a poor prognosis for HCC patients. miR-487a enhances proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells by directly binding to sprouty-related EVH1 domain containing 2 (SPRED2) or phosphoinositide-3-Kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1). Interestingly, miR-487a mainly promotes metastasis via SPRED2 induced mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and promotes proliferation via PIK3R1 mediated AKT signaling. Transcription of miR-487a was found to be activated by up-regulated heat shock factor 1, which we previously demonstrated to be an important metastasis-associated transcription factor in a previous study. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers effectively silenced miR-487a and inhibited HCC tumor progression in mouse models.

Conclusions: Our findings show that miR-487a, mediated by heat shock factor 1, promotes proliferation and metastasis of HCC by PIK3R1 and SPRED2 binding, respectively. Our study provides a rationale for developing miR-487a as a potential prognostic marker or a potential therapeutic target against HCC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2593–604. ©2016 AACR.



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Molecular Pathways: Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs in Cancer Therapy

Hypoxia is a known feature of aggressive solid tumors as well as a critical hallmark of the niche in aggressive hematologic malignances. Hypoxia is associated with insufficient response to standard therapy, resulting in disease progression and curtailed patients' survival through maintenance of noncycling cancer stem–like cells. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signaling pathways induced by hypoxia is essential to overcoming these effects. Recent findings demonstrate that bone marrow in the setting of hematologic malignancies is highly hypoxic, and that progression of the disease is associated with expansion of hypoxic niches and stabilization of the oncogenic hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF1α). Solid tumors have also been shown to harbor hypoxic areas, maintaining survival of cancer cells via the HIF1α pathway. Developing new strategies for targeting hypoxia has become a crucial approach in modern cancer therapy. The number of preclinical and clinical trials targeting low-oxygen tumor compartments or the hypoxic bone marrow niche via hypoxia-activated prodrugs is increasing. This review discusses the development of the hypoxia-activated prodrugs and their applicability in treating both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2382–90. ©2017 AACR.



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Antibody Targeting GRP78 Enhances the Efficacy of Radiation Therapy in Human Glioblastoma and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines and Tumor Models

Purpose: Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have poor median survival. NSCLC and GBM overexpress glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), which has a role in radioresistance and recurrence. In this study, we determined the effect of anti-GRP78 antibody and the combined effect of the anti-GRP78 antibody with ionizing radiation (XRT) on NSCLC and GBM cell lines both in vitro and in vivo.

Experimental Design: NSCLC and GBM cancer cell lines were treated with anti-GRP78 antibodies and evaluated for proliferation, colony formation, cell death, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. The efficacy of anti-GRP78 antibodies on tumor growth in combination with XRT was determined in vivo in mouse xenograft models.

Results: GBM and NSCLC cells treated with anti-GRP78 antibodies showed attenuated cell proliferation, colony formation, and enhanced apoptosis. GBM and NSCLC cells treated with anti-GRP78 antibodies also showed global suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. Combining antibody with XRT resulted in significant tumor growth delay in both NSCLC and GBM heterotopic tumor models.

Conclusions: Antibodies targeting GRP78 exhibited antitumor activity and enhanced the efficacy of radiation in NSCLC and GBM both in vitro and in vivo. GRP78 is a promising novel target, and anti-GRP78 antibodies could be used as an effective cancer therapy alone or in combination with XRT. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2556–64. ©2016 AACR.



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Emerging Role of MicroRNAs as Liquid Biopsy Biomarkers in Gastrointestinal Cancers

Cancer has emerged as a leading cause of mortality worldwide, claiming more than 8 million lives annually. Gastrointestinal cancers account for about 35% of these mortalities. Recent advances in diagnostic and treatment strategies have reduced mortality among patients with gastrointestinal cancer, yet a significant number of patients still develop late-stage cancer, where treatment options are inadequate. Emerging interests in "liquid biopsies" have encouraged investigators to identify and develop clinically relevant noninvasive genomic and epigenomic signatures that can be exploited as biomarkers capable of detecting premalignant and early-stage cancers. In this context, microRNAs (miRNA), which are small, noncoding RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in cancers, have emerged as promising entities for such diagnostic purposes. Even though the future looks promising, current approaches for detecting miRNAs in blood and other biofluids remain inadequate. This review summarizes existing efforts to exploit circulating miRNAs as cancer biomarkers and evaluates their potential and challenges as liquid biopsy–based biomarkers for gastrointestinal cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2391–9. ©2017 AACR.



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Dual-specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and an Indirect Vaccine Eradicate a Variety of Large Solid Tumors in an Immunocompetent, Self-antigen Setting

Purpose: While adoptive transfer of T cells bearing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) can eliminate substantial burdens of some leukemias, the ultimate challenge remains the eradication of large solid tumors for most cancers. We aimed to develop an immunotherapy approach effective against large tumors in an immunocompetent, self-antigen preclinical mouse model.

Experimental Design: In this study, we generated dual-specific T cells expressing both a CAR specific for Her2 and a TCR specific for the melanocyte protein (gp100). We used a regimen of adoptive cell transfer incorporating vaccination (ACTIV), with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing gp100, to treat a range of tumors including orthotopic breast tumors and large liver tumors.

Results: ACTIV therapy induced durable complete remission of a variety of Her2+ tumors, some in excess of 150 mm2, in immunocompetent mice expressing Her2 in normal tissues, including the breast and brain. Vaccinia virus induced extensive proliferation of T cells, leading to massive infiltration of T cells into tumors. Durable tumor responses required the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and exogenous IL2, but were independent of IFN. Mice were resistant to tumor rechallenge, indicating immune memory involving epitope spreading. Evidence of limited neurologic toxicity was observed, associated with infiltration of cerebellum by T cells, but was only transient.

Conclusions: This study supports a view that it is possible to design a highly effective combination immunotherapy for solid cancers, with acceptable transient toxicity, even when the target antigen is also expressed in vital tissues. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2478–90. ©2016 AACR.



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Prospective, Multicenter Clinical Trial of Everolimus as Primary Therapy in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WMCTG 09-214)

Purpose: Everolimus inhibits mTOR, a component of PI3K/AKT prosurvival signaling triggered by MYD88 and CXCR4-activating mutations in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

Experimental design: We evaluated everolimus in a prospective, multicenter study of 33 symptomatic, previously untreated Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia patients. Intended therapy consisted of everolimus (10 mg/day) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose deescalation was permitted. The study was registered at http://ift.tt/PmpYKN (NCT00976248).

Results: At best response, median serum IgM levels declined from 4,440 to 1,360 mg/dL (P < 0.0001), median hemoglobin rose from 10.8 to 12 g/dL (P = 0.001), and median bone marrow disease burden declined from 75% to 52.5% in serially biopsied patients. The ORR and major response rates were 72.7% and 60.6%, respectively. Among genotyped patients, nonresponders associated with wild-type MYD88 and mutated CXCR4 status. Median time to response was 4 weeks. Discordance between serum IgM levels and bone marrow disease burden was remarkable. With a median follow-up of 13.1 (range, 1.6–64.6 months), the median time to progression was 21 months for all patients and 33 months for major responders. Discontinuation of everolimus led to rapid serum IgM rebound in 7 patients and symptomatic hyperviscosity in 2 patients. Toxicity led to treatment discontinuation in 27% of patients, including 18% for pneumonitis.

Conclusions: Everolimus is active in previously untreated Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. IgM discordance is common, and treatment cessation can often lead to rapid serum IgM rebound. Pneumonitis also appears more pronounced in untreated versus previously treated Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia patients. The risks and benefits of everolimus should be carefully weighed against other primary Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia therapy options. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2400–4. ©2016 AACR.



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The Second-Generation Exportin-1 Inhibitor KPT-8602 Demonstrates Potent Activity against Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Purpose: Human exportin-1 (XPO1) is the key nuclear-cytoplasmic transport protein that exports different cargo proteins out of the nucleus. Inducing nuclear accumulation of these proteins by inhibiting XPO1 causes cancer cell death. First clinical validation of pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was obtained with the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound selinexor (KPT-330) demonstrating activity in phase-II/IIb clinical trials when dosed 1 to 3 times weekly. The second-generation SINE compound KPT-8602 shows improved tolerability and can be dosed daily. Here, we investigate and validate the drug–target interaction of KPT-8602 and explore its activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Experimental Design: We examined the effect of KPT-8602 on XPO1 function and XPO1-cargo as well as on a panel of leukemia cell lines. Mutant XPO1 leukemia cells were designed to validate KPT-8602's drug-target interaction. In vivo, anti-ALL activity was measured in a mouse ALL model and patient-derived ALL xenograft models.

Results: KPT-8602 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a panel of leukemic cell lines in vitro. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we demonstrated the specificity of KPT-8602 for cysteine 528 in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1 and validated the drug target interaction. In vivo, KPT-8602 showed potent anti-leukemia activity in a mouse ALL model as well as in patient-derived T- and B-ALL xenograft models without affecting normal hematopoiesis.

Conclusions: KPT-8602 is highly specific for XPO1 inhibition and demonstrates potent anti-leukemic activity supporting clinical application of the second-generation SINE compound for the treatment of ALL. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2528–41. ©2016 AACR.



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A Phase I/II Multicenter Study of Single-Agent Foretinib as First-Line Therapy in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Purpose: This phase I/II single-arm study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and activity of foretinib, an oral multikinase inhibitor of MET, ROS, RON, AXL, TIE-2, and VEGFR2, in the first-line setting in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

Experimental Design: In the phase I part, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients were dose escalated on foretinib (30–60 mg) every day using the standard 3+3 design. Once the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined, an additional 32 patients were dosed at the MTD in the phase II expansion cohort for assessment of efficacy and safety. Exploratory analyses were conducted to assess potential biomarkers that might correlate with clinical efficacy and survival.

Results: The MTD of foretinib was established as 30 mg every day. The most frequent adverse events were hypertension, decreased appetite, ascites, and pyrexia. When dosed at 30 mg every day in the first-line setting, foretinib demonstrated promising antitumor activity. According to the modified mRECIST, the objective response rate was 22.9%, the disease stabilization rate 82.9%, and the median duration of response 7.6 months. The median time to progression was 4.2 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 15.7 months. Fifteen candidate biomarkers whose levels in the circulation were significantly altered in response to foretinib treatment were elucidated. Multivariate analyses identified IL6 and IL8 as independent predictors of OS.

Conclusions: Foretinib demonstrated promising antitumor activity and good tolerability in the first-line setting in Asian advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Baseline plasma levels of IL6 or IL8 might predict the response to foretinib. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2405–13. ©2016 AACR.



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A Case-Matched Gender Comparison Transcriptomic Screen Identifies eIF4E and eIF5 as Potential Prognostic Markers in Male Breast Cancer

Purpose: Breast cancer affects both genders, but is understudied in men. Although still rare, male breast cancer (MBC) is being diagnosed more frequently. Treatments are wholly informed by clinical studies conducted in women, based on assumptions that underlying biology is similar.

Experimental Design: A transcriptomic investigation of male and female breast cancer was performed, confirming transcriptomic data in silico. Biomarkers were immunohistochemically assessed in 697 MBCs (n = 477, training; n = 220, validation set) and quantified in pre- and posttreatment samples from an MBC patient receiving everolimus and PI3K/mTOR inhibitor.

Results: Gender-specific gene expression patterns were identified. eIF transcripts were upregulated in MBC. eIF4E and eIF5 were negatively prognostic for overall survival alone (log-rank P = 0.013; HR = 1.77, 1.12–2.8 and P = 0.035; HR = 1.68, 1.03–2.74, respectively), or when coexpressed (P = 0.01; HR = 2.66, 1.26–5.63), confirmed in the validation set. This remained upon multivariate Cox regression analysis [eIF4E P = 0.016; HR = 2.38 (1.18–4.8), eIF5 P = 0.022; HR = 2.55 (1.14–5.7); coexpression P = 0.001; HR = 7.04 (2.22–22.26)]. Marked reduction in eIF4E and eIF5 expression was seen post BEZ235/everolimus, with extended survival.

Conclusions: Translational initiation pathway inhibition could be of clinical utility in MBC patients overexpressing eIF4E and eIF5. With mTOR inhibitors that target this pathway now in the clinic, these biomarkers may represent new targets for therapeutic intervention, although further independent validation is required. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2575–83. ©2016 AACR.



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Heterogeneity of Acquired Resistance to Anti-EGFR Monoclonal Antibodies in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Purpose: Even if RAS-BRAF wild-type and HER2/MET–negative metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients frequently respond to anti-EGFR mAbs, acquired resistance almost invariably occurs. Mechanisms of resistance to EGFR blockade include the emergence of KRAS, NRAS, and EGFR extracellular domain mutations as well as HER2/MET alterations. However, these findings derive from retrospective studies that analyzed one single resistance mechanism at a time; moreover, it is still unclear how molecular heterogeneity affects clonal evolution in patients. In this work, we aimed at extensively characterizing and correlating the molecular characteristics of tissue- and blood-based data in a prospective cohort of patients with mCRC who received anti-EGFR antibodies.

Experimental design: Twenty-two RAS-BRAF wild-type, HER2/MET–negative mCRC patients progressing on anti-EGFR therapy after initial response underwent rebiopsy. Next-generation sequencing and silver in situ hybridization (SISH)/IHC analyses were performed both on archival tumors and postprogression samples. Circulating tumor (ctDNA) molecular profiles were obtained in matched tissue–plasma samples.

Results: RAS mutations and HER2/MET amplification were the most frequently detected resistance mechanisms in both tissue and blood sample analysis. On the other hand, BRAF and EGFR ectodomain mutations were much rarer. Patients with acquired MET amplification showed worse PFS on anti-EGFRs. We detected both intralesion heterogeneity, as suggested by co-occurrence of different resistance mechanisms in the same sample, and interlesion heterogeneity. The combined analysis of tissue and blood (ctDNA) results highlights the complexity of clonal evolution triggered by EGFR blockade.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that it may be extremely challenging to target the complex landscape of molecular heterogeneity associated with emergence of resistance to targeted therapies in patients with mCRC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2414–22. ©2016 AACR.



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Highlights of This Issue



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Phase I Study of GDC-0425, a Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Combination with Gemcitabine in Patients with Refractory Solid Tumors

Purpose: Chk1 inhibition potentiates DNA-damaging chemotherapy by overriding cell-cycle arrest and genome repair. This phase I study evaluated the Chk1 inhibitor GDC-0425 given in combination with gemcitabine to patients with advanced solid tumors.

Experimental Design: Patients received GDC-0425 alone for a 1-week lead-in followed by 21-day cycles of gemcitabine plus GDC-0425. Gemcitabine was initially administered at 750 mg/m2 (Arm A), then increased to 1,000 mg/m2 (Arm B), on days 1 and 8 in a 3 + 3 + 3 dose escalation to establish maximum tolerated dose (MTD). GDC-0425 was initially administered daily for three consecutive days; however, dosing was abbreviated to a single day on the basis of pharmacokinetics and tolerability. TP53 mutations were evaluated in archival tumor tissue. On-treatment tumor biopsies underwent pharmacodynamic biomarker analyses.

Results: Forty patients were treated with GDC-0425. The MTD of GDC-0425 was 60 mg when administered approximately 24 hours after gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities included thrombocytopenia (n = 5), neutropenia (n = 4), dyspnea, nausea, pyrexia, syncope, and increased alanine aminotransferase (n = 1 each). Common related adverse events were nausea (48%); anemia, neutropenia, vomiting (45% each); fatigue (43%); pyrexia (40%); and thrombocytopenia (35%). The GDC-0425 half-life was approximately 15 hours. There were two confirmed partial responses in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TP53-mutated) and melanoma (n = 1 each) and one unconfirmed partial response in a patient with cancer of unknown primary origin.

Conclusions: Chk1 inhibition with GDC-0425 in combination with gemcitabine was tolerated with manageable bone marrow suppression. The observed preliminary clinical activity warrants further investigation of this chemopotentiation strategy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2423–32. ©2016 AACR.



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Isolation of T-Cell Receptors Specifically Reactive with Mutated Tumor-Associated Antigens from Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Based on CD137 Expression

Purpose: The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically modified to express tumor reactive T-cell receptors (TCR) can mediate tumor regression. Some tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) recognize somatic mutations expressed only in the patient's tumors, and evidence suggests that clinically effective TILs target tumor-specific neoantigens. Here we attempted to isolate neoantigen-reactive TCRs as a prelude to the treatment of patients with autologous T cells genetically modified to express such TCRs.

Experimental Design: Mutations expressed by tumors were identified using whole-exome and RNA sequencing. Tandem minigene (TMG) constructs encoding 12–24 mutated gene products were synthesized, each encoding the mutated amino acid flanked by 12 amino acids of the normal protein sequence. TILs were cultured with autologous dendritic cells (DC) transfected with in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNAs encoding TMGs and were evaluated for IFN secretion and CD137 expression. Neoantigen-reactive T cells were enriched from TILs by sorting for CD137+ CD8+ T cells and expanded in vitro. Dominant TCR α and β chains were identified in the enriched populations using a combination of 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, deep sequencing of genomic DNA, PairSeq analysis, and single-cell RT-PCR analysis. Human PBL retrovirally transduced to express the TCRs were evaluated for recognition of relevant neoantigens.

Results: We identified 27 TCRs from 6 patients that recognized 14 neoantigens expressed by autologous tumor cells.

Conclusions: This strategy provides the means to generate T cells expressing neoantigen-reactive TCRs for use in future adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy trials for patients with cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2491–505. ©2016 AACR.



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A Phase I Study of the CDK4/6 Inhibitor Ribociclib (LEE011) in Pediatric Patients with Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors, Neuroblastoma, and Other Solid Tumors

Purpose: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, ribociclib (LEE011), displayed preclinical activity in neuroblastoma and malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) models. In this phase I study, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D), safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary activity of single-agent ribociclib were investigated in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma, MRT, or other cyclin D–CDK4/6–INK4–retinoblastoma pathway-altered tumors.

Experimental Design: Patients (aged 1–21 years) received escalating once-daily oral doses of ribociclib (3-weeks-on/1-week-off). Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model with overdose control and real-time PK.

Results: Thirty-two patients (median age, 5.5 years) received ribociclib 280, 350, or 470 mg/m2. Three patients had dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 fatigue (280 mg/m2; n = 1) or grade 4 thrombocytopenia (470 mg/m2; n = 2). Most common treatment-related adverse events (AE) were hematologic: neutropenia (72% all-grade/63% grade 3/4), leukopenia (63%/38%), anemia (44%/3%), thrombocytopenia (44%/28%), and lymphopenia (38%/19%), followed by vomiting (38%/0%), fatigue (25%/3%), nausea (25%/0%), and QTc prolongation (22%/0%). Ribociclib exposure was dose-dependent at 350 and 470 mg/m2 [equivalent to 600 (RP2D)–900 mg in adults], with high interpatient variability. Best overall response was stable disease (SD) in nine patients (seven with neuroblastoma, two with primary CNS MRT); five patients achieved SD for more than 6, 6, 8, 12, and 13 cycles, respectively.

Conclusions: Ribociclib demonstrated acceptable safety and PK in pediatric patients. MTD (470 mg/m2) and RP2D (350 mg/m2) were equivalent to those in adults. Observations of prolonged SD support further investigation of ribociclib combined with other agents in neuroblastoma and MRT. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2433–41. ©2017 AACR.



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5T4-Targeted Therapy Ablates Cancer Stem Cells and Prevents Recurrence of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Purpose: Locoregional recurrence is a frequent treatment outcome for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Emerging evidence suggests that tumor recurrence is mediated by a small subpopulation of uniquely tumorigenic cells, that is, cancer stem cells (CSC), that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy, endowed with self-renewal and multipotency.

Experimental Design: Here, we evaluated the efficacy of MEDI0641, a novel antibody–drug conjugate targeted to 5T4 and carrying a DNA-damaging "payload" (pyrrolobenzodiazepine) in preclinical models of HNSCC.

Results: Analysis of a tissue microarray containing 77 HNSCC with follow-up of up to 12 years revealed that patients with 5T4high tumors displayed lower overall survival than those with 5T4low tumors (P = 0.038). 5T4 is more highly expressed in head and neck CSC (ALDHhighCD44high) than in control cells (non-CSC). Treatment with MEDI0641 caused a significant reduction in the CSC fraction in HNSCC cells (UM-SCC-11B, UM-SCC-22B) in vitro. Notably, a single intravenous dose of 1 mg/kg MEDI0641 caused long-lasting tumor regression in three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of HNSCC. MEDI0641 ablated CSC in the PDX-SCC-M0 model, reduced it by five-fold in the PDX-SCC-M1, and two-fold in the PDX-SCC-M11 model. Importantly, mice (n = 12) treated with neoadjuvant, single administration of MEDI0641 prior to surgical tumor removal showed no recurrence for more than 200 days, whereas the control group had 7 recurrences (in 12 mice; P = 0.0047).

Conclusions: Collectively, these findings demonstrate that an anti-5T4 antibody–drug conjugate reduces the fraction of CSCs and prevents local recurrence and suggest a novel therapeutic approach for patients with HNSCC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2516–27. ©2016 AACR.



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Phase Ib Trial of the Toll-like Receptor 8 Agonist, Motolimod (VTX-2337), Combined with Cetuximab in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic SCCHN

Purpose: As Toll-like receptors (TLR) are key mediators of immune responses, TLR agonists may be important for augmenting the efficacy of therapies for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Motolimod (VTX-2337), a selective small-molecule agonist of TLR8, stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. A phase Ib clinical trial assessed the safety and antitumor activity of motolimod in combination with cetuximab in patients with SCCHN. Correlative biomarkers of immune activity were explored.

Experimental Design: Thirteen patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN were enrolled in this open-label, dose–escalation study using a standard 3 + 3 design. Doses of motolimod (2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 mg/m2) were given on days 1, 8, and 15, in combination with fixed weekly doses of cetuximab in 28-day cycles.

Results: There were no protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicities, drug-related deaths, or evidence of synergistic toxicities between motolimod and cetuximab. Clinical tolerability at the 3.5 mg/m2 dose level was not optimal for repeated dosing and 3.0 mg/m2 was identified as the MTD. Two patients achieved partial responses for an overall response rate of 15%. Five patients had disease stabilization equating to a disease control rate of 54%. Statistically significant increases in plasma cytokines and in the frequency and activation of circulating NK cells were observed.

Conclusions: Motolimod can be safely administered in combination with cetuximab with an acceptable toxicity profile. Encouraging antitumor activity and robust pharmacodynamic responses were observed. Motolimod is being further investigated in a phase II trial in patients with SCCHN (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01836029). Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2442–50. ©2016 AACR.



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c-Myc Modulation and Acetylation Is a Key HDAC Inhibitor Target in Cancer

Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising anticancer drugs. Although some HDACi have entered the clinic, the mechanism(s) underlying their tumor selectivity are poorly understood.

Experimental Design and Results: Using gene expression analysis, we define a core set of six genes commonly regulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and cell lines. MYC, the most prominently modulated, is preferentially altered in leukemia. Upon HDACi treatment, c-Myc is acetylated at lysine 323 and its expression decreases, leading to TRAIL activation and apoptosis. c-Myc binds to the TRAIL promoter on the proximal GC box through SP1 or MIZ1, impairing TRAIL activation. HDACi exposure triggers TRAIL expression, altering c-Myc-TRAIL binding. These events do not occur in normal cells. Excitingly, this inverse correlation between TRAIL and c-Myc is supported by HDACi treatment ex vivo of AML blasts and primary human breast cancer cells. The predictive value of c-Myc to HDACi responsiveness is confirmed in vivo in AML patients undergoing HDACi-based clinical trials.

Conclusions: Collectively, our findings identify a key role for c-Myc in TRAIL deregulation and as a biomarker of the anticancer action of HDACi in AML. The potential improved patient stratification could pave the way toward personalized therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2542–55. ©2016 AACR.



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Sequencing of Sipuleucel-T and Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Men with Hormone-Sensitive Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Randomized Trial

Purpose: STAND, a randomized, phase II, open-label trial (NCT01431391), assessed sequencing of sipuleucel-T (an autologous cellular immunotherapy) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) patients at high risk for metastasis.

Experimental Design: Men with BRPC following prostatectomy and/or radiotherapy, a PSA doubling time ≤12 months, and no metastasis were enrolled. Patients were randomized (34/arm) to sipuleucel-T followed by ADT (started 2 weeks after sipuleucel-T completion), or ADT followed by sipuleucel-T (started 12 weeks after ADT initiation); ADT continued for 12 months in both arms. The primary endpoint was PA2024-specific T-cell response [enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT)] over time.

Results: PA2024-specific ELISPOT responses over time were similar between groups, except at week 6, where responses were higher with sipuleucel-T->ADT versus ADT->sipuleucel-T (P = 0.013). PA2024-specific T-cell proliferation responses, averaged across time points, were approximately 2-fold higher with sipuleucel-T->ADT versus ADT->sipuleucel-T (P = 0.001). PA2024-specific cellular and humoral responses and prostatic acid phosphatase–specific humoral responses increased significantly versus baseline (P < 0.001) and were maintained for 24 months (both arms). Median time-to-PSA recurrence was similar between arms (21.8 vs. 22.6 months, P = 0.357). Development of a PA2024-specific humoral response correlated with prolonged time-to-PSA progression (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08–0.67; P = 0.007). Sipuleucel-T with ADT was generally well tolerated.

Conclusions: Sipuleucel-T->ADT appears to induce greater antitumor immune responses than the reverse sequence. These results warrant further investigation to determine whether this sequence leads to improved clinical outcomes, as well as the independent contribution of ADT alone in terms of immune activation. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2451–9. ©2016 AACR.



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Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®: a radiometric study

Root resorption (RR) is described as a permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. Many reports in the literature indicate that orthodontically treated patients are more likely to have severe apical ...

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Quantitative Study of Thermal Disturbances Due to Nonuniformly Perfused Tumors in Peripheral Regions of Women’s Breast

Background: Mathematical modeling of biothermal processes is widely used to enhance the quantitative understanding of thermoregulation system of human body organs. This quantitative knowledge of thermal information of various human body organs can be used for developing clinical applications. In the past, investigators have studied thermal distribution in hemisphere-shaped human breast in the presence of sphere-shaped tumor. The shape and size of the breast as well as tumor may also affect thermal distribution which can have serious implications in thermography. In this article, a model of thermal disturbances in peripheral regions of ellipsoid-shaped human breast involving ellipse-shaped nonuniformly perfused tumor has been developed for a 2-dimensional steady-state case. The modeling study will provide biomedical scientists vital insights of thermal changes occurring due to the shape and size of breast and tumor which can influence the development of protocols of thermography for diagnosis of tumors in women’s breast. Method: We have incorporated the significant parameters such as blood flow, metabolic activity, and thermal conductivity in the thermal model for normal and malignant tissues. The controlled metabolic activity has been incorporated for normal tissues, and uncontrolled metabolic activity has been incorporated for tumor regions. The peripheral regions of breast are divided into 3 major layers, namely, epidermis, dermis, and subdermal tissues. An ellipse-shaped nonuniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in dermal layers. The nonuniformly perfused tumor is divided into 2 natural components, namely, the necrotic core and tumor periphery. The outer surface of the breast is assumed to be exposed to the environment, and the heat loss takes place by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. The finite element approach is used to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of shape and size of tumor on temperature distribution in matured breast of different shapes. Results: By selecting appropriate model parameters, we have shown the spatial thermal variation in matured breast of different shapes which could be replicated by the proposed model. We have also shown the thermal disturbances caused by different shapes and sizes of tumors by selecting appropriate values of parameters. In addition, the thermal information from our model provides us the basis for prediction of shape and size of tumors in terms of change of the slope of temperature profiles at the junction of tumor and normal tissues and tumor periphery and tumor core. Conclusions: The proposed model was successfully used to study the impact of different sizes and shapes of nonuniformly perfused tumor on thermograms in peripheral regions of ellipse-shaped woman’s breast. The proposed model is more realistic in terms of shape and size of tumors and woman’s breast in comparison with earlier models reported in the literature. The finite element discretization of breast into large number of triangular ring elements effectively models the heterogeneity of region. The changes in slope of the thermal curves at the junctions of various peripheral and tumor layers are due to the nonhomogeneous nature of the region. The location of major thermal disturbances in the tissues indicates the presence of tumor. The change in the slope of the thermal curves gives us idea about the position, type, and size of the tumors in the peripheral tissues. This thermal information can be exploited for detection of tumors by thermographic techniques.

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Management of Massive Hemoptysis with Oren Friedman

http://sfaki.blogspot.com/2017/05/management-of-massive-hemoptysis-with.html
Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

A priority-setting framework is needed to understand the value of investing in a universal drug plan [Letters]



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Influence of environmental temperature on risk of gestational diabetes [Research]

BACKGROUND:

Cold-induced thermogenesis is known to improve insulin sensitivity, which may become increasingly relevant in the face of global warming. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between outdoor air temperature and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

METHODS:

We identified all births in the Greater Toronto Area from 2002 to 2014 using administrative health databases. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relation between the mean 30-day outdoor air temperature before the time of gestational diabetes mellitus screening and the likelihood of diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus based on a validated algorithm using hospital records and physician service claims.

RESULTS:

Over the 12-year period, there were 555 911 births among 396 828 women. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was 4.6% among women exposed to extremely cold mean outdoor air temperatures (≤ –10°C) in the 30-day period before screening and increased to 7.7% among those exposed to hot mean 30-day temperatures (≥ 24°C). Each 10°C increase in mean 30-day temperature was associated with a 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.07) times higher odds of gestational diabetes mellitus, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, neighbourhood income quintile, world region and year. A similar effect was seen for each 10°C rise in outdoor air temperature difference between 2 consecutive pregnancies for the same woman (adjusted odds ratio 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.08).

INTERPRETATION:

In our setting, there was a direct relation between outdoor air temperature and the likelihood of gestational diabetes mellitus. Future climate patterns may substantially affect global variations in the prevalence of diabetes, which also has important implications for the prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.



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The role and impact of cost-sharing mechanisms for prescription drug coverage [Commentary]



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Impact of income-based deductibles on drug use and health care utilization among older adults [Research]

BACKGROUND:

Income-based deductibles are present in several provincial public drug plans in Canada and have been the subject of extensive debate. We studied the impact of such deductibles in British Columbia’s Fair PharmaCare plan on drug and health care utilization among older adults.

METHODS:

We used a quasi-experimental regression discontinuity design to compare the impact of deductibles in BC’s PharmaCare plan between older community-dwelling adults registered for the plan who were born in 1928 through 1939 (no deductible) and those born in 1940 through 1951 (deductible equivalent to 2% of household income). We used 1.2 million person-years of data between 2003 and 2015 to study public drug plan expenditures, overall drug use, and physician and hospital resource utilization in these 2 groups.

RESULTS:

The income-based deductible led to a 28.6% decrease in person-years in which public drug plan benefits were received (95% confidence interval [CI] –29.7% to –27.5%) and to a reduction in the per capita extent of annual benefits by $205.59 (95% CI –$247.81 to –$163.37). Despite this difference in public subsidy, we found no difference in the number of drugs received or in total drug spending once privately paid amounts were accounted for (p = 0.4 and 0.8, respectively). Further, we found only small or nonexistent changes in health care resource utilization at the 1939 threshold.

INTERPRETATION:

A modest income-based deductible had a considerable impact on the extent of public subsidy for prescription drugs. However, it had only a trivial impact on overall access to medicines and use of other health services. Unlike copayments, modest income-based deductibles may safely reduce public spending on drugs for some population groups.



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Reducing inappropriate prescribing easier said than done [News]



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Atypical pneumonia due to human bocavirus in an immunocompromised patient [Practice]



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List of essential medicines for Canada [Letters]



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Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in a patient with AIDS [Practice]



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CIHR announces winners of health research awards [News]



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Liam Durcan: neurological narrative [Humanities]



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Back to the Future in Alberta [Coda]



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Mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS) : Multiple hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin areas, brain malformations, pilomatricomas, a second childhood malignancy, a Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumour in a relative and parental consanguinity.

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The mismatch repair (MMR) machinery contributes to genome integrity and the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 genes play a crucial role in this process. MMR corrects single base-pair mismatches and small insertion-deletion loops that arise during replication. Moreover, the MMR system is involved in the cellular response to a variety of agents that damage DNA1 and in immunoglobulin class switch recombination.2 Heterozygous germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome (LS), an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), endometrium carcinoma and other malignancies, occurring on average in the fourth and fifth decade of life. Notably, LS associated tumors display somatic loss of the remaining wild type MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 allele and evidence of microsatellite instability (for review see 3).




In some cases of CMMR-D, areas of skin hypo-pigmentation have been reported.12–15 However, signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), in particular café-aulait macules (CALMs), are much more common and were observed in the majority of the reported cases (63/92). There are only 2 patients explicitly reported to lack CALMs or other signs of NF1.9,13 Interestingly, several reports stress that CALMs in patients with CMMR-D differ from typical NF1-associated CALMs in that they vary in their degree of pigmentation, have irregular borders, and may display a segmental distribution. Other features of NF1 found in CMMR-D patients include skinfold freckling, Lisch nodules, neurofibromas and tibial pseudarthrosis. Hence, it is not surprising that a number of CMMR-D cases were initially diagnosed as having NF1. It has been speculated that the NF1-like clinical features in CMMR-D result from germline mosaicism arising early during embryonic development. The identification of a truncating NF1 mutation in the blood of one patient16 and data supporting the notion that the NF1 gene is a mutational target of MMR deficiency17 are in line with this assumption. However, extensive mutation analysis in other CMMR-D patients has not confirmed this theory (see 8,12,18 and papers cited therein).


A review of the literature suggests that the clinical features in patients with biallelic germline mutations of MLH1 or MSH2 differ from those with biallelic germline mutations of MSH6 or PMS2 (Table 2). Hematologic malignancies appear to occur more frequently in patients with MLH1 or MSH2 mutations than in patients with mutations of MSH6 or PMS2. In contrast, the latter group appears to have a higher prevalence of brain tumors. Furthermore, tumors tend to develop earlier in MLH1 or MSH2 mutation carriers than in patients with a mutation of MSH6 or PMS2. Patients with biallelic mutations in MSH6 or PMS2 are more likely to survive their first tumors and develop a second malignancy. Overall, the prevalence of LS-associated tumors is higher in patients with biallelic MSH6 or PMS2 mutations than in biallelic MLH1 or MSH2 mutation-positive individuals (Table 2). These factors facilitate the clinical diagnosis of CMMR-D in patients with mutations of MSH6 or PMS2 and may at least partly explain the preponderance of PMS2 mutations in published cases.



Typically, confirmation of the diagnosis involves the analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC), followed by mutation analysis. MSI analysis follows current protocols used for LS-screening; however, this analysis may be unreliable in CMMR-D related brain tumors.7,11,21 IHC is a useful technique employed in patients with CMMR-D associated neoplasms including brain tumors and guides subsequent mutation analysis in the four MMR-genes. In general, a truncating mutation in PMS2 or MSH6 will result in isolated loss of these proteins, whereas a mutation in MLH1 or MSH2 will lead to concurrent loss of MLH1/PMS2 or MSH2/MSH6, respectively, since MLH1 and MSH2 are the obligatory partners in the formation of MLH1/PMS2 and MSH2/MSH6 heterodimers. Notably, in the case of an underlying missense mutation, IHC may show normal results. As CMMR-D patients constitutively lack the expression of one of the MMR genes, IHC detects loss in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues. Conveniently, expression loss of one of the MMR genes can be demonstrated in blood lymphocytes (e.g. by Western blot 2). Similarly, it has been shown that MSI can be determined in normal non-neoplastic tissue of CMMR-D patients by analyzing DNA samples that are diluted to approximately 0–3 genome equivalents per PCR-reaction.22 Nonetheless, standardized procedures for the detection of MMR expression loss and MSI in non-neoplastic tissue from CMMR-D patients have not been developed to date. The diagnosis of CMMR-D should be confirmed by gene-specific mutation analysis. Reliable methods for all four MMR genes including PMS2 are now available.12 Mutation analysis will facilitate identification and surveillance of heterozygous and homozygous individuals in the wider family, and allow for informed decision-making about prenatal or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.


Because of the wide spectrum of malignancies in CMMR-D patients, defining recommendations for surveillance of affected patients remains a challenge. Early diagnosis of CMMR-D and subsequent cancer screening at regular intervals may increase the likelihood of detecting associated cancers, such as colon cancer or brain tumors, at an operable stage. In theory, this screening could include regular exams such as: (1) clinical evaluation; (2) blood tests with full blood count and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); (3) magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; (4) endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract; and (5) endometrial sampling and transvaginal ultrasound for endometrial and ovarian cancer. However, these recommendations rest only on clinical judgment and do not represent a standard of care. To date there is no available evidence to support any of these recommendations or to provide guidance on the optimal frequency of such tests. Likewise, there is currently no information available regarding the optimal treatment of CMMR-D patients. Several reports stress that careful attention should be given to the possibly increased cyto-toxicity and reduced efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents due to constitutionally impaired mutation repair, and the high risk of a second malignancy 6,8,14,15.






Locoregional Effects of Microbiota in a Preclinical Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

Inflammation and microbiota are critical components of intestinal tumorigenesis. To dissect how the microbiota contributes to tumor distribution, we generated germ-free (GF) ApcMin/+and ApcMin/+;Il10−/− mice and exposed them to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) or colorectal cancer-associated bacteria. We found that colon tumorigenesis significantly correlated with inflammation in SPF-housed ApcMin/+;Il10−/−, but not in ApcMin/+mice. In contrast, small intestinal neoplasia development significantly correlated with age in both ApcMin/+;Il10−/− and ApcMin/+ mice. GF ApcMin/+;Il10−/− mice conventionalized by an SPF microbiota had significantly more colon tumors compared with GF mice. Gnotobiotic studies revealed that while Fusobacterium nucleatum clinical isolates with FadA and Fap2 adhesins failed to induce inflammation and tumorigenesis, pks+Escherichia coli promoted tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+;Il10−/− model in a colibactin-dependent manner, suggesting colibactin is a driver of carcinogenesis. Our results suggest a distinct etiology of cancers in different locations of the gut, where colon cancer is primarily driven by inflammation and the microbiome, while age is a driving force for small intestine cancer. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2620–32. ©2017 AACR.

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Models in Translational Oncology: A Public Resource Database for Preclinical Cancer Research

The devastating diseases of human cancer are mimicked in basic and translational cancer research by a steadily increasing number of tumor models, a situation requiring a platform with standardized reports to share model data. Models in Translational Oncology (MiTO) database was developed as a unique Web platform aiming for a comprehensive overview of preclinical models covering genetically engineered organisms, models of transplantation, chemical/physical induction, or spontaneous development, reviewed here. MiTO serves data entry for metastasis profiles and interventions. Moreover, cell lines and animal lines including tool strains can be recorded. Hyperlinks for connection with other databases and file uploads as supplementary information are supported. Several communication tools are offered to facilitate exchange of information. Notably, intellectual property can be protected prior to publication by inventor-defined accessibility of any given model. Data recall is via a highly configurable keyword search. Genome editing is expected to result in changes of the spectrum of model organisms, a reason to open MiTO for species-independent data. Registered users may deposit own model fact sheets (FS). MiTO experts check them for plausibility. Independently, manually curated FS are provided to principle investigators for revision and publication. Importantly, noneditable versions of reviewed FS can be cited in peer-reviewed journals. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2557–63. ©2017 AACR.

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HDAC Inhibitor Panobinostat Engages Host Innate Immune Defenses to Promote the Tumoricidal Effects of Trastuzumab in HER2+ Tumors

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may engage host immunity as one basis for their antitumor effects. Herein, we demonstrate an application of this concept using the HDACi panobinostat to augment the antitumor efficacy of trastuzumab (anti-HER2) therapy, through both tumor cell autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms. In HER2+ tumors that are inherently sensitive to the cytostatic effects of trastuzumab, cotreatment with panobinostat abrogated AKT signaling and triggered tumor regression in mice that lacked innate and/or adaptive immune effector cells. However, the cooperative ability of panobinostat and trastuzumab to harness host anticancer immune defenses was essential for their curative activity in trastuzumab-refractory HER2+ tumors. In trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ AU565pv xenografts and BT474 tumors expressing constitutively active AKT, panobinostat enhanced the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity function of trastuzumab. IFNγ–mediated, CXCR3-dependent increases in tumor-associated NK cells underpinned the combined curative activity of panobinostat and trastuzumab in these tumors. These data highlight the immune-enhancing effects of panobinostat and provide compelling evidence that this HDACi can license trastuzumab to evoke NK-cell–mediated responses capable of eradicating trastuzumab-refractory HER2+ tumors. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2594–606. ©2017 AACR.

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Tumor Dormancy and Relapse: From a Natural Byproduct of Evolution to a Disease State

Species evolve by mutations and epigenetic changes acting on individuals in a population; tumors evolve by similar mechanisms at a cellular level in a tissue. This article reviews growing evidence about tumor dormancy and suggests that (i) cellular malignancy is a natural byproduct of evolutionary mechanisms, such as gene mutations and epigenetic modifications, which is manifested in the form of tumor dormancy in healthy individuals as well as in cancer survivors; (ii) cancer metastasis could be an early dissemination event that could occur during malignant dormancy even before primary cancer is clinically detectable; and (iii) chronic inflammation is a key factor in awakening dormant malignant cells at the primary site, leading to primary cancer development, and at distant sites, leading to advanced stage diseases. On the basis of this evidence, it is reasonable to propose that we are all cancer survivors rather than cancer-free individuals because of harboring dormant malignant cells in our organs. A better understanding of local and metastatic tumor dormancy could lead to novel cancer therapeutics for the prevention of cancer. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2564–9. ©2017 AACR.

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Lipocalin-2 Promotes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Regulating Inflammation in the Tumor Microenvironment

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) promotes malignant development in many cancer types. LCN2 is upregulated in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in obese individuals, but whether it contributes to PDAC development is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Lcn2 depletion on diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and PDAC development. Mice with acinar cell–specific expression of KrasG12D were crossed with Lcn2-depleted animals and fed isocaloric diets with varying amounts of fat content. Pancreas were collected and analyzed for inflammation, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and PDAC. We also used a syngeneic orthotopic PDAC mouse model to study tumor growth in the presence or absence of Lcn2 expression. In addition, to understand the mechanistic role of how LCN2 could be mediating PDAC, we studied LCN2 and its specific receptor solute carrier family 22 member 17 (SLC22A17) in human pancreatic cancer stellate cells (PSC), key mediators of the PDAC stroma. Depletion of Lcn2 diminished extracellular matrix deposition, immune cell infiltration, PanIN formation, and tumor growth. Notably, it also increased survival in both obesity-driven and syngeneic orthotopic PDAC mouse models. LCN2 modulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in PSC of the PDAC tumor microenvironment, whereas downregulation of LCN2-specific receptor SLC22A17 blocked these effects. Our results reveal how LCN2 acts in the tumor microenvironment links obesity, inflammation, and PDAC development. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2647–60. ©2017 AACR

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A Model-Based Personalized Cancer Screening Strategy for Detecting Early-Stage Tumors Using Blood-Borne Biomarkers

An effective cancer blood biomarker screening strategy must distinguish aggressive from nonaggressive tumors at an early, intervenable time. However, for blood-based strategies to be useful, the quantity of biomarker shed into the blood and its relationship to tumor growth or progression must be validated. To study how blood biomarker levels correlate with early-stage viable tumor growth in a mouse model of human cancer, we monitored early tumor growth of engineered human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) implanted orthotopically into nude mice. Biomarker shedding was monitored by serial blood sampling, whereas tumor viability and volume were monitored by bioluminescence imaging and ultrasound imaging. From these metrics, we developed a mathematical model of cancer biomarker kinetics that accounts for biomarker shedding from tumor and healthy cells, biomarker entry into vasculature, biomarker elimination from plasma, and subject-specific tumor growth. We validated the model in a separate set of mice in which subject-specific tumor growth rates were accurately predicted. To illustrate clinical translation of this strategy, we allometrically scaled model parameters from mouse to human and used parameters for PSA shedding and prostate cancer. In this manner, we found that blood biomarker sampling data alone were capable of enabling the detection and discrimination of simulated aggressive (2-month tumor doubling time) and nonaggressive (18-month tumor doubling time) tumors as early as 7.2 months and 8.9 years before clinical imaging, respectively. Our model and screening strategy offers broad impact in their applicability to any solid cancer and associated biomarkers shed, thereby allowing a distinction between aggressive and nonaggressive tumors using blood biomarker sampling data alone. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2570–84. ©2017 AACR.

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Anti-PD-L1 Efficacy Can Be Enhanced by Inhibition of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells with a Selective Inhibitor of PI3K{delta}/{gamma}

Checkpoint inhibitors are relatively inefficacious in head and neck cancers, despite an abundance of genetic alterations and a T-cell–inflamed phenotype. One significant barrier to efficacy may be the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) into the tumor microenvironment. Here we demonstrate functional inhibition of MDSC with IPI-145, an inhibitor of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ isoforms, which enhances responses to PD-L1 blockade. Combination therapy induced CD8+ T lymphocyte–dependent primary tumor growth delay and prolonged survival only in T-cell–inflamed tumor models of head and neck cancers. However, higher doses of IPI-145 reversed the observed enhancement of anti-PD-L1 efficacy due to off-target suppression of the activity of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes. Together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for the low-dose use of isoform-specific PI3Kδ/γ inhibitors to suppress MDSC to enhance responses to immune checkpoint blockade. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2607–19. ©2017 AACR.

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Morphoproteomic Characterization of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Fragmentation, a Histological Marker of Increased Tumor Invasiveness

Accurate stratification of tumors is imperative for adequate cancer management. In addition to staging, morphologic subtyping allows stratification of patients into additional prognostic groups. In this study, we used an image-based computational method on pan-cytokeratin IHC stainings to quantify tumor fragmentation (TF), a measure of tumor invasiveness of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). In two independent clinical cohorts from tissue microarrays (TMA: n = 208 patients) and whole sections (WS: n = 99 patients), TF was associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of blood vessel infiltration. A third cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA: n = 335 patients) confirmed the poor prognostic value of TF using a similar human-based score on hematoxylin-eosin staining. Integration of RNA-seq data from TCGA and LC-MS/MS proteomics from WS revealed an upregulation of extracellular matrix remodeling and focal adhesion processes in tumors with high TF, supporting their increased invasive potential. This proposed histologic parameter is an independent and unfavorable prognostic marker that could be established as a new grading parameter for LSCC. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2585–93. ©2017 AACR.

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Differential Expression of VEGFA Isoforms Regulates Metastasis and Response to Anti-VEGFA Therapy in Sarcoma

Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble VEGFA isoforms are associated with poor prognosis in parallel with improved response to treatment with the anti-VEGFA antibody bevacizumab. To uncover the underlying mechanism to these observations, we administered anti-VEGFA therapy to mice bearing luminescent mouse fibrosarcomas expressing single VEGFA isoforms or their wild-type counterparts expressing all isoforms (fs120, fs164, fs188, or fsWT). Expression of the more soluble isoforms conferred an advantage for lung metastasis from subcutaneous tumors (fs120/164 vs. fs188/WT); fs120 cells also produced more lung colonies than fs188 cells when injected intravenously. Metastasis from subcutaneous fs120 tumors was more sensitive than fs188 to treatment with the anti-VEGFA antibody B20-4.1.1. Despite elevated plasma levels of VEGFA in fs120 tumor-bearing mice and a dependence on VEGF receptor 1 activity for metastasis to the lung, B20-4.1.1 did not affect survival in the lung on intravenous injection. B20-4.1.1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth and decreased vascular density in both fs120 and fs188 tumors. However, migration of fs120, but not fs188 cells, in vitro was inhibited by B20-4.1.1. The greater survival of fs120 cells in the lung was associated with VEGFR1-dependent accumulation of CD11b-positive myeloid cells and higher expression of the VEGFR1 ligand, PlGF2, by the fs120 cells in vitro and in the plasma and lungs of fs120 tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that soluble VEGFA isoform expression increases fibrosarcoma metastasis through multiple mechanisms that vary in their sensitivity to anti-VEGF/VEGFR inhibition, with VEGFA-targeted therapy suppressing metastasis through effects on the primary tumor rather than the metastatic site. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2633–46. ©2017 AACR.

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Pancreatic Cancer Progression Relies upon Mutant p53-Induced Oncogenic Signaling Mediated by NOP14

Mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins promote tumor invasion and metastasis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanism underlying sustained activation of mutp53 oncogenic signaling is currently unclear. In this study, we report that NOP14 nucleolar protein (NOP14) expression is upregulated in PDAC tumors and metastatic tissue specimens. NOP14 overexpression promoted cell motility, whereas NOP14 inhibition decreased invasive capacity of PDAC cells. In vivo invasion assays conducted on established subcutaneously, orthotopically, and intravenously injected tumor mouse models also indicated NOP14 as a promoter of PDAC metastasis. Mechanistically, mutp53 was validated as a functional target of NOP14; NOP14 primed tumor invasion and metastasis by increasing the stability of mutp53 mRNA. The NOP14/mutp53 axis suppressed p21 expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels via induction of miR-17-5p in PDAC cells. In vivo, high NOP14 expression in PDAC patient tumors correlated with local metastasis and lymph invasion. Overall, our findings define a novel mechanism for understanding the function of NOP14 in the metastatic cascade of PDAC. Targeting NOP14 allows for effective suppression of tumor invasion in a mutp53-dependent manner, implicating NOP14 inhibition as a potential approach for attenuating metastasis in p53-mutant tumors. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2661–73. ©2017 AACR.

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Antibody-Drug Conȷugates Bearing Pyrrolobenzodiazepine or Tubulysin Payloads Are Immunomodulatory and Synergize with Multiple Immunotherapies

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is the process by which certain cytotoxic drugs induce apoptosis of tumor cells in a manner that stimulates the immune system. In this study, we investigated whether antibody–drug conjugates (ADCS) conjugated with pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD) or tubulysin payloads induce ICD, modulate the immune microenvironment, and could combine with immuno-oncology drugs to enhance antitumor activity. We show that these payloads on their own induced an immune response that prevented the growth of tumors following subsequent tumor cell challenge. ADCs had greater antitumor activity in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient mice, demonstrating a contribution of the immune system to the antitumor activity of these ADCs. ADCs also induced immunologic memory. In the CT26 model, depletion of CD8+ T cells abrogated the activity of ADCs when used alone or in combination with a PD-L1 antibody, confirming a role for T cells in antitumor activity. Combinations of ADCs with immuno-oncology drugs, including PD-1 or PD-L1 antibodies, OX40 ligand, or GITR ligand fusion proteins, produced synergistic antitumor responses. Importantly, synergy was observed in some cases with suboptimal doses of ADCs, potentially providing an approach to achieve potent antitumor responses while minimizing ADC-induced toxicity. Immunophenotyping studies in different tumor models revealed broad immunomodulation of lymphoid and myeloid cells by ADC and ADC/immuno-oncology combinations. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop novel combinatorial therapies with PBD- and tubulysin-based ADC and immuno-oncology drugs that may increase clinical responses. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2686–98. ©2017 AACR.

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Response Heterogeneity of EGFR and HER2 Exon 20 Insertions to Covalent EGFR and HER2 Inhibitors

Insertion mutations in EGFR and HER2 both occur at analogous positions in exon 20. Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with tumors harboring these mutations seldom achieve clinical responses to dacomitinib and afatinib, two covalent quinazoline–based inhibitors of EGFR or HER2, respectively. In this study, we investigated the effects of specific EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations from NSCLC patients that had clinically achieved a partial response after dacomitinib treatment. We identified Gly770 as a common feature among the drug-sensitive mutations. Structural modeling suggested that this mutation may facilitate inhibitor binding to EGFR. Introduction of Gly770 into two dacomitinib-resistant EGFR exon 20 insertion mutants restored sensitivity to dacomitinib. Based on these findings, we used afatinib to treat an NSCLC patient whose tumor harbored the HER2 V777_G778insGSP mutation and achieved a durable partial response. We further identified secondary mutations in EGFR (T790M or C797S) and HER2 (C805S) that mediated acquired drug resistance in drug-sensitive EGFR or HER2 exon 20 insertion models. Overall, our findings identified a subset of EGFR and HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations that are sensitive to existing covalent quinazoline–based EGFR/HER2 inhibitors, with implications for current clinical treatment and next-generation small-molecule inhibitors. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2712–21. ©2017 AACR.

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SSRP1 Cooperates with PARP and XRCC1 to Facilitate Single-Strand DNA Break Repair by Chromatin Priming

DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) are the most common form of DNA damage, requiring repair processes that to initiate must overcome chromatin barriers. The FACT complex comprised of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins is important for maintaining chromatin integrity, with SSRP1 acting as an histone H2A/H2B chaperone in chromatin disassembly during DNA transcription, replication, and repair. In this study, we show that SSRP1, but not SPT16, is critical for cell survival after ionizing radiation or methyl methanesulfonate–induced single-strand DNA damage. SSRP1 is recruited to SSB in a PARP-dependent manner and retained at DNA damage sites by N-terminal interactions with the DNA repair protein XRCC1. Mutational analyses showed how SSRP1 function is essential for chromatin decondensation and histone H2B exchange at sites of DNA strand breaks, which are both critical to prime chromatin for efficient SSB repair and cell survival. By establishing how SSRP1 facilitates SSB repair, our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to target SSRP1 as a general approach to selectively attack cancer cells. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2674–85. ©2017 AACR.

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Development of a T-cell Receptor Mimic Antibody against Wild-Type p53 for Cancer Immunotherapy

The tumor suppressor p53 is widely dysregulated in cancer and represents an attractive target for immunotherapy. Because of its intracellular localization, p53 is inaccessible to classical therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, an increasingly successful class of anticancer drugs. However, peptides derived from intracellular antigens are presented on the cell surface in the context of MHC I and can be bound by T-cell receptors (TCR). Here, we report the development of a novel antibody, T1-116C, that acts as a TCR mimic to recognize an HLA-A*0201–presented wild-type p53 T-cell epitope, p5365–73(RMPEAAPPV). The antibody recognizes a wide range of cancers, does not bind normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and can activate immune effector functions to kill cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the antibody targets p5365–73 peptide–expressing breast cancer xenografts, significantly inhibiting tumor growth. This represents a promising new agent for future cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2699–711. ©2017 AACR.

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Cell-Cycle Regulation Accounts for Variability in Ki-67 Expression Levels

The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 is widely used in cancer histopathology, but estimations of Ki-67 expression levels are inconsistent and understanding of its regulation is limited. Here we show that cell-cycle regulation underlies variable Ki-67 expression in all situations analyzed, including nontransformed human cells, normal mouse intestinal epithelia and adenomas, human cancer cell lines with or without drug treatments, and human breast and colon cancers. In normal cells, Ki-67 was a late marker of cell-cycle entry; Ki-67 mRNA oscillated with highest levels in G2 while protein levels increased throughout the cell cycle, peaking in mitosis. Inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 revealed proteasome-mediated Ki-67 degradation in G1. After cell-cycle exit, low-level Ki-67 expression persisted but was undetectable in fully quiescent differentiated cells or senescent cells. CDK4/CDK6 inhibition in vitro and in tumors in mice caused G1 cell-cycle arrest and eliminated Ki-67 mRNA in RB1-positive cells but had no effect in RB1-negative cells, which continued to proliferate and express Ki-67. Thus, Ki-67 expression varies due to cell-cycle regulation, but it remains a reliable readout for effects of CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors on cell proliferation. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2722–34. ©2017 AACR.

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miR-34a and miR-34b/c Suppress Intestinal Tumorigenesis

The p53-inducible miR-34a and miR-34b/c genes are frequently silenced in colorectal cancer. To address the in vivo relevance of miR-34a/b/c function for suppression of intestinal tumor formation, we generated ApcMin/+ mice with deletions of the miR-34a and/or miR-34b/c genes separately or in combination. Combined deletion of miR-34a/b/c increased the number of intestinal stem cells as well as Paneth and Goblet cells, resulting in enlarged intestinal crypts. miR-34a/b/c-deficient ApcMin/+ mice displayed an increased tumor burden and grade and decreased survival. miR-34a/b/c-deficient adenomas showed elevated proliferation and decreased apoptosis and displayed pronounced bacterial infiltration, which may be due to an observed decrease in infiltrating immune cells and downregulation of barrier proteins. mRNA induction in miR-34a/b/c-deficient tumors was enriched for miR-34a/b/c seed-matching sites and for mRNAs encoding proteins related to epithelial–mesenchymal transition, stemness, and Wnt signaling. Accordingly, cells explanted from miR-34a/b/c-deficient adenomas formed tumor organoids at an increased rate. Several upregulated miR-34 targets displayed elevated expression in primary human colorectal cancers that was associated with lymph-node metastases (INHBB, AXL, FGFR1, and PDFGRB) and upregulation of INHBB and AXL in primary colorectal cancer was associated with poor patient survival. In conclusion, our results show that miR-34a/b/c suppress tumor formation caused by loss of Apc and control intestinal stem cell and secretory cell homeostasis by downregulation of multiple target mRNAs. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2746–58. ©2017 AACR.

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