Πέμπτη, 26 Ιανουαρίου 2017

MicroRNA-9 inhibits the gastric cancer cell proliferation by targeting TNFAIP8

Abstract

Background and objectives

MicroRNA-9 is frequently dysregulated in many human carcinoma types, including gastric cancer (GC). Previous studies demonstrated that the expression of TNFAIP8 in GC is correlated with tumour occurrence, development, invasion, metastasis and prognosis. However, till now, the relationship between MicroRNA-9 and TNFAIP8 in GC has not been reported.

Materials and methods

Levels of miR-9 and TNFAIP8 expression in GC tissues and in human GC cell lines were studied using qualitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cell viability was detected using the CCK-8 and clone formation assays. A dual-luciferase reporter system was used to confirm the target gene of miR-9.

Results

We found that the expression level of MicroRNA-9 in GC tissues and cell lines was significantly lower than that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues and human immortalized gastric epithelial cell (GES) line, respectively. In addition, overexpression of MicroRNA-9 markedly inhibited GC cell proliferation in vitro and tumour growth in vivo. Further experiments revealed that TNFAIP8 was a direct and functional target of MicroRNA-9 in GC and overexpression of MicroRNA-9 obviously down-regulated the expression of TNFAIP8, which was involved in the gastric carcinogenesis and cancer progression.

Conclusion

Our results suggested that MicroRNA-9-TNFAIP8 might represent a promising diagnostic biomarker for GC patients and could be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of GC.



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Ultrasound risk stratification for malignancy using the 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Abstract

Background

The 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer provides selection criteria for nodules prior to ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

Objective

To evaluate the diagnostic performance of pediatric thyroid nodule risk stratification for predicting malignancy when applying the ultrasound (US) criteria recommended.

Materials and methods

US characteristics of 39 thyroid nodules in 33 pediatric patients who underwent US fine-needle aspiration biopsy were reviewed by two radiologists. Based on the aggregated US criteria from the ATA Guidelines, each nodule was assigned a level of malignancy risk. Kappa coefficients were estimated to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Using each patient’s largest nodule observation (n = 33), univariable exact logistic regression analyses of US parameters were then conducted to estimate the odds of a malignant pathology diagnosis. A penalized Firth correction was employed in the univariable models analyzing composition, shape and level of suspicion due to quasi-complete data separation.

Results

Twenty-seven nodules in 21 patients (median age: 16 years; 17 female) were benign and 12 nodules in 12 patients (median age: 16.5 years; 11 female) were malignant. Intraobserver agreement was substantial to almost perfect for composition, echogenicity, shape and margins. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect for composite level of suspicion. High level of suspicion was assigned to all 12 malignant nodules versus 9/21 (43%) of the benign nodules. Level of suspicion, solid/predominantly solid composition, irregular margins and echogenic foci emerged as significant predictors of malignancy with odds ratios (OR) of 8.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7–1,130, P = 0.001), 10.5 (95% CI: 1.1–1,417, P = 0.04), 53.2 (95% CI: 5.1–2,988, P < 0.0001) and 3.5 (95% CI: 1.1–23.2, P = 0.03), respectively.

Conclusion

The composite, US-based risk stratification criteria from the 2015 ATA Guidelines may provide an appropriate and reproducible method for estimating risk of malignancy for pediatric thyroid nodules.



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Head, neck cancer patients: Twice-a-day radiation therapy may help reduce deaths - Hindustan Times


Hindustan Times

Head, neck cancer patients: Twice-a-day radiation therapy may help reduce deaths
Hindustan Times
A study suggests that treating head and neck cancer patients with twice-a-day radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy can prove beneficial and save more lives. The findings indicated that the twice-a-day treatment of hyper fractionated ...

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The application of three-dimensional printing technology in anaesthesia: a systematic review

Summary

Three-dimensional printing has rapidly become an easily accessible, innovative and versatile technology, with a vast range of applications across a wide range of industries. There has been a recent emergence in the scientific literature relating to its potential application across a multitude of fields within medicine and surgery; however, its use within anaesthesia has yet to be formally explored. We undertook a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases of three-dimensional printing in anaesthesia. We identified eight relevant articles. Due to the paucity of studies, we also completed a narrative review of the applications of three-dimensional printing pertinent to anaesthetic practice that our department are currently exploring, and suggest potential future uses for this technology relevant to our speciality.



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Meta-analytic support vector machine for integrating multiple omics data

Of late, high-throughput microarray and sequencing data have been extensively used to monitor biomarkers and biological processes related to many diseases. Under this circumstance, the support vector machine (...

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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE): a group of bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family that are especially difficult to treat because of their resistance to certain antibiotics such as carbapenem. E. coli and Klebsiella are examples of Enterobacteriaceae, and this type of bacteria is present normally in the human intestine. Healthy people are typically not affected by CRE infections. Those who normally usually develop these infections are people being treated for other conditions or who are taking long courses of antibiotics. People on respiratory support (ventilators) or who have indwelling catheters like IV lines or urinary catheters are at increased risk for CRE infections. Examples of CRE include KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). Carbapenemase and beta-lactamase are enzymes that break down antibiotics.



MedTerms (TM) is the Medical Dictionary of MedicineNet.com.
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Self-check for thyroid abnormalities can help earlier detection of cancer - UPI.com


UPI.com

Self-check for thyroid abnormalities can help earlier detection of cancer
UPI.com
That's a timely reminder because January is Thyroid Awareness Month. "The number of cases of thyroid cancer is rising, and while in most cases the outcomes of treatment are favorable, some patients present with disease that has progressed and may be ...

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Download Auditory System online ugoekea.ru

4.1 Ear anatomy 4) The human auditory system Audio Quality in ... Auditory ... subsystems- the peripheral auditory system (outer ear, ... Auditory ...

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Self-check for thyroid abnormalities can help earlier detection of cancer - UPI.com


UPI.com

Self-check for thyroid abnormalities can help earlier detection of cancer
UPI.com
THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 -- Regular self-exams play an important role in early detection of thyroid disease, a specialist says. That's a timely reminder because January is Thyroid Awareness Month. "The number of cases of thyroid cancer is rising, and ...

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Premature remodeling of fat body and fat mobilization triggered by platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor in Drosophila [Research]

In Drosophila, fat body remodeling accompanied with fat mobilization is an ecdysone-induced dynamic process that only occurs during metamorphosis. Here, we show that the activated Drosophila platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor (PVR) is sufficient to induce shape changes in the fat body, from thin layers of tightly conjugated polygonal cells to clusters of disaggregated round-shaped cells. These morphologic changes are reminiscent of those seen during early pupation upon initiation of fat body remodeling. Activation of PVR also triggers an early onset of lipolysis and mobilization of internal storage as revealed by the appearance of small lipid droplets and up-regulated lipolysis-related genes. We found that PVR displays a dynamic expression pattern in the fat body and peaks at the larval-prepupal transition under the control of ecdysone signaling. Removal of PVR, although it does not prevent ecdysone-induced fat body remodeling, causes ecdysone signaling to be up-regulated. Our data reveal that PVR is active in a dual-secured mechanism that involves an ecdysone-induced fat body remodeling pathway and a reinforced PVR pathway for effective lipid mobilization. Ectopic expression of activated c-kit—the mouse homolog of PVR in the Drosophila fat body—also results in a similar phenotype. This may suggest a novel function of c-kit as it relates to lipid metabolism in mammals.—Zheng, H., Wang, X., Guo, P., Ge, W., Yan, Q., Gao, W., Xi, Y., Yang, X. Premature remodeling of fat body and fat mobilization triggered by platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor in Drosophila.



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RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 is a mediator of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury [Research]

Transcriptional and post-translational regulations are important in peripheral nerve injury–induced neuropathic pain, but little is known about the role of post-transcriptional modification. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, which catalyze post-transcriptional RNA editing, in tactile allodynia, a hallmark of neuropathic pain. Seven days after L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) in adult mice, we found an increase in ADAR2 expression and a decrease in ADAR3 expression in the injured, but not in the uninjured, dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). These changes were accompanied by elevated levels of editing at the D site of the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR), at the I/V site of coatomer protein complex subunit α (COPA), and at the R/G site of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in the injured DRG. Compared to Adar2+/+/Gria2R/R littermate controls, Adar2–/–/Gria2R/R mice completely lacked the increased editing of 5-HT2CR, COPA, and GluA2 transcripts in the injured DRG and showed attenuated tactile allodynia after SNT. Furthermore, the antidepressant fluoxetine inhibited neuropathic allodynia after injury and reduced the COPA I/V site editing in the injured DRG. These findings suggest that ADAR2 is a mediator of injury-induced tactile allodynia and thus a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.—Uchida, H., Matsumura, S., Okada, S., Suzuki, T., Minami, T., Ito, S. RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 is a mediator of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.



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Integrated analysis of multiomic data reveals the role of the antioxidant network in the quality of sea buckthorn berry [Research]

Berries of sea buckthorn, known as the "king of vitamin C," are abundant in antioxidants, have attractive colors, and are an excellent material with which to study the relationships between berry color, antioxidants, and berry quality. No study has yet determined the molecular basis of the relationship between sea buckhorn berries and their color and antioxidant levels. By using RNA-seq, liquid chromatography–MS/MS, and liquid chromatography/GC-MS technology and selecting red (darkest colored) and yellow (lightest colored) sea buckthorn berries at different development stages, this study showed that the red and yellow berry resulted from a higher ratio of lycopene to β-carotene and of β-carotene to lycopene content, respectively. The uronic acid pathway—a known animal pathway—in ascorbic acid synthesis was found in sea buckthorn berries, and the higher expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in red berries was consistent with the higher content of ascorbic acid. In summary, multiomic data showed that the color of sea buckthorn berries is mainly determined by β-carotene and lycopene; red sea buckthorn berries were richer than yellow berries in antioxidants, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid; and the animal pathway might be operating in sea buckthorn.—He, C., Zhang, G., Zhang, J., Zeng, Y., Liu, J. Integrated analysis of multiomic data reveals the role of the antioxidant network in the quality of sea buckthorn berry.



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The Significance of the Bifunctional Kinase/Phosphatase Activities of PPIP5Ks for Coupling Inositol Pyrophosphate Cell-Signaling to Cellular Phosphate Homeostasis. [Metabolism]

Proteins responsible for Pi homeostasis are critical for all life. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extracellular [Pi] is 'sensed' by the IP6K that synthesizes the intracellular inositol pyrophosphate, 5-InsP7, as follows: during a period of Pi-starvation, there is a decline in cellular [ATP]; the unusually low affinity of IP6Ks for ATP compels 5-InsP7 levels to fall in parallel (Wild et al., 2016, Science, 352:986). Hitherto, such Pi-sensing has not been documented in metazoans. Here, using a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HCT116), we show that levels of both 5-InsP7 and ATP decrease upon [Pi] starvation, and subsequently recover during Pi replenishment. However, a separate inositol pyrophosphate, InsP8, reacts more dramatically (i.e. with a wider dynamic range and greater sensitivity). To understand this novel InsP8 response, we characterized kinetic properties of the bifunctional 5-InsP7 kinase/InsP8 phosphatase activities of full-length PPIP5Ks. These data fulfill previously-published criteria for any bifunctional kinase/phosphatase to exhibit concentration robustness, permitting levels of the kinase product (InsP8 in this case) to fluctuate independently of varying precursor (i.e, 5-InsP7) pool-size. Moreover, we report that InsP8 phosphatase activities of PPIP5Ks are strongly inhibited by Pi (40-90% within the 0-1 mM range). For PPIP5K2, Pi-sensing by InsP8 is amplified by a 2-fold activation of 5-InsP7 kinase activity by Pi within the 0-5 mM range. Overall, our data reveal mechanisms that can contribute to specificity in inositol pyrophosphate signaling, regulating InsP8 turnover independently of 5-InsP7, in response to fluctuations in extracellular supply of a key nutrient.

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The monomeric GTPase Rab35 regulates phagocytic cup formation and phagosomal maturation in Entamoeba histolytica [Cell Biology]

One of the hallmarks of amoebic colitis is the detection of Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) trophozoites with ingested erythrocytes. Therefore, erythrophagocytosis is traditionally considered as one of the most important criteria to identify the pathogenic behavior of the amoebic trophozoites. Phagocytosis is an essential process for the proliferation and virulence of this parasite. Phagocytic cargo, upon internalization, follows defined trafficking route to amoebic lysosomal degradation machinery. Here, we demonstrated the role of EhRab35 in the early and late phase of erythrophagocytosis by the amoeba. EhRab35 showed large vacuolar as well as punctate vesicular localization. The spatiotemporal dynamics of vacuolar EhRab35 and its exchange with soluble cytosolic pool were monitored by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Using extensive microscopy and biochemical methods, we demonstrated that upon incubation with RBC, EhRab35 is recruited to the site of phagocytic cups as well as to the nascent phagosomes which harbor Gal/GalNAc lectin and actin. Overexpression of dominant negative mutant of EhRab35 reduced phagocytic cup formation and thereby reducing RBC internalization suggesting a potential role of the Rab GTPase in the cup formation. Further, we also performed a phagosomal maturation assay and observed that the activated form of EhRab35 significantly increased the rate of RBC degradation. Interestingly, this mutant also significantly enhanced the number of acidic compartments in the trophozoites. Taken together, our results suggest that EhRab35 is involved in the initial stage of phagocytosis as well as in the phagolysosomal biogenesis in E. histolytica and thus contribute to the pathogenicity of the parasite.

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A Trimer Consisting of the Tubulin-specific Chaperone TBCD, Regulatory GTPase ARL2, and {beta}-tubulin is Required for Maintaining the Microtubule Network [Signal Transduction]

Microtubule dynamics involves the polymerization and depolymerization of tubulin dimers and is an essential and highly regulated process required for cell viability, architecture, and division. The regulation of the microtubule network also depends upon the maintenance of a pool of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. These dimers are the end result a complex folding and assembly events, requiring the TriC/CCT chaperonin and five tubulin-specific chaperones, TBCA-E. However, models of the actions of these chaperones are incomplete or inconsistent. We previously purified TBCD from bovine tissues and showed that it tightly binds the small GTPase ARL2, yet appears to be inactive. Here, in an effort to identify the functional form of TBCD and using non-denaturing gels and immunoblotting, we analyzed lysates from a number of mouse tissues and cell lines to identify the quaternary state(s) of TBCD and ARL2. We found that both proteins co-migrated in native gels in a complex of ~200 kDa that also contained β-tubulin. Using human embryonic kidney cells enabled the purification of the TBCD/ARL2/β-tubulin trimer found in cell and tissue lysates, as well as two other novel TBCD complexes. Characterization of ARL2 point mutants that disrupt binding to TBCD suggested that the ARL2-TBCD interaction is critical for proper maintenance of microtubule densities in cells. We conclude that the TBCD/ARL2/β-tubulin trimer represents a functional complex whose activity is fundamental to microtubule dynamics.

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Biochemical and cellular analysis reveals ligand binding specificities, a molecular basis for ligand recognition, and membrane association dependent activities of Cripto-1 and Cryptic [Protein Structure and Folding]

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathways are key determinants of cell fate in animals. Their basic mechanism of action is simple. However, to produce cell-specific responses, TGF-β pathways are heavily regulated by secondary factors, such as membrane-associated EGF-CFC family proteins. Cellular activities of EGF-CFC proteins have been described, but their molecular functions, including how the mammalian homologs Cripto-1 and Cryptic recognize and regulate TGF-β family ligands, are less clear. Here we use purified human Cripto-1 and mouse Cryptic produced in mammalian cells to show that these two EGF-CFC homologs have distinct, highly specific ligand binding activities. Cripto-1 interacts with BMP-4 in addition to its known partner Nodal, while Cryptic interacts only with Activin B. These interactions depend on the integrity of the protein, as truncated or deglycosylated Cripto-1 lacked BMP-4 binding activity. Significantly, Cripto-1 and Cryptic blocked binding of their cognate ligands to type I and type II TGF-β receptors, indicating that Cripto-1 and Cryptic contact ligands at their receptor interaction surfaces and, thus, that they could inhibit their ligands. Indeed, soluble Cripto-1 and Cryptic inhibited ligand signaling in various cell-based assays, including SMAD-mediated luciferase reporter gene expression, and differentiation of a multipotent stem cell line. But in agreement with previous work, the membrane bound form of Cripto-1 potentiated signaling, revealing a critical role of membrane association for its established cellular activity. Thus, our studies provide new insights into the mechanism of ligand recognition by this enigmatic family of membrane-anchored TGF-β family signaling regulators and link membrane association with their signal potentiating activities.

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Multiculturally Focused Medical Music Psychotherapy in Affirming Identity to Facilitate Optimal Coping During Hospitalization

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>New York City (NYC) is the home of over a hundred different ethnic groups and over 800 spoken languages, all of which contribute to the rich zeitgeist for which NYC is known. While such cultural diversity can seemingly narrow the disparity between cultural groups, it may actually widen the gap even in an area as fundamental as healthcare. Affirming cultural identity in individuals navigating hospitalization and illness-related threat through an individualized approach to care can ameliorate the effects of social and cultural disparity, while also optimizing coping. Multicultural medical music psychotherapy, informed by family-systems and self-affirmation theory, is rendered to hospitalized patients and their families across culture, age, gender, and diagnosis. Cardinal to the delivery of this informed approach is the therapist’s working knowledge of social and culturally based norms, and of multicultural music and traditional styles, including the use of modes, idioms, rhythm, instrumentation, and song to access patients’ culture and family lineage. This approach is illustrated across five case vignettes in which treatment was individualized to meet the unique needs of patients hailing from their respective Romani, Orthodox Jewish, Haitian/African American, Chinese, and Latino cultures. Attendance to the individualized care of hospitalized patients through the synthesis of self-affirmation theory and family systems within a medical music psychotherapy model ensures a depth of care that optimizes coping, while diminishing the various levels of threat to identity imposed during hospitalization.</span>

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Multicultural Musical Competence in Music Therapy

<span class="paragraphSection">Over the past 10–15 years, there have been an increasing number of scholarly publications that address a broad range of cultural considerations in music therapy (e.g., <a href="#CIT0002" class="reflinks">Hadley, 2013</a>; <a href="#CIT0003" class="reflinks">Hadley & Yancy, 2011</a>; <a href="#CIT0005" class="reflinks">Kenny, 2006</a>; <a href="#CIT0006" class="reflinks">Pavlicevic & Cripps, 2015</a>; <a href="#CIT0009" class="reflinks">Stige, 2002</a>; <a href="#CIT0010" class="reflinks">Uhlig, 2006</a>). However, few publications provide clinically focused information on how music therapists can respectfully and skillfully navigate the complexities of engaging in music experiences with clients whose cultures and personal histories are markedly different from their own. These complexities go well beyond learning songs in different languages, studying traditional or indigenous instruments, or gaining in-depth practical and theoretical understanding of the musical elements that define particular musical cultures, genres, or styles. Although all of these skills and knowledge can be very helpful, they do not ensure that the therapist has a genuine understanding of how music is conceptualized or understood within a given culture, nor how a client’s own musical identity has formed within a particular cultural context. If all music therapy encounters are in fact cross-cultural, as <a href="#CIT0004" class="reflinks">Hadley and Norris (2016)</a> propose, achieving even a basic level of multicultural musical competence seems like quite a daunting task. The four articles contained in this special-focus volume of <span style="font-style:italic;">Music Therapy Perspectives</span> all suggest that multicultural musical competence is not only possible, but also a necessary component of music therapy practice. However, it is not a competency that can ultimately be achieved, per se, but rather a way of practicing that requires ongoing re-conceptualization according to each clinical case/client, music therapist, therapeutic relationship, and social-political-cultural-musical context.</span>

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Shira Chadasha: A New Song for an Old Community

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>The following clinical case study describes my work providing music therapy to a group of Chasidic teenagers within the context of a special-needs yeshiva in Brooklyn, NY. The case follows a succession of sessions in which we formed a band and ultimately held a school-wide performance. Through these sessions I came to better understand the role of music within Chasidic culture. I initially used aspects of this music in our sessions to address clinical goals. Yet, as I developed greater therapeutic rapport, I began clinically utilizing non-familiar musical styles and concepts to meet the emerging needs of the students. Considerations of working with individuals from a self-segregated, ultra-religious culture are introduced and explored through a cultural/ethnomusicological lens.</span>

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A Year in Review: Summarizing Published Literature in Music Therapy in 2014

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>In an ongoing effort to summarize, centralize, and provide easy access to music therapy research, the purpose of this article is to identify, analyze, and categorize all published English language articles in music therapy from 2014. Major search engines were utilized to identify and locate articles, and these were reviewed by the authors to ensure their suitability for inclusion, using specific inclusion criteria. A total of 164 articles met inclusion criteria, and were divided into the following categories: clinical population, professional research, foundational research, research methodology, and theory development. Further subdivisions were made in each category. In addition to summarizing the number and nature of articles in each category, a bibliography is included in each section. Concluding comments provide a summary and reflection.</span>

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Performing a Family of Practices: Developments in Community Music Therapy across International Contexts

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Music therapists have brought their practices out of the private treatment setting and into active engagement with communities for the purposes of promoting health and supporting social change. With precursors starting several decades before, community music therapy emerged in the early 2000s as a lively dialogue, an evolving concept, and a family of practices. This article provides an overview of community music therapy by exploring its conceptual development across various cultural and international contexts. A sampling of key historical, theoretical, and practical elements serves as an introduction to the complexity and variation inherent in community music therapy theory and practice. Music therapists in the United States and abroad who are unfamiliar with, or perhaps perplexed by, community music therapy may gain an understanding of the intention of these practices, and in turn be moved to examine their own conceptualizations of health, community, and music therapy practice.</span>

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Musical Multicultural Competency in Music Therapy: The First Step

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>It is our contention that musical cultural competence can be achieved only once music therapists begin the process of transformational learning needed for more authentic self-awareness. This self-awareness forms the basis upon which musical cultural competence may be achieved. Musical cultural competence goes well beyond the idea of simply providing music from a client’s culture. It is about the roles of the particular music, its specific relevance to the client, and understanding the personal and musical cultural biases that the therapist brings into the music therapy context. In this article, we explore the notions that 1) both the client and the therapist bring a variety of cultural variables to the therapeutic relationship, and 2) cultural differences impact a person’s lived experience and influence all human interactions. We agree with the position that all counseling, all human interaction, is cross-cultural in nature, and that each person is a unique manifestation of his/her/zir culture. This process of working toward multicultural awareness, unlike the concept of achieving competencies, is ongoing and requires continual commitment and vigilance.</span>

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Taking Music Seriously: Stories from South African Music Therapy

<span class="paragraphSection">Pavlicevic, M., Dos Santos, A., & Oosthuizen, H. (Eds.). (2010). <span style="font-style:italic;">Taking music seriously: Stories from South African music therapy</span>Cape Town: Music Therapy Community Clinic. 177 pages. R130. ISBN: 978-0-620-47622-5.</span>

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Exploring the Discourse in Hip Hop and Implications for Music Therapy Practice

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>The purpose of this article is to explore the discourse of Hip Hop Culture within the context of music therapy. Spellings and definitions of Hip Hop, as proposed by <a href="#CIT0023" class="reflinks">KRS-One (2009)</a>, will be provided and then extrapolated in relation to various topics in music therapy, such as treatment planning and theoretical perspective. The position of this paper is that music therapists must adopt reflexive positions on issues such as the cultural appropriation of Hip Hop’s artistic elements and the manifestation of power and privilege within its musical and therapeutic relationships. Hip Hop offers a multidimensional theoretical perspective for music therapy theory that views the ability of its artistic elements to transform and produce Spirit, enabling individuals and communities to move from a location of marginalization to that of an empowered, collective voice.</span>

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Preoperative Music Therapy for Pediatric Ambulatory Surgery Patients: A Retrospective Case Series

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Many children undergoing surgery develop anxiety, which can lead to negative health outcomes. Music therapy has the potential to help reduce pediatric preoperative anxiety, yet there has been limited research in this area. A retrospective review was conducted of a pilot music therapy program in an ambulatory surgery center. Active, developmentally appropriate music therapy interventions were used to help reduce preoperative anxiety in 103 pediatric patients between ages 2 and 9. Data indicated a trend for improvement in patient affect and emotional expression, both of which are indicators of anxiety reduction. Parents reported that their children’s levels of distress/anxiety were better when receiving music therapy treatment than in previous medical experiences. Parents additionally reported that music therapy benefited both them and their child, and that music therapy improved their perception of the facility. Results suggest that preoperative music therapy can help reduce anxiety in children and their parents.</span>

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Music, Health, and Wellbeing

<span class="paragraphSection">MacDonald, R., Kreutz, G., & Mitchell, L. (Eds.). (2012). <span style="font-style:italic;">Music, Health, and Wellbeing</span>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 532 pages. ISBN 9780199686827 (pbk). $44.95. </span>

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Prominent Elements in Songwriting for Emotional Expression: An Integrative Review of Literature

<span class="paragraphSection">The purpose of this review is to explore the current songwriting literature and synthesize the prominent elements and rationales within the songwriting process that are used to elicit emotional expression. To date, no integrative reviews have specifically looked at the use of songwriting to target emotional expression. The current body of music therapy literature is lacking in reviews focusing on theoretical rationales and frameworks to support the use of specific music therapy interventions (<a href="#CIT0004" class="reflinks">Burns, 2012</a>). If music therapy is to move toward being an increasingly evidence-based profession, it is essential that interventions be studied with regard to the specific goal they are addressing and the theory surrounding those interventions. This goes beyond an outcomes-based approach and looks at the underlying “how” and “why” of an intervention’s efficacy (<a href="#CIT0024" class="reflinks">Robb, 2012</a>).</span>

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Systematic pan-cancer analysis reveals immune cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment

With the recent advent of immunotherapy, there is a critical need to understand immune cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment in both pan-cancer and tissue-specific contexts. Multi-dimensional datasets have enabled systematic approaches to dissect these interactions in large numbers of patients, furthering our understanding of the patient immune response to solid tumors. Using an integrated approach, we infered the infiltration levels of distinct immune cell subsets in 23 tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. From these quantities, we constructed a co-infiltration network, revealing interactions between cytolytic cells and myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. By integrating patient mutation data, we show that while mutation burden was associated with immune infiltration differences between distinct tumor types, additional factors may explain immunogenic differences between tumors originating from the same tissue. Finally, we examined the prognostic value of individual immune cell subsets as well as how co-infiltration of functionally discordant cell types associated with patient survival. We showed in multiple tumor types that the protective effect of CD8+ T cell infiltration was heavily modulated by co-infiltration of macrophages and other myeloid cell types, suggesting the involvement of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor development. Our findings illustrate complex interactions between different immune cell types in the tumor microenvironment and indicate these interactions play meaningful roles in patient survival. These results demonstrate the importance of personalized immune response profiles when studying the factors underlying tumor immunogenicity and immunotherapy response.

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Composite protective lifestyle factors and risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

Composite protective lifestyle factors and risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, January 26 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.7

Authors: Zhensheng Wang, Woon-Puay Koh, Aizhen Jin, Renwei Wang & Jian-Min Yuan



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Transarterial chemo-embolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of liver function and vascular invasion

Transarterial chemo-embolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of liver function and vascular invasion

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, January 26 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.423

Authors: Imam Waked, Sarah Berhane, Hidenori Toyoda, Stephen L Chan, Nicholas Stern, Daniel Palmer, Toshifumi Tada, Winnie Yeo, Frankie Mo, Dominik Bettinger, Martha M Kirstein, Mercedes Iñarrairaegui, Asmaa Gomaa, Arndt Vogel, Tim Meyer, Bruno Sangro, Paul Lai, Takashi Kumada & Philip J Johnson



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The predictive and prognostic value of tumour necrosis in muscle invasive bladder cancer patients receiving radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in the BC2001 trial (CRUK/01/004)

The predictive and prognostic value of tumour necrosis in muscle invasive bladder cancer patients receiving radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in the BC2001 trial (CRUK/01/004)

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, January 26 2017. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.2

Authors: Ananya Choudhury, Catharine M West, Nuria Porta, Emma Hall, Helen Denley, Carey Hendron, Rebecca Lewis, Syed A Hussain, Robert Huddart & Nicholas James



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Artificial 'Voice Box' Helps Cancer Patient Speak - WebMD


Artificial 'Voice Box' Helps Cancer Patient Speak
WebMD
Removal of the larynx is common in treatment of laryngeal cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. There are about 13,430 new cases of laryngeal cancer in the United States every year. The artificial larynx consists of a rigid titanium ...
Artificial Larynx Implant Feasible After Total LaryngectomyDoctors Lounge

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'Flip or Flop' Star Tarek El Moussa Reveals He's Still Cancer-Free Three Years After Diagnosis - Entertainment Tonight


Entertainment Tonight

'Flip or Flop' Star Tarek El Moussa Reveals He's Still Cancer-Free Three Years After Diagnosis
Entertainment Tonight
"Still #cancer#free!!!!" he captioned a screenshot of a text exchange between him and his doctor. "Having cancer is a very scary thing… I always get nervous going into each checkup, and today I got GREAT news!! Having no thyroid and balancing ...
Flip or Flop's Tarek El Moussa Relieved to Still Be Cancer-Free After 3 YearsE! Online
Cause to Celebrate: Tarek El Moussa Marks 3 Years Cancer-Free amid Divorce ProceedingsPEOPLE.com
Tarek El Moussa 'Relieved' to Be Cancer-Free After Three YearsComicbook.com
Fox News -Wonderwall -Us Weekly
all 54 news articles »


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Randy Jones battling throat cancer - The San Diego Union-Tribune


The San Diego Union-Tribune

Randy Jones battling throat cancer
The San Diego Union-Tribune
Physicians have linked the cancer directly to tobacco use, Jones said. Jones used chewing tobacco as a player and has smoked cigars throughout his adult life. Another Padres great, the late Tony Gwynn, believed his salivary gland cancer was related to ...

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Another Air Jordan 31 “Coaches Vs. Cancer” PE Emerges - Sneaker News


Sneaker News

Another Air Jordan 31 “Coaches Vs. Cancer” PE Emerges
Sneaker News
Michigan's signature block-letter M logo can be found on the tongue while the icy outsole features a bold Michigan watermark so there's no doubt as to which school this special edition Air Jordan XXX1 was made for. Check out more detailed shots below ...
Jordan Brand Made Exclusive Air Jordan XXXIs to Raise Cancer AwarenessFootwear News

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Self-Terminating Confinement Approach for Large-Area Uniform Monolayer Graphene Directly over Si/SiOx by Chemical Vapor Deposition

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b08069
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Editorial Board and Contents

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: February 2017
Source:Trends in Immunology, Volume 38, Issue 2





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Dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 Inhibitor, attenuated cardiac fibrosis by regulating the macrophage polarization via STAT3 signaling in infarcted rat hearts

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Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Author(s): Tsung-Ming Lee, Nen-Chung Chang, Shinn-Zong Lin
During myocardial infarction, infiltrated macrophages have pivotal roles in cardiac remodeling and delayed M1 toward M2 macrophage phenotype transition is considered one of the major factors for adverse ventricular remodeling. We investigated whether dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, attenuates cardiac fibrosis via regulating macrophage phenotype by a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS)/STAT3-dependent pathway in postinfarcted rats. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline, dapagliflozin (a specific SGLT2 inhibitor), phlorizin (a nonspecific SGLT1/2 inhibitor), dapagliflozin + S3I-201 (a STAT3 inhibitor), or phlorizin + S3I-201 for 4 weeks. There were similar infarct sizes among the infarcted groups at the acute and chronic stages of infarction. At day 3 after infarction, post-infarction was associated with increased levels of superoxide and nitrotyrosine, which can be inhibited by administering either dapagliflozin or phlorizin. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly increased STAT3 activity, STAT3 nuclear translocation, myocardial IL-10 levels and the percentage of M2 macrophage infiltration. At day 28 after infarction, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with attenuated myofibroblast infiltration and cardiac fibrosis. Although phlorizin decreased myofibroblast infiltration, the effect of dapagliflozin on attenuated myofibroblast infiltration was significantly higher than phlorizin. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac fibrosis were nullified by adding S3I-201. Furthermore, the effects of dapagliflozin on STAT3 activity and myocardial IL-10 levels can be reversed by 3-morpholinosydnonimine, a peroxynitrite generator. Taken together, these observations provide a novel mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitors-mediated M2 polarization through a RONS-dependent STAT3-mediated pathway and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are more effective in attenuating myofibroblast infiltration during postinfarction remodeling.



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Combined NADPH and the NOX inhibitor apocynin provides greater anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of stroke

Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Author(s): Yuan-Yuan Qin, Mei Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Lijuan Cao, Xi-Kui Shen, Jieyu Chen, Meiling Sun, Rui Sheng, Feng Han, Zheng-Hong Qin
Our previous study has reported that the pentose phosphate pathway product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) protected neurons against ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. NADPH can either act as a co-enzyme to produce GSH or a substrate of NADPH oxidase (NOX) to generate ROS. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of co-treatment with NADPH and NOX inhibitor apocynin on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain inflammation and neuronal injury. The results showed that both NADPH and apocynin markedly attenuated ischemia/reperfusion-induced increases in the levels of NOX2, NOX4 and ROS. NADPH and apocynin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, NF-κBp65 nuclear localization, and the expression of NF-κB target gene cyclooxygenase (COX2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, both NADPH and apocynin suppressed the expression of inflammasome proteins including NLRP3 ASC, caspase-1, interleukin (IL)−1β and IL-18 in the ischemic cortex as revealed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Moreover, all these effects were greatly amplified by combination of NADPH and apocynin. Both NADPH and apocynin significantly reduced infarct volume, improved post-stroke survival, and recovery of neurological functions in mouse model of stroke. Consistently, the combination of NADPH and apocynin produced greater beneficial effects in against ischemic brain damage. These studies suggest that, beyond anti-oxidative effects, NADPH may also have anti-inflammatory effects and combination of NADPH and NOX inhibitors could produce a greater neuroprotective effect in ischemic stroke.

Graphical abstract

image


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Twice-daily radiation therapy cuts deaths from head and neck cancer

Treating head and neck cancer patients with a twice-daily radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy could save more lives, according to new research presented at the European Cancer Congress 2017. The study, led by Dr Claire Petit, a resident in...

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Comparative Study Using Autologous Fat Grafts Plus Platelet-Rich Plasma With or Without Fractional CO 2 Laser Resurfacing in Treatment of Acne Scars: Analysis of Outcomes and Satisfaction With FACE-Q

Abstract

Background

A multitude of options are traditionally used for the treatment of acne scars; however, newer treatment modalities are emerging to decrease the propensity for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and upregulate new collagen production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nanofat and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration alone and combined with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing to improve atrophic scars of the face.

Methods

From March 2014 to June 2015, 30 patients with atrophic acne scars on the cheeks were selected for this study. Patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively by physical examination, photographs and ultrasound with a 22-MHz probe to measure subcutaneous tissue thickness. All patients were treated with infiltration of nanofat plus PRP. The production of PRP was achieved using the RegenLab THT tube® method. In 15 randomly chosen patients, a fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 15 W was also performed right after the infiltration. An Italian version of the FACE-Q postoperative module was administered to analyze each patient’s satisfaction and aesthetic perception of the result.

Results

The average preoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue of patients from group A was 0.532 cm, while the average preoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue of patients from group B was 0.737 cm. The average postoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue was 1.201 cm in group A and 1.367 cm in group B. The improvement of thickness of subcutaneous tissue was 0.668 cm in group A and 0.63 cm in group B. We applied a t test on unpaired data, comparing the difference in thickness obtained with the treatment in both group A and in group B, with a p value =0.7289 (not significant). All patients in both groups had a treatment benefit, confirmed with FACE-Q postoperative module, but without a significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions

Subcutaneous infiltration with nanofat and PRP seems to be effective to improve atrophic scars, either alone or combined with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing. The FACE-Q module confirmed the impact of treatment of facial acne scars in social life and relationships.

Level of Evidence III

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://ift.tt/18t7xNj.



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Check Your Neck for Thyroid Abnormalities - Consumer Healthday - HealthDay


HealthDay

Check Your Neck for Thyroid Abnormalities - Consumer Healthday
HealthDay
20 million Americans have thyroid disease, but only 4 out of 10 know it, doctors say.

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'Flip or Flop' star Tarek El Moussa reveals he's still cancer-free three years after diagnosis - AOL News


AOL News

'Flip or Flop' star Tarek El Moussa reveals he's still cancer-free three years after diagnosis
AOL News
"Still #cancer#free!!!!" he captioned a screenshot of a text exchange between him and his doctor. "Having cancer is a very scary thing... I always get nervous going into each checkup, and today I got GREAT news!! Having no thyroid and balancing ...
Flip or Flop's Tarek El Moussa Relieved to Still Be Cancer-Free After 3 YearsE! Online
Cause to Celebrate: Tarek El Moussa Marks 3 Years Cancer-Free amid Divorce ProceedingsPEOPLE.com
Tarek El Moussa 'Relieved' to Be Cancer-Free After Three YearsComicbook.com
Fox News -Wonderwall -Us Weekly
all 53 news articles »


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Subscriptions



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Cover



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Editorial Board



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Table of Contents



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Music’s Relevance for People Affected by Cancer: A Meta-Ethnography and Implications for Music Therapists

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background:</div>Evidence supports music-based oncologic support interventions including music therapy. By comparison, little is understood about music-based self-care. This meta-ethnography examined five published qualitative studies to extend understanding of music’s relevance, including helpfulness, for people affected by cancer; including children, adolescents, and adults with cancer, carers, and the bereaved.<div class="boxTitle">Objective:</div>To improve understanding of music’s broad relevance for those affected by cancer.<div class="boxTitle">Methods:</div>Meta-ethnography strategies informed the analysis. Five studies were synthesized that included 138 participants: 26 children and 28 parents of children with cancer; 12 adolescents and young adults with cancer; 52 adults with cancer; 12 carers; and 8 bereaved. Studies’ category and thematic findings were compared and integrated into third-order interpretations, and a line of argument. Perspectives from the five studies that illuminated the line of argument were developed.<div class="boxTitle">Results:</div>Music usage can remain incidental, continue normally, and/or change because of cancer’s harsh effects. Music can be a lifeline, support biopsychosocial and spiritual well-being, or become elusive, that is, difficult to experience. Music helps or intrudes because it extends self-awareness and social connections, and prompts play, memories, imageries, and legacies. Music therapists may help patients and carers to recover or extend music’s helpful effects.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions:</div>Cancer care can be improved through offering music-based resources/services, which give cancer patients and carers opportunities to extend music usage for personal support and, for carers, to support patients. Music therapists can advocate for such resources and educate health professionals about assessing/recognizing when patients’ and carers’ changed music behaviors signify additional support needs.</span>

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The Effects of Music on Pain: A Meta-Analysis

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background:</div>Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, with the latest comprehensive study published in 2006. Since that time, more than 70 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, necessitating a new and comprehensive review.<div class="boxTitle">Objective:</div>The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine published RCT studies investigating the effect of music on pain.<div class="boxTitle">Methods:</div>The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014. Studies were obtained by searching 12 databases and hand-searching related journals and reference lists. Main outcomes were pain intensity, emotional distress from pain, vital signs, and amount of analgesic intake. Study quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines.<div class="boxTitle">Results:</div>Analysis of the 97 included studies revealed that music interventions had statistically significant effects in decreasing pain on 0–10 pain scales (<span style="font-style:italic;">MD</span> = –1.13), other pain scales (<span style="font-style:italic;">SMD</span> = –0.39), emotional distress from pain (<span style="font-style:italic;">MD</span> = –10.83), anesthetic use (<span style="font-style:italic;">SMD</span> = –0.56), opioid intake (<span style="font-style:italic;">SMD</span> = –0.24), non-opioid intake (<span style="font-style:italic;">SMD</span> = –0.54), heart rate (<span style="font-style:italic;">MD</span> = –4.25), systolic blood pressure (<span style="font-style:italic;">MD</span> = –3.34), diastolic blood pressure (<span style="font-style:italic;">MD</span> = –1.18), and respiration rate (<span style="font-style:italic;">MD</span> = –1.46). Subgroup and moderator analyses yielded additional clinically informative outcomes.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions:</div>Considering all the possible benefits, music interventions may provide an effective complementary approach for the relief of acute, procedural, and cancer/chronic pain in the medical setting.</span>

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Older Adults’ Music Listening Preferences to Support Physical Activity Following Cardiac Rehabilitation

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background:</div>Music listening during exercise is thought to increase physiological arousal and enhance subjective experience, and may support physical activity participation among older adults with cardiac disease. However, little is known about how music preferences, or perceptions of music during exercise, inform clinical practice with this population.<div class="boxTitle">Objective:</div>Identify predominant musical characteristics of preferred music selected by older adults, and explore participants’ music listening experiences during walking-based exercise following cardiac rehabilitation.<div class="boxTitle">Methods:</div>Twenty-seven participants aged 60 years and older (21 men, 6 women; mean age = 67.3 years) selected music to support walking over a 6-month intervention period, and participated in post-intervention interviews. In this two-phase study, we first identified predominant characteristics of participant-selected music using the Structural Model of Music Analysis. Second, we used inductive thematic analysis to explore participant experiences.<div class="boxTitle">Results:</div>Predominant characteristics of participant-selected music included duple meter, consistent rhythm, major key, rounded melodic shape, legato articulation, predictable harmonies, variable volume, and episodes of tension with delayed resolution. There was no predominant tempo, with music selections ranging from slow through to medium and fast. Four themes emerged from thematic analysis of participant interviews: psycho-emotional responses, physical responses, influence on exercise behavior, and negative experiences.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions:</div>Findings are consistent with theory and research explaining influences from music listening on physiological arousal and subjective experience during exercise. Additionally, for older adults with cardiac disease, a holistic approach to music selection considering general well-being and adjustment issues, rather than just exercise performance, may improve long-term lifestyle changes and compliance with physical activity guidelines.</span>

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Music Therapy as Procedural Support for Young Children Undergoing Immunizations: A Randomized Controlled Study

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background:</div>Children undergoing routine immunizations frequently experience severe distress, which may be improved through music therapy as procedural support.<div class="boxTitle">Objective:</div>The purpose of this study was to examine effects of live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy during immunizations on (a) the behaviors of children, their parents, and their nurses; and (b) parental perceptions.<div class="boxTitle">Methods:</div>Participants were children between the ages of 4 and 6 years (<span style="font-style:italic;">N</span> = 58) who underwent immunizations, their parents (<span style="font-style:italic;">N</span> = 62), and the nurses who administered the procedure (<span style="font-style:italic;">N</span> = 19). Parent/child dyads were randomly assigned to receive music therapy (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 29) or standard care (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 29) during their immunization. Afterward, each parent rated their child’s level of pain and the distress their child experienced compared to previous medical experiences. All procedures were videotaped and later viewed by trained observers, who classified child, parent, and nurse behaviors using the categories of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R).<div class="boxTitle">Results:</div>Significant differences between the music therapy and control groups were found in rates of child coping and distress behaviors and parent distress-promoting behaviors. Parents of children who received music therapy reported that their child’s level of distress was less than during previous medical experiences, whereas parents of children in the control group reported that their child’s level of distress was greater. No significant differences between groups were found in parents’ ratings of children’s pain or in rates of nurse behavior.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions:</div>Live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy has potential benefits for young children and their parents during immunizations.</span>

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Music Therapy and Spiritual Care in End-of-Life: A Qualitative Inquiry into Ethics and Training Issues Identified by Chaplains and Music Therapists

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background:</div>Music therapists are increasingly employed by hospices. As such, they are often called upon to provide additional spiritual care to patients receiving end-of-life care. However, researchers have not yet examined the appropriateness of music therapists providing spiritual care as part of the hospice team, or ethics and training issues related to music therapist–led spiritual care.<div class="boxTitle">Objective:</div>The purpose of this study was to explore the thoughts and attitudes of hospice chaplains and music therapists (MTs) about ethics and training issues related to music therapists providing spiritual care as part of the hospice interdisciplinary team.<div class="boxTitle">Methods:</div>The study used semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of music therapists and chaplains specializing in hospice care as part of a larger exploratory mixed methods study. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a two-step process including both a modified phenomenological inductive approach and thematic analysis.<div class="boxTitle">Results:</div>Participants discussed ethics and training issues related to the provision of music therapist–led spiritual care as part of the hospice team. These issues included scope of practice, cultural competence and maintaining personal boundaries, and spiritual care training topics such as educational content and educational methods.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions:</div>While it was clear that both chaplains and music therapists felt it was appropriate for music therapists to provide spiritual care as part of the hospice team, there is a need for formal and informal spiritual care training for music therapists doing this type of work. Training should potentially include information about comparative religions, cultural competence, scope of practice, and maintaining personal boundaries.</span>

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Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in snails ( Bellamya aeruginosa ) and sediments from Taihu Lake area, China

Abstract

Taihu Lake area is one of the densest metropolitan areas in the world including diverse industrial activity. In the present study, the snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediment were collected from the Taihu Lake area to investigate the contamination status, congener pattern, spatial distribution, and bioaccumulation effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The samples underwent liquid extraction, lipid removal by sulfuric acid, and acidic silica gel column, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentration of ∑22PCBs ranged between 90 and 680 ng g−1 lipid weight in the snails and between 0.018 and 0.82 ng g−1 dry weight in the sediments. Concentration of ∑24PBDEs varied from 25 to 200 ng g−1 lipid weight in the snails and from 0.62 to 67 ng g−1 dry weight in the sediments. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs observed were in the medium to low range compared with other studies in the world. CB-153 was the predominant PCB congener in both snails and sediments whereas BDE-209 showed a low bioavailability in the snails, even if it contributed up to 70% of ∑24PBDEs in the sediments. The spatial distribution showed that the highest concentration of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in samples from Zhushan Lake. East Taihu Lake and Dianshan Lake showed lower concentration of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sampling sites. Biota-sediment accumulation was found between snails and sediments of most of PCB and PBDE congeners except for the highly brominated BDEs (i.e., BDE-209). Therefore, sediment is suggested to be an appropriate matrix to monitor BDE-209 while aquatic species such as the snail could be good for monitoring of PCBs and lower brominated BDE congeners. No significant correlation (Spearman correlation test, two-tailed) of CB-153 (r = 0.54, p = 0.27) or BDE-47 (r = 0.60, p = 0.21) was found between snails and sediments.



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An analysis of hearing screening test results in 2,291 premature infants of Chinese population

The aim of this study was to analyze the hearing screening program among preterm infants as well as to identify risk factors associated with failing primary newborn hearing screening.

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[Editorial] Premature deaths in the USA: repeal has no appeal

Advances in treatment and access to care have seen premature deaths from HIV/AIDS and cancer decline dramatically for Americans. However, premature deaths from accidental causes—primarily drug overdoses, chronic liver disease, and suicide—have risen so precipitously that much of the good work on HIV/AIDS and cancer has been, in population terms, negated.

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[Editorial] A call to invest in the health of the Russian people

On Jan 12, the World Bank released their Systematic Country Diagnostic for the Russian Federation, Pathways to Inclusive Growth. The report provides an in-depth analysis of current economic conditions in Russia, as well as recommendations and a detailed plan for optimising continued economic and social growth. Among the key messages are that the Russian workforce is ageing, premature mortality is unacceptably high, and access to public health services is glaringly inadequate. Unless investment in the health of Russian workers is prioritised, growth of the economy will become stagnant.

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[World Report] Famine fears in northeast Nigeria as Boko Haram fight rages

Amid continued fighting, millions of people are going hungry in northeast Nigeria, many of them cut off from aid and facing severe acute malnutrition this year. Sam Loewenberg reports.

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[Perspectives] The battle for access to medicines for all

In 2000, I returned to Durban, South Africa for the fourth time. For my first visit, in 1997, I took a 6-month sabbatical at the faculty of law of the University of Durban-Westville (UDW). Although 1997 was the height of new HIV infections globally and in South Africa, public awareness of HIV was fairly muted—the Sarafina 2 musical scandal was rocking the country amid half-hearted HIV-prevention efforts, but the science and reality of HIV treatment was far, far away. When I returned for a shorter visit in 1998, the science of HIV reached an even lower point, with the then Minister of Health promoting Virodene, which contained an industrial solvent, as an HIV treatment.

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[Department of Error] Department of Error

Casassus B. Profile: Inserm, Paris, France. Lancet 2016; 388: 2973—In this World Report, the following sentences should have read: “Almost underway is an Ebola vaccination trial in collaboration with NIH involving 5000 participants in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, ahead of the next inevitable outbreak of the virus, Levy said. On the immediate horizon, Inserm will launch a programme for the first feasibility trial on exome sequencing of 2900 volunteers that will cover diagnosis to personalised treatment of colorectal metastatic cancer and sarcoma”.

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[Department of Error] Department of Error

Anderson T. Doctors lobby for better chronic pain management. Lancet 2016; 388: 2856-58—In this World Report, the following sentences should have read: “The Chronic Pain Policy Coalition (CPPC), a group of Royal Colleges, disease societies, and pain specialists, which worked on EDM 555, is also expected to reveal this month how few patients with chronic pain are regularly checked.” This correction has been made to the online version as of Jan 26, 2017.

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[Comment] A thank you to The Lancet's peer reviewers in 2016

With the new year under way, it is fitting to pause and express thanks to the almost 2300 reviewers (appendix) who took time to comment on Lancet manuscripts in 2016. Many on repeated occasions and across the Lancet family of journals.

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[Correspondence] The struggle for intensive care coverage after hepatic resections: the Greek reality

The scarcity of available intensive care unit (ICU) beds in Greek hospitals prevents major surgical procedures and leads to repeated postponement of operations with potentially life-threatening consequences.

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[Correspondence] Behavioural activation training for depression – Authors' reply

We thank Harald Baumeister, Eduard Vieta, and Jose Sanchez-Moreno for their comments.

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[Correspondence] Scepticism over the UK's plan to train more British doctors

In a World Report (Oct 15),1 Dara Mohammadi described the need for more doctors in the UK. Although there is no consensus for the ideal rate of doctors and their distribution in a country,2 ageing populations and the growing burden of chronic diseases require larger numbers of practitioners. Concerns about equal distribution of doctors (geographically, and between public and private sectors), rooted in political perspectives, require all stakeholders to engage in potential solutions.

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[Correspondence] Cost-effectiveness of rituximab strategies in rheumatoid arthritis

We read with interest the Article by Duncan Porter and colleagues (July 16, p 239),1 and the accompanying comment by Tom Huizinga and colleagues (July 16, p 213).2 The results of this head-to-head trial1 showed that a treatment strategy with rituximab as a first-line biological drug was not inferior to a strategy with inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and also suggested that this strategy was associated with substantially lower health-related costs. Even if this economic assessment could be debated, because it has been made in the context of the UK health system and is not necessarily transposable to other health systems, the study is very convincing in favour of the clinical equivalence of the two strategies and the better cost-effectiveness of rituximab.

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[Comment] Grief is not a disease but bereavement merits medical awareness

Our 2007 review in The Lancet1 showed ways in which bereavement is a topic of medical importance, despite the fact that grief, in line with George Engel's famous but often misinterpreted words, cannot be called a disease.2 Since then, developments in scientific knowledge make it pertinent to ask afresh: what do health-care professionals in general and medical practitioners in particular need to know about bereavement?

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[Correspondence] The Sustainable Development Goals: ambiguities of accountability

In 2015, the UN General Assembly committed to 17 ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as part of the 2030 Agenda.1 The Agenda is a plan of action for people, the planet, and for prosperity. The implementation of the Agenda requires strong commitment and accountability. However, as stated in The Lancet by the University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health,2 mechanisms to hold states accountable for their obligations under international conventions are generally weak.

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[Comment] Offline: A new Berlin Declaration for STM publishing

Is our industry in good shape? The industry is publishing, and the question was posed at the Academic Publishing in Europe conference, held last week in Berlin's magnificent, bullet-riddled Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Two strikingly opposite views were presented. The first came from traditional publishers, such as Elsevier, Springer Nature, and Wiley Blackwell. Michael Mabe leads STM, an international trade association representing the interests of scientific, technical, and medical publishers.

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[Correspondence] Behavioural activation training for depression

We read with interest the article by David A Richards and colleagues1 on the effectiveness of behavioural activation (BA) for the treatment of depression as compared to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and were puzzled by the absence of any mention in the article of the limitations of non-inferiority designs. The authors emphasise the comparable effectiveness and safety, and the lower cost of BA versus CBT, without questioning the assay sensitivity of their study and the risk that, in their particular trial, both interventions might have been not equally effective, but equally ineffective.

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[Correspondence] Behavioural activation training for depression

Based on their non-inferiority randomised controlled trial (RCT), David A Richards and colleagues (Aug 27, p 871)1 concluded that behavioural activation (BA) training should be a frontline treatment for depression, particularly as BA can be delivered by inexperienced junior mental health workers with no professional training in psychological therapies, with no less effect than that of more highly trained cognitive behavioural therapists. There are four essential insights from implementation research that should be considered when reflecting on this conclusion.

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[World Report] UK failing to meet the needs of people with autism

The Autism Dividend—a report from the National Autism Project—casts light on the inefficient use of limited resources in autism research and care in the UK. Becky McCall reports.

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[Perspectives] Towards a smart medical home

Julia is nudged awake at 0615 h, her optimum waking time as determined by patterns of her vital signs and body movements, which are all measured by her mattress as she sleeps. Although prone to orthostatic hypotension, the floor-based hallway sensors do not detect any unsteadiness as she walks to the bathroom. Upon sitting on the toilet, a rapid assessment of her blood pressure, cardiac stroke volume, bodyweight, urine, and stool assays takes place. When she looks in the mirror, a reminder of her medications appear.

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[Editorial] Law: an underused tool to improve health and wellbeing for all

One of the most potent tools to advance health and wellbeing and enshrine the right to health in local, regional, national, and international policies has not yet gained sufficient attention in global health discussions. A new report, released on Jan 16, Advancing the right to health: The vital role of law, aims to fill this gap. The report, a collaboration between WHO, the International Development Law Organization, the University of Sydney, Australia, and the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, USA, tackles this vast topic in three parts: advancing the right to health through law reform; the process of public health law reform; and priorities for public health law reform.

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[Perspectives] Fever chart

“Fever” has long been a medical preoccupation. For most of its history, fever has been a disease in itself, further differentiated by modifiers such as malignant, low, intermittent, or putrid. It was diagnosed by the patient's history, the prevalent disease in the neighbourhood, the pulse, the condition and feel of the skin, and other signs and symptoms that an experienced doctor would recognise. The clinical course would have further helped in its differentiation.

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Asymptotic Stability and Asymptotic Synchronization of Memristive Regulatory-Type Networks

Memristive regulatory-type networks are recently emerging as a potential successor to traditional complementary resistive switch models. Qualitative analysis is useful in designing and synthesizing memristive regulatory-type networks. In this paper, we propose several succinct criteria to ensure global asymptotic stability and global asymptotic synchronization for a general class of memristive regulatory-type networks. The experimental simulations also show the performance of theoretical results.

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Apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting Akt in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that APG exerted anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects in A549 human lung cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiszol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenytetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay showed that APG suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed using a wound healing and Transwell assay, suggesting that APG inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the Akt signaling pathways. The results confirmed that APG decreased Akt expression and its activation. Then, cells were transfected with Akt-active and Akt-DN plasmids separately. The migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly changed, constitutively activating Akt or knocking down Akt, indicating that APG can suppress the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results indicated that APG not only suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thereby preventing its activation, but also inhibited its downstream gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, glycogen synthase kinase-3[beta], and HEF1. Together, APG is a new inhibitor of Akt in lung cancer and a potential natural compound for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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PI3K-[delta] inhibition using CAL-101 exerts apoptotic effects and increases doxorubicin-induced cell death in pre-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

The frequency of dysregulated PI3K in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) coupled with the critical role of this signaling pathway in the acquisition of chemoresistant phenotype lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K inhibitors for the treatment of ALL. In this study, we found that abrogation of the PI3K pathway using CAL-101, a selective inhibitor of PI3K p110-[delta], exerts a cytotoxic effect against Nalm-6 pre-B-ALL cells. Our results showed that the growth-suppressive effect is mediated, at least partially, by G1 arrest as a result of upregulated p21. CAL-101 also leads to induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis probably through reactive oxygen species-dependent upregulation of FOXO3a and subsequent induction of the proapoptotic target genes of p53. In conclusion, this study highlighted the potent efficacy of CAL-101 as either a single agent or in combination with doxorubicin in Nalm-6 cells; however, further investigation is needed to provide valuable clues to add this inhibitor for the treatment of ALL. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Copyright

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1





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Contributors

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1





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Contents

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1





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Forthcoming Issues

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1





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Anesthesiologists in Obstetric Care: Beyond Labor Epidurals and C-Section Care

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Lee A. Fleisher




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Obstetric Anesthesia

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Onyi C. Onuoha, Robert R. Gaiser




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Embracing the Next Phase in Obstetric Anesthesiology

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Onyi C. Onuoha, Robert R. Gaiser




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Identification and Management of Obstetric Hemorrhage

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Emily J. Baird

Teaser

Obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal death and severe morbidity worldwide. Although uterine atony is the most common cause of peripartum bleeding, abnormal placentation, coagulation disorders, and genital tract trauma contribute to adverse maternal outcomes. Given the inability to reliably predict patients at high risk for obstetric hemorrhage, all parturients should be considered susceptible, and extreme vigilance must be exercised in the assessment of blood loss and hemodynamic stability during the peripartum period. Obstetric-specific hemorrhage protocols, facilitating the integration and timely escalation of pharmacologic, radiological, surgical, and transfusion interventions, are critical to the successful management of peripartum bleeding.


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The Use of Ultrasonography in Obstetric Anesthesia

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Chiraag Talati, Cristian Arzola, Jose C.A. Carvalho

Teaser

This article provides an overview of the use of ultrasonography in obstetric anesthesia. It discusses the indications, benefits, and techniques of using ultrasonography to optimize the delivery of anesthesia and provide safe and efficacious clinical care. More specifically, it discusses the use of ultrasonography to facilitate neuraxial anesthesia, abdominal field blocks, central and peripheral vascular access, as well as the assessment of the lung fields and gastric contents, and identification of the cricothyroid membrane.


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Obstetric and Anesthetic Approaches to External Cephalic Version

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Stephanie Lim, Jennifer Lucero

Teaser

Breech presentation is the most common abnormal fetal presentation and complicates approximately 3% to 4% of all pregnancies. External cephalic version (ECV) should be recommended to women with a breech singleton pregnancy, if there is no maternal or fetal contraindication. ECV increases the chance of cephalic presentation at the onset of labor and decreases the rate of cesarean delivery by almost 40%. The success rate of ECV is approximately 60%. Review of the risks and benefits for performing an ECV and for both the timing of ECV and the number of attempts should be should be discussed with the patient.


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Should Nitrous Oxide Be Used for Laboring Patients?

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Michael G. Richardson, Brandon M. Lopez, Curtis L. Baysinger

Teaser

Nitrous oxide, long used during labor in Europe, is gaining popularity in the United States. It offers many beneficial attributes, with few drawbacks. Cost, safety, and side effect profiles are favorable. Analgesic effectiveness is highly variable, yet maternal satisfaction is often high among the women who choose to use it. Despite being less effective in treating labor pain than neuraxial analgesic modalities, nitrous oxide serves the needs and preferences of a subset of laboring parturients. Nitrous oxide should, therefore, be considered for inclusion in the repertoire of modalities used to alleviate pain and facilitate effective coping during labor.


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Postdural Puncture Headache

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1
Author(s): Robert R. Gaiser

Teaser

Headache after dural puncture is a common complication accompanying neuraxial anesthesia. The proposed cause is loss of cerebrospinal fluid through the puncture into the epidural space. Although obstetric patients are at risk for the development of this headache because of female gender and young age, there is a difference in the obstetric population. Women who deliver by cesarean delivery have a lower incidence of headache after dural puncture compared with those who deliver vaginally. Treatment of postdural puncture headache is an epidural blood patch. Departments should develop protocols for management of accidental dural puncture, including appropriate follow-up and indications for further management.


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Index

Publication date: March 2017
Source:Anesthesiology Clinics, Volume 35, Issue 1





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Vitamin D status and risk for malignant cutaneous melanoma: recent advances.

Cutaneous malignant melanoma, whose incidence is increasing steadily worldwide, is the result of complex interactions between individual genetic factors and environmental risk factors. Ultraviolet radiation represents the most important environmental risk factor for the development of skin cancers, including melanoma. Sun exposure and early sunburn during childhood are the principal causes of cutaneous melanoma insurgence in adults, with double the risk relative to a nonexposed population. Consequently, ultraviolet protection has long been recognized as an important measure to prevent such a malignancy. Biological and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D status could affect the risk of cancer and play a role in cancer prevention by exerting antiproliferative effects. Solar radiations are critical for vitamin D synthesis in humans; however, uncontrolled and intensive sun exposure is dangerous to skin health and may contribute toward the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma. An optimum balance between sun protection and exposure is thus advocated. Additional research is required to confirm the preventive role of vitamin D in melanoma incidence or a positive influence on patient outcome. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://ift.tt/1hexVwJ Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Distinct Corticostriatal and Intracortical Pathways Mediate Bilateral Sensory Responses in the Striatum

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Individual striatal neurons integrate somatosensory information from both sides of the body, however, the afferent pathways mediating these bilateral responses are unclear. Whereas ipsilateral corticostriatal projections are prevalent throughout the neocortex, contralateral projections provide sparse input from primary sensory cortices, in contrast to the dense innervation from motor and frontal regions. There is, therefore, an apparent discrepancy between the observed anatomical pathways and the recorded striatal responses. We used simultaneous in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings combined with focal cortical silencing, to dissect the afferent pathways underlying bilateral sensory integration in the mouse striatum. We show that unlike direct corticostriatal projections mediating responses to contralateral whisker deflection, responses to ipsilateral stimuli are mediated mainly by intracortical projections from the contralateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The dominant pathway is the callosal projection from contralateral to ipsilateral S1. Our results suggest a functional difference between the cortico-basal ganglia pathways underlying bilateral sensory and motor processes.</span>

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An Electrophysiological Index of Perceptual Goodness

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>A traditional line of work starting with the Gestalt school has shown that patterns vary in strength and salience; a difference in “Perceptual goodness.” The Holographic weight of evidence model quantifies goodness of visual regularities. The key formula states that <span style="font-style:italic;">W = E/N</span>, where <span style="font-style:italic;">E</span> is number of holographic identities in a pattern and <span style="font-style:italic;">N</span> is number of elements. We tested whether <span style="font-style:italic;">W</span> predicts the amplitude of the neural response to regularity in an extrastriate symmetry-sensitive network. We recorded an Event Related Potential (ERP) generated by symmetry called the Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN). First, we reanalyzed the published work and found that <span style="font-style:italic;">W</span> explained most variance in SPN amplitude. Then in four new studies, we confirmed specific predictions of the holographic model regarding 1) the differential effects of numerosity on reflection and repetition, 2) the similarity between reflection and Glass patterns, 3) multiple symmetries, and 4) symmetry and anti-symmetry. In all cases, the holographic approach predicted SPN amplitude remarkably well; particularly in an early window around 300–400 ms post stimulus onset. Although the holographic model was not conceived as a model of neural processing, it captures many details of the brain response to symmetry.</span>

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