Πέμπτη, 1 Μαρτίου 2018

Pacemakers in MRI for the Neuroradiologist: Revisited [LETTERS]



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Reply: [LETTERS]



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Radiation Dosimetry of 3D Rotational Neuroangiography and 2D-DSA in Children [INTERVENTIONAL]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The benefit-risk assessment concerning radiation use in pediatric neuroangiography requires an extensive understanding of the doses delivered. This work evaluated the effective dose of 3D rotational angiography in a cohort of pediatric patients with complex neurovascular lesions and directly compared it with conventional 2D-biplane DSA.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty-three 3D rotational angiography acquisitions were acquired in 24 pediatric patients (mean age, 10.4 years). When clinically indicated, following 2D-biplane DSA, 3D rotational angiography was performed with 1 of 3 technical protocols (2 subtracted, 1 unsubtracted). The protocols consisted of 1 factory and 2 customized techniques, with images subsequently reconstructed into CT volumes for clinical management. Raw projections and quantitative dose metrics were evaluated, and the effective dose was calculated.

RESULTS:

All 3D rotational angiography acquisitions were of diagnostic quality and assisted in patient management. The mean effective doses were 0.5, 0.12, and 0.06 mSv for the factory-subtracted, customized-subtracted, and customized-unsubtracted protocols, respectively. The mean effective dose for 2D-biplane DSA was 0.9 mSv. A direct intraprocedural comparison between 3D and 2D acquisitions indicated that customized 3D rotational angiography protocols delivered mean relative doses of 9% and 15% in unsubtracted and subtracted acquisitions, respectively, compared with biplane DSA, whereas the factory subtracted protocol delivered 68%.

CONCLUSIONS:

In pediatric neuroangiography, the effective dose for 3D rotational angiography can be significantly lower than for 2D-biplane DSA and can be an essential adjunct in the evaluation of neurovascular lesions. Additionally, available 3D rotational angiography protocols have significant room to be tailored for effectiveness and dose optimization, depending on the clinical question.



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Utility of Repeat Head CT in Patients with Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury Presenting with Small Isolated Falcine or Tentorial Subdural Hematomas [ADULT BRAIN]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

In blunt traumatic brain injury with isolated falcotentorial subdural hematoma not amenable to neurosurgical intervention, the routinely performed, nonvalidated practice of serial head CT scans frequently necessitates increased hospital resources and exposure to ionizing radiation. The study goal was to evaluate clinical and imaging features of isolated falcotentorial subdural hematoma at presentation and short-term follow-up.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed a retrospective analysis of patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center from January 2013 to March 2015 undergoing initial and short-term follow-up CT with initial findings positive for isolated subdural hematoma along the falx and/or tentorium. Patients with penetrating trauma, other sites of intracranial hemorrhage, or depressed skull fractures were excluded. Patient sex, age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and anticoagulation history were obtained through review of the electronic medical records.

RESULTS:

Eighty patients met the inclusion criteria (53 males; 27 females; median age, 61 years). Of subdural hematomas, 57.1% were falcine, 33.8% were tentorial, and 9.1% were mixed. The mean initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14.2 (range, 6–15). Isolated falcotentorial subdural hematomas were small (mean, 2.8 mm; range, 1–8 mm) without mass effect and significant change on follow-up CT (mean, 2.7 mm; range, 0–8 mm; P = .06), with an average follow-up time of 10.3 hours (range, 3.9–192 hours). All repeat CTs demonstrated no change or decreased size of the initial subdural hematoma. No new intracranial hemorrhages were seen on follow-up CT.

CONCLUSIONS:

Isolated falcotentorial subdural hematomas in blunt traumatic brain injury average 2.8 mm in thickness and do not increase in size on short-term follow-up CT. Present data suggest that repeat CT in patients with mild traumatic brain injury with isolated falcotentorial subdural hematoma may not be necessary.



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Normal Values of Magnetic Relaxation Parameters of Spine Components with the Synthetic MRI Sequence [SPINE]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

SyMRI is a technique developed to perform quantitative MR imaging. Our aim was to analyze its potential use for measuring relaxation times of normal components of the spine and to compare them with values found in the literature using relaxometry and other techniques.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty-two spine MR imaging studies (10 cervical, 5 dorsal, 17 lumbosacral) were included. A modified multiple-dynamic multiple-echo sequence was added and processed to obtain quantitative T1 (millisecond), T2 (millisecond), and proton density (percentage units [pu]) maps for each patient. An ROI was placed on representative areas for CSF, spinal cord, intervertebral discs, and vertebral bodies, to measure their relaxation.

RESULTS:

Relaxation time means are reported for CSF (T1 = 4273.4 ms; T2 = 1577.6 ms; proton density = 107.5 pu), spinal cord (T1 = 780.2 ms; T2 = 101.6 ms; proton density = 58.7 pu), normal disc (T1 = 1164.9 ms; T2 = 101.9 ms; proton density = 78.9 pu), intermediately hydrated disc (T1 = 723 ms; T2 = 66.8 ms; proton density = 60.8 pu), desiccated disc (T1 = 554.4 ms; T2 = 55.6 ms; proton density = 47.6 ms), and vertebral body (T1 = 515.3 ms; T2 = 100.8 ms; proton density = 91.1 pu). Comparisons among the mean T1, T2, and proton density values showed significant differences between different spinal levels (cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacral) for CSF (proton density), spinal cord (T2 and proton density), normal disc (T1, T2, and proton density), and vertebral bodies (T1 and proton density). Significant differences were found among mean T1, T2, and proton density values of normal, intermediately hydrated, and desiccated discs.

CONCLUSIONS:

Measurements can be easily obtained on SyMRI and correlated with previously published values obtained using conventional relaxometry techniques.



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Altered Regional Homogeneity in Chronic Insomnia Disorder with or without Cognitive Impairment [FUNCTIONAL]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Many studies have shown that insomnia is an independent factor in cognitive impairment, but the involved neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. We used regional homogeneity to explore the specific neurobiologic indicators of chronic insomnia disorder with mild cognitive impairment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty-nine patients with insomnia were divided into a group with and without cognitive impairment; we also included a control group (n = 28). Abnormalities in brain functional activity were identified by comparing the regional homogeneity values for each brain region among the groups.

RESULTS:

Subjective insomnia scores were negatively correlated with cognitive impairment after controlling for age, sex, and educational effects. Regions with significant differences in regional homogeneity values in the 3 groups were concentrated in the right medial prefrontal cortex, the right superior frontal gyrus, and the left superior occipital gyrus. Meanwhile, subjective insomnia scores were negatively correlated with the strength of the decreased regional homogeneity in the right medial prefrontal cortex. The increased regional homogeneity value in the right superior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score in patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results indicate that decreased regional homogeneity values in the medial prefrontal cortex and increased regional homogeneity values in the cuneus may be important neurobiologic indicators of chronic insomnia disorder and accompanying cognitive impairment. Overall, our study described the regional homogeneity of the whole brain in chronic insomnia disorder with mild cognitive impairment and could be the basis for future studies.



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Letter in response to editorials Goyal et al. and von Kummer



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Transcervical access via direct neck exposure for neurointerventional procedures in the hybrid angiosuite

Abstract

Purpose

A complicated course of the femoral route for neurointervention can prevent approaching the target. Thus, we determined whether transcervical access in the hybrid angiosuite is applicable and beneficial in real practice.

Methods

From January 2014 to March 2017, this approach was used in 17 of 453 (3.75%) cases: 11 cerebral aneurysms (4 ruptured, 7 unruptured), 4 acute occlusions of the large cerebral artery, 1 proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, and 1 direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF).

Results

All patients were elderly (mean age, 78.1 years). The main cause was severe tortuosity of the supra-aortic course or the supra-aortic and infra-aortic courses (eight and five cases, respectively), orifice disturbance (three cases), and femoral occlusion (one case). Through neck dissection, 6–8Fr guiding catheters were placed via subcutaneous tunneling to enhance device stability and support. All cerebral aneurysms were embolized (eight complete and three neck remnants) using the combination of several additional devices. Mechanical stent retrieval with an 8Fr balloon guiding catheter was successfully achieved in a few runs (mean, 2 times; range, 1–3) within the proper time window (mean skin to puncture, 17 ± 4 min; puncture to recanalization, 25 ± 4 min). Each stent was satisfactorily deployed in the proximal ICA and direct CCF without catheter kick-back. All puncture sites were closed through direct suturing without complications.

Conclusions

In the hybrid angiosuite, transcervical access via direct neck exposure is feasible in terms of device profile and support when the femoral route has an unfavorable anatomy.



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Safety of cerebral angiography and neuroendovascular therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease

Abstract

Purpose

Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common clinical concern in patients undergoing neuroendovascular procedures, especially in those with pre-existent kidney disease. We aimed to define the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in these high-risk patients in our practice.

Methods

We analyzed data retrospectively from patients undergoing neuroendovascular procedures at two academic medical centers over a 4-year period. Contrast-induced nephropathy was determined by an absolute increase in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL or a rise from its baseline value by ≥ 25%, at 48–72 h after exposure to contrast agent after excluding other causes of renal impairment. High-risk patients were identified as those with pre-procedural estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min irrespective of creatinine level, corresponding to stages 3–5 of chronic kidney disease.

Results

One hundred eighty-five high-risk patients undergoing conventional cerebral angiography and neuroendovascular interventions were identified. Only 1 out of 184 (0.54%) high-risk patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy. That one patient had stage 5 chronic kidney disease and multiple other risk factors.

Conclusion

We have observed a very low rate of renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease, traditionally considered high risk for neuroendovascular procedures. Multiple factors may be responsible in the risk reduction of contrast-induced nephropathy in this patient population.



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Oral Epithelial Dysplasia, Atypical Verrucous Lesions and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Focus on Histopathology

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Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Susan Müller
Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) describe a recognizable group of mucosal diseases that have a risk of squamous cell cancer development. Oral leukoplakia, the most common OPMD, has a 1% prevalence and reported malignant transformation rates of 2-5%. Other OPMD include erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, lesions of reverse smokers, as well as inherited genetic disorders such as Fanconi anemia. The histopathologic assessment of OPMD is an area of subjectivity and oral epithelial dysplasia is fraught with both inter-rater and intra-rater variability. Both architectural and cytologic changes are utilized when developing criteria for grading oral epithelial dysplasia. However, the concept of atypical verrucous lesions, particularly as it pertains to proliferative verrucous leukoplakia suffers from a lack of histopathologic diagnostic criteria. Histopathologic mimics of OPMD including reactive/regenerative epithelium, frictional keratosis, and infection can result in patient mismanagement. This review will focus specifically on the histologic features of oral epithelial dysplasia, including human papillomavirus associated dysplasia, as well as the histologic features of atypical verrucous keratoses/hyperplasia, particularly those that arise in the setting of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia along with OPMD mimics.



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Continuous Hepatic Arterial Multiphase Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Free-Breathing

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a prototype volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequence using compressed sensing (VIBECS) for rapid multiphase arterial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at different temporal resolution during free-breathing in comparison with a conventional breath-hold approach (VIBESTD). Material and Methods A total of 40 patients with liver malignancies were prospectively included in this study and underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI at 1.5 T to evaluate the performance of VIBECS for rapid arterial multiphase imaging. An additional 40 patients examined with a VIBESTD were included serving as standard of reference. The VIBECS study cohort was subdivided into 2 groups (each n = 20). In both groups, VIBECS was continuously acquired for 60 seconds starting with the contrast agent administration (group A, temporal resolution 4 seconds; group B, temporal resolution 8 seconds). Subsequently, the time point with the subjectively best image quality was selected and defined as hepatic arterial dominant (HAD) phase. Overall image quality, lesion conspicuity, vessel contrast, and artifacts of HAD phase were assessed by 2 radiologists independently on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = excellent) and compared with arterial phase images of VIBESTD. In addition, signal attenuation/time curves of VIBECS were plotted for each patient to quantify the hepatic arterial enhancement. Results No patients were excluded and all HAD phases were reliably recorded in the investigated VIBECS cohort. Most commonly, HAD was observed at the ninth time point (36 seconds after intravenous contrast injection) in group A and at the fifth time point (40 seconds after intravenous contrast injection) in group B. Timing with VIBESTD was only adequate in 65% (26/40). Image quality, lesion conspicuity, and vessel contrast were good to excellent without significant differences between both VIBECS groups (P ≥ 0.2) and with significantly higher reading scores as compared with VIBESTD with respect to lesion conspicuity (P ≤ 0.006) and image quality (group B; P

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Phenotypic Multiorgan Involvement of Subclinical Disease as Quantified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects With Prediabetes, Diabetes, and Normal Glucose Tolerance

Introduction Detailed mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes disease are poorly understood, but structural alterations in various organ systems incur an elevated risk for cardiovascular events and adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to compare multiorgan subclinical disease phenotypes by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study differences between subjects with prediabetes, diabetes, and normal controls. Materials and Methods Subjects without prior cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a prospective case-control study and underwent multiorgan MR for the assessment of metabolic and arteriosclerotic alterations, including age-related white matter changes, hepatic proton density fat fraction, visceral adipose tissue volume, left ventricular remodeling index, carotid plaque, and late gadolinium enhancement. Magnetic resonance features were summarized in a phenotypic-based score (range, 0–6). Univariate, multivariate correlation, and unsupervised clustering were performed. Results Among 243 subjects with complete multiorgan MR data sets included in the analysis (55.6 ± 8.9 years, 62% males), 48 were classified as subjects with prediabetes and 38 as subjects with diabetes. The MR phenotypic score was significantly higher in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes as compared with controls (mean score, 3.00 ± 1.04 and 2.69 ± 0.98 vs 1.22 ± 0.98, P

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Dairy products and colorectal cancer in middle eastern and north African countries: a systematic review

This systematic review was conducted to explain the association between dairy products and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA).

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Painful torticollis following adenotonsillectomy: a cardinal sign of atlantoaxial subluxation

An 11-year-old boy with a history of autism spectrum disorder attended the emergency department with his mother 8 days after an adenotonsillectomy reporting postoperative bleeding. Detailed physical examination revealed no active bleeding, but a rigid neck posture was noted. A head and neck CT scan demonstrated unilateral rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation and possible damage to the anterior spinal ligament. He was reviewed by neurosurgeons who performed manipulation under anaesthetic and successfully realigned the occipital cervical tract. Non-traumatic atlantoaxial subluxation (Grisel’s syndrome) is a rare but serious complication of routine ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedures. An awareness of this complication among paediatricians, otolaryngologists and emergency physicians, and a high index of suspicion in any patient presenting with torticollis following ENT surgery is essential in preventing significant neurological morbidity.



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An 88-year-old woman with flushing, alopecia and hirsutism and a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour (SLCT) is a rare, androgen-secreting sex cord–stromal tumour of the ovary that usually occurs in young premenopausal women. The major clinical manifestations are virilisation and defeminisation. The following case describes an 88-year-old G1P1 woman, 40 years after menopause, who presented with flushing, hirsutism, voice changes and alopecia along with significantly elevated levels of testosterone. Postoperative report revealed a well-differentiated SLCT in the left ovary. This case is unique in that SLCT is a very rare cancer and even more so in an 88-year-old woman. Taking this case into consideration, it becomes reasonable to check androgen and oestrogen levels in postmenopausal women, not only in patients with signs of virilisation, but also in those with non-classical presentations, such as flushing or heat spells.



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Chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia in a runner: catastrophic consequences of shin splints

Medial tibial stress syndrome and chronic osteomyelitis are conditions that are traditionally thought to affect very different patient groups. We present a case of shin splints in a recreational long-distance runner, complicated by chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia. This is a unique case in which the microtrauma resulting from shin splints was implicated as an entry point for bacterial infection into the bone. Clinical evaluation and bone biopsy culture results indicated haematogenous spread of bacteria originating from the oral cavity. The patient required surgical resection of the affected bone and a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotic treatment. We illustrate that when shin splints show signs of acute inflammation with delayed recovery, the possibility of osteomyelitis should be kept in mind.



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Pericallosal lipoma in children: a rare case

Description

An 8-year-old developmentally normal boy was brought to emergency following a fall from a bicycle on the road. He could not remember how he fell and regained consciousness in about 5 min. He had an abrasion on the right forearm and cheek. On neurological examination, he was fully conscious and alert with an orientation to time, place and person. There was no neurological deficit at the time of presentation in the emergency ward. The child was kept under observation. Two hours later, he experienced one episode of generalised tonic–clonic seizure which lasted for 3 min. Seizures were managed as per standard protocol. CT scan of the brain was done (figure 1), which showed a homogeneously hypodense midline lesion with a mean HU of –109 (fat) with bilateral ventricular and anterior subarachnoid extensions. A peripheral rim of calcification was evident.

Figure 1

Brain CT (plain as...



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Unique simultaneous avulsion fracture of both the proximal and distal insertion sites of the anterior cruciate ligament

February is a busy month for the ambulance skiing patrol at the skiing resorts in Norway and on this day, a call regarding an 11-year-old boy on one of the hills reached the team. What no one knew at that moment was that this boy had suffered a unique injury and that his X-rays would reveal something that, prior to this, had never been described in the history of mankind. This patient had suffered a simultaneous avulsion fracture of both the femoral and tibial insertion sites of the anterior cruciate ligament without suffering any other injuries to the knee. The injury was treated conservatively and at 1-year follow-up, the patient was completely recovered.



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IARC rejects false claims in Reuters article: WHO cancer agency "left out key findings" in benzene review

IARC strongly rejects the premise of the article published on 28 February 2018 by Reuters (WHO cancer agency "left out key findings" in benzene review). No key findings were left out of the IARC evaluation of benzene as a cause of cancer, and IARC provided extensive responses to Dr Kopstein's questions. The article, which severely distorts the assessment of the IARC Monographs evaluation, is the latest in a series of misleading reports by Reuters. In the best interests of global public health and transparency, IARC is posting its full response to the journalist on its website, as it has consistently done.

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Intravenous iron: Safe and underutilized in children



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The challenge of the management of adolescents and young adults with soft tissue sarcomas

Abstract

Soft tissue sarcomas are relatively frequent in adolescents and young adults and their clinical management may be complex, partly due to tumor associated factors, but also because different approaches have been adopted by pediatric and adult medical oncologists dealing with the same disease. However, times are changing and in the last few years, management has tended to converge towards a common strategy. Continued and increased international collaboration between pediatric and adult sarcoma groups is of critical importance to improve the quality of treatment as well as research programs dedicated to young patients with soft tissue sarcomas.



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Nontuberculous mycobacteria-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in MonoMAC syndrome



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A localised skin reaction after chemotherapy

A 51 year old woman with metastatic endometrial cancer presented with well demarcated erythema and discomfort over her lower lumbar back (fig 1, fig 2). She had recently started paclitaxel...
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Tuition fees for medical school: what is the effect on students?

How much are tuition fees at the moment?Students who started at university in this academic year are being charged £9250 (€10 500; $13 000) a year for tuition, regardless of their course. The BMA...
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Research priorities during infectious disease emergencies in West Africa

This paper presents the results of the consultations conducted with various stakeholders in Africa and other experts to document community perspectives on the types of research to be prioritised in outbreak co...

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A pyoderma gangrenous-like cutaneous leishmaniasis in a Libyan woman with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report

Several case reports describe diseases presenting with skin ulcerations, which resemble pyoderma gangrenosum especially in immune-compromised patients, often proven on further workup, to have an infective or m...

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Transcriptome of Russet Norkotah and its clonal selection, TXNS278

Potato has a large genetic diversity. This diversity is in part due to somaclonal variability that appears within potato selections for which tubers are used as seeds. However, the potato tetraploid genome, as...

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Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of locally recurrent thyroid cancer presenting as a metastatic lymph node with dense macrocalcification: A case report and literature review.

Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of locally recurrent thyroid cancer presenting as a metastatic lymph node with dense macrocalcification: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Mar;97(9):e0003

Authors: Yoo RE, Kim JH, Paeng JC, Park YJ

Abstract
RATIONALE: Long-term recurrence rate of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported to be as high as 30%. Repeat surgery may be challenging due to normal tissue plane distortion secondary to postoperative fibrosis, especially for small-sized recurrences. Recently, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been suggested to be a safe and effective alternative for high-risk patients or those who refuse surgery. Nonetheless, the efficacy of RFA remains questionable for densely calcified lymph nodes, which would have an increased likelihood of leaving residues after RFA.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a successful combined treatment of a metastatic lymph node with dense macrocalcification with the use of a single RFA session and radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in a patient with a previous history of total thyroidectomy and neck node dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
DIAGNOSES: A 71-year-old man with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy and neck node dissection followed by RAI ablation. The stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was 4.74 ng/mL at the time of RAI ablation, and the follow-up ultrasonography 3 months later revealed a 15-mm lymph node with dense macrocalcification at the right cervical level III.
INTERVENTIONS: After confirming metastasis on cytology, the lesion was treated with ultrasound-guided RFA.
OUTCOMES: The single RFA session combined with RAI ablation led to biochemical remission at 5 months after RFA, and complete resolution of structural recurrence including macrocalcification was observed 7 months after the second RAI (1 year after RFA). The patient remained free of recurrence at the 5-year follow-up.
LESSONS: RFA may offer a safe and effective alternative to 'berry picking' surgery in cases of surgical ineligibility or patient refusal of surgery even when the target lesions contain dense macrocalcification.

PMID: 29489641 [PubMed - in process]



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A Cross-Sectional Study on the Hearing Threshold Levels Among People in Qinling, Qinghai, and Nanjing, China.

A Cross-Sectional Study on the Hearing Threshold Levels Among People in Qinling, Qinghai, and Nanjing, China.

Am J Audiol. 2018 Feb 28;:1-9

Authors: Wang J, Qian X, Chen J, Yang Y, Gao X

Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the hearing threshold among different age groups, genders, and geographic areas in China to provide some insight into the appropriate clinical interventions for hearing loss.
Method: Using a systematic random sampling technique, 562 participants from Qinling, Qinghai, and Nanjing were included. Participants in the same area were divided into 3 groups according to their age. Pure-tone audiometric thresholds were measured at octave and interoctave frequencies of 0.125-16 kHz for each subject.
Results: There were significant differences in auditory thresholds at nearly all frequencies among young, middle-aged, and elderly people, and hearing thresholds increased with increasing age. People generally had the best hearing ability in Nanjing, better hearing ability in Qinghai, and the worst hearing ability in Qinling. Significant differences in hearing thresholds were found between males and females at several frequencies in Qinling.
Conclusion: People living in the rural area of Qinling in China had higher hearing threshold levels, particularly males, and hearing thresholds increased with age.

PMID: 29490364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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A Pilot Study to Investigate the Relationship Between Interaural Differences in Temporal Bone Anatomy and Normal Variations in Caloric Asymmetry.

A Pilot Study to Investigate the Relationship Between Interaural Differences in Temporal Bone Anatomy and Normal Variations in Caloric Asymmetry.

Am J Audiol. 2018 Feb 28;:1-11

Authors: Carpenter D, Kaylie D, Piker E, Frank-Ito D

Abstract
Purpose: This study assesses interaural differences in temporal bone anatomy in subjects with normal caloric findings.
Method: Eligible patients included those referred to the Duke University Medical Center otology clinic complaining of dizziness, with a head computed tomography scan and caloric stimulation results within normal ranges (inter-ear difference ≤ 10% or < 25% unilateral weakness). Three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography scans in 11 patients were used to calculate the surface area and volume of lateral semicircular canals (LSCCs), mastoid airspaces, mastoid bones, and internal auditory canal diameter and circumference. Percent differences in interaural temporal bone anatomy (i.e., left-to-right asymmetry) were analyzed and correlated with warm caloric inter-ear difference (WCD) and clinically indicated caloric predictor asymmetry.
Results: A multivariate model predicting WCD from 9 interaural anatomic variables demonstrated a Pearson's coefficient of 0.999. A similarly constructed model of the clinically indicated caloric predictor demonstrated a Pearson's coefficient of 0.999. The univariate correlation was strongest for WCD versus Proctor internal auditory canal diameter (r = 0.476; p = .139) and WCD versus lateral semicircular canal surface-area-to-volume ratio (r = -0.474; p = .141).
Conclusions: This pilot study provides multivariate models that predict caloric asymmetry in subjects without vestibular pathologic findings per caloric testing, based on interaural differences across variables of the temporal bone anatomy.
Supplemental Material: http://ift.tt/2FII0ow.

PMID: 29490361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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A TRACER 3D Co-Culture tumour model for head and neck cancer.

A TRACER 3D Co-Culture tumour model for head and neck cancer.

Biomaterials. 2018 Feb 19;164:54-69

Authors: Young M, Rodenhizer D, Dean T, D'Arcangelo E, Xu B, Ailles L, McGuigan AP

Abstract
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumour microenvironment and have been shown to play an important role in the progression of cancer. To probe these tumour-stroma interactions, we incorporated CAFs derived from head and neck cancer patients and squamous carcinoma cells of the hypopharynx (FaDu) into the Tissue Roll for the Analysis of Cellular Environment and Response (TRACER) platform to establish a co-culture platform that simulates the CAF-tumour microenvironmental interactions in head and neck tumours. TRACER culture involves infiltrating cells into a thin fibrous scaffold and then rolling the resulting biocomposite around a mandrel to generate a 3D and layered structure. Patterning the fibrous scaffold biocomposite during fabrication enables control over the specific location of different cell populations in the rolled configuration. Here, we optimized the seeding densities and configurations of the CAF and FaDu cell tissue sections to enable a robust 3D co-culture system under normoxic conditions. Co-culture of CAFs with FaDu cells produced negligible effects on radiation resistance, but did produce increases in proliferation rate and invasive cell migration at 24 and 48 h of culture. Our study provides the basis for use of our in vitro co-culture TRACER model to investigate the tumour-stroma interactions, and to bridge the translational gap between preclinical and clinical studies.

PMID: 29490260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Social network, autonomy, and adherence correlates of future time perspective in patients with head and neck cancer.

Social network, autonomy, and adherence correlates of future time perspective in patients with head and neck cancer.

Psychooncology. 2018 Feb 28;:

Authors: Baldensperger L, Wiedemann AU, Wessel L, Keilholz U, Knoll N

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) proposes that with more limited future time perspective (FTP) the meaning of individual life goals shifts from instrumental and long-term goals, such as autonomy, to emotionally meaningful and short-term life goals, especially concerning meaningful social relationships. Adverse side effects of cancer therapy may conflict with the realization of emotionally meaningful goals leading to non-adherence. In line with the theoretical assumptions, this study aimed to investigate a) associations between disease symptoms, physical-, and cognitive limitations and FTP and b) between FTP, family network size, striving for autonomy, and treatment adherence.
METHOD: 157 patients (43-90 years; 75% male) with head and/or neck cancer of a German University Medical Centre completed a questionnaire measuring FTP, age, disease symptoms, physical and cognitive functioning, family network size and treatment adherence. Autonomy was assessed with a card sort task.
RESULTS: A structural equation model yielded an acceptable fit χ2 (28) = 44.41; p = .025; χ2 /df = 1.59; RMSEA = .06 [90% CI = .02, .09]; TLI =.92; CFI = .96. An increased level of disease symptoms, physical-, and cognitive limitations was related to a shorter subjective FTP. Furthermore, individuals with a limited FTP reported a smaller family network, a lowered quest for autonomy, and lower treatment adherence.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypotheses derived from SST were supported by the data. Longitudinal investigations should follow to corroborate findings and to focus on underlying mechanisms as improving patients FTP may play a crucial role in future disease management programs.

PMID: 29490119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Oncological results of surgical treatment versus organ-function preservation in larynx and hypopharynx câncer.

Oncological results of surgical treatment versus organ-function preservation in larynx and hypopharynx câncer.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2017 Dec;63(12):1082-1089

Authors: Calvas OIJ, Ramos DM, Matos LL, Kulcsar MAV, Dedivitis RA, Brandão LG, Cernea CR

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the 1990s, non-surgical radiochemotherapy treatment has become popular with the prospect of maintaining oncological results and preserving the organ in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. However, subsequent studies demonstrated increased recurrence and mortality after the non-surgical treatment became popular.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the oncological results of surgical and non-surgical treatments of patients with larynx and hypopharynx cancer and to evaluate the variables associated with disease recurrence.
METHOD: This is a retrospective cohort study of 134 patients undergoing surgical (total or partial laryngectomy) or non-surgical (isolated radiotherapy, chemotherapy or induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy) treatment, with 62 patients in the surgical group and 72 in the non-surgical group.
RESULTS: Disease-free survival rates were higher in the surgical group (81.7% vs. 62.2%; p=0.028), especially in III/IV stages (p=0.018), locally advanced tumors T3 and T4a (p=0.021) and N0/N1 cases (p=0.005). The presence of cervical lymph nodes, especially N2/N3, was considered a risk factor for disease recurrence in both groups (HR=11.82; 95CI 3.42-40.88; p<0.0001). Patients not undergoing surgical treatment were 3.8 times more likely to develop recurrence (HR=3.76; 95CI 1.27-11.14; p=0.039).
CONCLUSION: Patients with larynx or hypopharynx cancer non-surgically treated had a poorer disease-free survival, especially in cases with locally advanced tumors (T3 and T4a) and in which the neck was only slightly affected (N0/N1).

PMID: 29489975 [PubMed - in process]



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Time course of blast-induced injury in the rat auditory cortex.

Time course of blast-induced injury in the rat auditory cortex.

PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0193389

Authors: Kallakuri S, Pace E, Lu H, Luo H, Cavanaugh J, Zhang J

Abstract
Blast exposure is an increasingly significant health hazard and can have a range of debilitating effects, including auditory dysfunction and traumatic brain injury. To assist in the development of effective treatments, a greater understanding of the mechanisms of blast-induced auditory damage and dysfunction, especially in the central nervous system, is critical. To elucidate this area, we subjected rats to a unilateral blast exposure at 22 psi, measured their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), and histologically processed their brains at 1 day, 1 month, and 3-month survival time points. The left and right auditory cortices was assessed for astrocytic reactivity and axonal degenerative changes using glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity and a silver impregnation technique, respectively. Although only unilateral hearing loss was induced, astrocytosis was bilaterally elevated at 1 month post-blast exposure compared to shams, and showed a positive trend of elevation at 3 months post-blast. Axonal degeneration, on the other hand, appeared to be more robust at 1 day and 3 months post-blast. Interestingly, while ABR threshold shifts recovered by the 1 and 3-month time-points, a positive correlation was observed between rats' astrocyte counts at 1 month post-blast and their threshold shifts at 1 day post-blast. Taken together, our findings suggest that central auditory damage may have occurred due to biomechanical forces from the blast shockwave, and that different indicators/types of damage may manifest over different timelines.

PMID: 29489862 [PubMed - in process]



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Monitoring blood-flow in the mouse cochlea using an endoscopic laser speckle contrast imaging system.

Monitoring blood-flow in the mouse cochlea using an endoscopic laser speckle contrast imaging system.

PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0191978

Authors: Kong TH, Yu S, Jung B, Choi JS, Seo YJ

Abstract
Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) enables continuous high-resolution assessment of microcirculation in real-time. We applied an endoscope to LSCI to measure cochlear blood-flow in an ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. We also explored whether using xenon light in combination with LSCI facilitates visualization of anatomical position. Based on a previous preliminary study, the appropriate wavelength for penetrating the thin bony cochlea was 830 nm. A 2.7-mm-diameter endoscope was used, as appropriate for the size of the mouse cochlea. Our endoscopic LSCI system was used to illuminate the right cochlea after dissection of the mouse. We observed changes in the speckle signals when we applied the endoscopic LSCI system to the ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. The anatomical structure of the mouse cochlea and surrounding structures were clearly visible using the xenon light. The speckle signal of the cochlea was scattered, with an intensity that varied between that of the stapes (with the lowest signal), the negative control, and the stapedial artery (with the highest signal), the positive control. In the cochlear ischemia-reperfusion mouse model, the speckle signal of the cochlea decreased during the ischemic phase, and increased during the reperfusion phase, clearly reflecting cochlear blood-flow. The endoscopic LSCI system generates high-resolution images in real-time, allowing visualization of blood-flow and its changes in the mouse cochlea. Anatomical structures were clearly matched using LSCI along with visible light.

PMID: 29489849 [PubMed - in process]



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Trophic effects of adipose-tissue-derived and bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance cartilage generation by chondrocytes in co-culture.

Trophic effects of adipose-tissue-derived and bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance cartilage generation by chondrocytes in co-culture.

PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0190744

Authors: Pleumeekers MM, Nimeskern L, Koevoet JLM, Karperien M, Stok KS, van Osch GJVM

Abstract
AIMS: Combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes has great potential for cell-based cartilage repair. However, there is much debate regarding the mechanisms behind this concept. We aimed to clarify the mechanisms that lead to chondrogenesis (chondrocyte driven MSC-differentiation versus MSC driven chondroinduction) and whether their effect was dependent on MSC-origin. Therefore, chondrogenesis of human adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) and bone-marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs) combined with bovine articular chondrocytes (bACs) was compared.
METHODS: hAMSCs or hBMSCs were combined with bACs in alginate and cultured in vitro or implanted subcutaneously in mice. Cartilage formation was evaluated with biochemical, histological and biomechanical analyses. To further investigate the interactions between bACs and hMSCs, (1) co-culture, (2) pellet, (3) Transwell® and (4) conditioned media studies were conducted.
RESULTS: The presence of hMSCs-either hAMSCs or hBMSCs-increased chondrogenesis in culture; deposition of GAG was most evidently enhanced in hBMSC/bACs. This effect was similar when hMSCs and bAC were combined in pellet culture, in alginate culture or when conditioned media of hMSCs were used on bAC. Species-specific gene-expression analyses demonstrated that aggrecan was expressed by bACs only, indicating a predominantly trophic role for hMSCs. Collagen-10-gene expression of bACs was not affected by hBMSCs, but slightly enhanced by hAMSCs. After in-vivo implantation, hAMSC/bACs and hBMSC/bACs had similar cartilage matrix production, both appeared stable and did not calcify.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that replacing 80% of bACs by either hAMSCs or hBMSCs does not influence cartilage matrix production or stability. The remaining chondrocytes produce more matrix due to trophic factors produced by hMSCs.

PMID: 29489829 [PubMed - in process]



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Primary pulmonary myoepithelial carcinoma in a young woman: A case report and review of literature.

Primary pulmonary myoepithelial carcinoma in a young woman: A case report and review of literature.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Mar;97(9):e0049

Authors: Zhou X, Yu M, Zhuo H, Zhang S

Abstract
RATIONALE: Myoepithelial carcinoma mainly occurs in the salivary glands, but myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung is extremely rare neoplasm whose biological behavior and clinical course still remain to be fully elucidated. Although considered as low-grade carcinoma, these tumors have a high rate of recurrence or distant metastasis.
PATIENT CONCERNS: To date there are only 11 cases of pulmonary myoepithelial carcinoma reported in the English literature. We report a case of a 24-year-old woman diagnosed with primary pulmonary myoepithelial carcinoma. Informed consent was obtained from the patient.
DIAGNOSES: The tumor derived from superior lobe of left lung and exhibited only myoepithelial differentiation without any ductal formation by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent the left superior lobe resection. In addition, we first introduce second-generation sequencing technology as a novel strategy for primary pulmonary myoepithelial carcinoma, and these tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic neoplasms.
OUTCOMES: The patient was alive with no evidence of disease for up to 12 months.
LESSONS: Individualized treatment is the promising clinical strategy for thoracic neoplasms, and the underlying molecular events should be investigated to find the potential therapeutic targets.

PMID: 29489660 [PubMed - in process]



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Effect of hypoglycemic agents on survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

Effect of hypoglycemic agents on survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Mar;97(9):e0035

Authors: Xin WX, Fang L, Fang QL, Zheng XW, Ding HY, Huang P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: To assess the association between hypoglycemic agents and prognosis of lung cancer patients with diabetes.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library until May 2017. The search yielded 2593 unique citations, of which 18 articles met inclusion criteria. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by a fixed-effects or random-effects model.
RESULTS: The pooled HRs favoring metformin users were 0.77 for overall survival (OS) (n = 15, 95% CI: 0.68-0.86) and 0.50 for disease-free survival (n = 5, 95% CI: 0.39-0.64). One study assessed the relationship between metformin and cancer-specific survival (CSS), reporting no significant results. No significant association between insulin and OS (n = 2, HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.79-1.13) or CSS (n = 2, HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.76-1.41) was noted. One study evaluated association of sulfonylureas with lung cancer survival and reported no clinical benefit (HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.87-1.40). One study reported no association of thiazolidinediones with lung cancer survival (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.65-1.66).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that metformin exposure might improve survival outcomes in lung cancer patients with diabetes.

PMID: 29489653 [PubMed - in process]



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Cortical auditory evoked responses in cochlear implant users with early-onset single-sided deafness: indicators of the development of bilateral auditory pathways.

Cortical auditory evoked responses in cochlear implant users with early-onset single-sided deafness: indicators of the development of bilateral auditory pathways.

Neuroreport. 2018 Mar 21;29(5):408-416

Authors: Wedekind A, Távora-Vieira D, Rajan GP

Abstract
Cochlear implantation (CI) for early-onset single-sided deafness (SSD) provides a unique insight into the development and cortical reorganization of binaural pathways. This case series aimed to investigate the impact of duration of deafness on CI outcomes as measured by cortical evoked auditory potentials (CAEPs). Four adults with early-onset SSD were studied after CI. The adults had a duration of deafness of 22, 24, 42, and 38 years before implantation. CAEPs and speech perception in noise were used to investigate binaural cortical pathways and function. Our four patients lost their hearing at the ages of 3, 6, 5, and 6 (S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively). CAEPs were present bilaterally in S2, S3, and S4. S1's, who had the least experience with a CI, cortical responses at 1 month after CI activation showed cortical responses from the CI ipsilateral pathway, but no responses from the CI contralateral pathway. At 3 and 6 months, S1 showed significant cortical responses from the CI contralateral pathway for two speech tokens. An improvement in speech perception in noise testing was observed in all four participants. This case series indicates that long duration of deafness for early-onset SSD is not a contraindication for CI and may not impact the long-term outcomes in this population. The electrical stimulation from the CI integrates with the normal-hearing ear to produce bilateral cortical projections and functional improvement in speech perception in noise. These early data provide surprisingly positive results and call for larger scale research to be carried out.

PMID: 29489587 [PubMed - in process]



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Functional and Aesthetic Outcomes in Free Flap Reconstruction of Intraoral Defects With Lip-Split Versus Non-Lip-Split Incisions.

Functional and Aesthetic Outcomes in Free Flap Reconstruction of Intraoral Defects With Lip-Split Versus Non-Lip-Split Incisions.

Ann Plast Surg. 2018 Feb 28;:

Authors: Cohen LE, Morrison KA, Taylor E, Jin J, Spector JA, Caruana S, Rohde CH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Traditional free flap reconstruction of complex intraoral defects often uses large lip-splitting incisions. To reduce morbidity and preserve aesthetics, we have adopted a more technically demanding visor technique obviating an incision through the lower lip through which the resection and reconstruction are performed.
METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent free flap reconstruction of intraoral defects over 7 years by a single plastic surgeon (C.H.R.) at a single institution. Patients were included if they underwent a resection from the mandible, tongue, or floor of mouth followed by free tissue transfer as a reconstructive approach. Patients were excluded if they underwent reconstruction of an area that does not traditionally require a lip incision, such as a maxillectomy or laryngeal defect. An ablative approach was taken via a lip-split technique or visor technique. Wound complications, margins of resection, and functional outcomes were assessed. Two standardized questionnaires (Derriford Appearance Scale Short Form and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Head and Neck Cancer) were used to assess psychological distress and dysfunction from disfigurement, speech quality, and oral function. Preoperative and postoperative patient photos were evaluated.
RESULTS: Of 27 patients (mean ± SD age, 58.33 ± 13.02 years), 52% (14) had visor reconstructions whereas 48% (13) had lip-splitting reconstructions. About 78.6% of visor patients had widely-free margins compared with 46.2% of the lip-split patients. No differences in surgical-site complications between the lip-split and visor group (38.5% vs 28.6%) or in operative times were observed. Ninety-three percent of visor patients versus 54% of lip-split patients tolerated oral feeds at 1 year. Lip-split patients rated their quality of eating and speech worse than the visor patients (Quality of Life Questionnaire for Head and Neck Cancer mean score, 2.2 vs 1.56). Patients and clinical staff deemed visor reconstructions resulted in less visible sequelae.
CONCLUSIONS: A visor technique with no lip-split incision for intraoral free flap reconstruction is an oncologically safe technique to consider that may improve cosmetic and functional outcomes for head and neck reconstruction patients.

PMID: 29489537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The Quality of Systematic Reviews in Head and Neck Microsurgery: A Perspective from Plastic Surgery and Otolaryngology.

The Quality of Systematic Reviews in Head and Neck Microsurgery: A Perspective from Plastic Surgery and Otolaryngology.

Ann Plast Surg. 2018 Feb 28;:

Authors: Sun BJ, Tijerina J, Nazerali RS, Lee GK

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been a push to publish higher level of evidence studies in medicine, particularly in plastic surgery. Well-conducted systematic reviews are considered the strongest level of evidence in medicine, recently becoming the key process indicators for quality delivery. A varying quality of systematic reviews, however, has led to concerns of their validity in clinical decision-making. We perform a quality analysis of systematic reviews published in head and neck microsurgery by the surgical specialties of plastic surgery and otolaryngology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An evaluation of systematic reviews published on microsurgery in 13 high-impact surgical journals was conducted by searching PubMed and Scopus. Two authors independently performed searches, screened for eligibility, and extracted data from included articles. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion and consensus. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) criteria were used to assess methodological quality.
RESULTS: The initial database search retrieved 166 articles. After removing duplicates, screening titles and abstracts, 26 articles remained for full text review. Seven did not focus on head and neck microsurgery and were further excluded, leaving 19 systematic reviews for final analysis. Of those, 10 systematic reviews were published by otolaryngology, and 9 were published by plastic surgery. Median AMSTAR score was 8 for otolaryngology, 7 for plastic surgery, and 8 overall, reflecting "fair to good" quality. The number of systematic reviews on head and neck microsurgery markedly increased over time. Of note, both the AMSTAR score and the number of systematic reviews published by plastic surgery have steadily increased from 2014 to 2016, whereas those published by otolaryngology have remained relatively stable since 2010.
CONCLUSIONS: Our review shows a trend toward publishing more systematic reviews. The increasing quantity and quality of systematic reviews published by plastic surgeons indicates recognition in the need for higher levels of evidence in plastic surgery, as well as growing interest and advances in microsurgery. Given these trends, familiarity with quality assessment guidelines, such as AMSTAR, will remain important in providing a basis for building relevant value-based quality measures.

PMID: 29489536 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Understanding Functional Communication in Head and Neck Cancer Survivors Using a Mixed Methods Design.

Understanding Functional Communication in Head and Neck Cancer Survivors Using a Mixed Methods Design.

Cancer Nurs. 2018 Feb 27;:

Authors: Fletcher BS, Schumacher K, Cohen MZ, Kupzyk K, Lydiatt W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Functional communication, defined as everyday communication with family and friends, at work, and in the community, is an important but understudied concept in the head and neck cancer (HNC) survivor population.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to better understand functional communication by using a mixed methods approach.
METHODS: Head and neck cancer survivors participated in semistructured interviews and completed self-report questionnaires assessing multiple aspects of well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). These qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently, analyzed separately, and then integrated.
RESULTS: Survivors' perceptions of functional communication ranged from "Communication is good" to "Communication has changed" to "Communication is difficult." Using these qualitative results, survivors were categorized into 3 mutually exclusive groups. Clinically meaningful cut points were exceeded on measures of depressive symptoms (18%), state (40%) and trait (54%) anxiety, and pain (18%). Health-related quality of life scores were moderate to high for the sample as a whole. Statistically significant group differences were found only on the HNC-specific measure of HRQOL. A surprising finding was that the lowest mean score on social function was in the "Communication has changed" group. This group perceived changes in speech and voice that bothered them when communicating in social situations, although their speech was clear to a listener.
CONCLUSION: An underrecognized subpopulation of HNC survivors may exist, whose day-to-day functional communication has changed in ways that impact their relationships and sense of self.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinical identification of this subpopulation and provision of appropriate interventions are essential to facilitate optimal HRQOL after HNC treatment.

PMID: 29489478 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The NOTCH Pathway in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

The NOTCH Pathway in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Dent Res. 2018 Feb 01;:22034518760297

Authors: Fukusumi T, Califano JA

Abstract
Comprehensive genomic analyses have been performed for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), revealing a significant rate of NOTCH1 mutations and identifying NOTCH1 as the second most frequently mutated gene after TP53. Most NOTCH1 mutations are considered inactivating, indicating that NOTCH1 is a tumor suppressor gene. On the other hand, cohorts from Asian populations with HNSCC have shown activating NOTCH1 mutations. HNSCC with NOTCH1 mutations have a worse prognosis than the NOTCH1 wild-type tumors. Additional data on other NOTCH family members have shown that NOTCH promotes HNSCC progression. NOTCH family members, including NOTCH pathway genes, are upregulated in HNSCC compared with normal tissues, and inhibition of the NOTCH pathway decreases cell proliferation and invasion. NOTCH activity in HNSCC is therefore contextual, and NOTCH in HNSCC is considered to have a bimodal role as a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. In this review, recent understandings of NOTCH pathway genes, including NOTCH genes, in HNSCC are described. In addition, the implications of NOTCH pathway alteration for HNSCC-specific NOTCH-targeted cancer therapy are explored.

PMID: 29489439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Targeting the DNA Damage Response in OSCC with TP53 Mutations.

Targeting the DNA Damage Response in OSCC with TP53 Mutations.

J Dent Res. 2018 Feb 01;:22034518759068

Authors: Lindemann A, Takahashi H, Patel AA, Osman AA, Myers JN

Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide and in the United States. OSCC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption alone or with chewing betel nut are potential risk factors contributing to the high prevalence of OSCC. Multimodality therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), are the current treatments for OSCC patients. Despite recent advances in these treatment modalities, the overall survival remains poor over the past years. Recent data from whole-exome sequencing reveal that TP53 is commonly mutated in human papillomavirus-negative OSCC patients. Furthermore, these data stressed the importance of the TP53 gene in suppressing the development and progression of OSCC. Clinically, TP53 mutations are largely associated with poor survival and tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in OSCC patients, which makes the TP53 mutation status a potentially useful molecular marker prognostic and predictive of clinical response in these patients. Several forms of DNA damage have been shown to activate p53, including those generated by ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. The DNA damage stabilizes p53 in part via the DNA damage signaling pathway that involves sensor kinases, including ATM and ATR and effector kinases, such as Chk1/2 and Wee1, which leads to posttranscriptional regulation of a variety of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and senescence. Here, we discuss the link of TP53 mutations with treatment outcome and survival in OSCC patients. We also provide evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of critical proteins that regulate DNA damage repair and replication stress during the cell cycle progression, as well as other molecules that restore wild-type p53 activity to mutant p53, can be exploited as novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of OSCC patients bearing p53 mutant tumors.

PMID: 29489434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Dent Res. 2018 Feb 01;:22034518759464

Authors: Moskovitz JM, Ferris RL

Abstract
The immune system plays an important role in the evolution of malignancy and has become an important target for novel antineoplastic agents. This review article focuses on key features of tumor immunology, including the role of immunotherapy in general and as it pertains to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Side effects, resistance mechanisms, and therapeutic monitoring strategies pertaining to immunotherapy are discussed.

PMID: 29489423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Pesticides as risk factors for head and neck cancer: a review.

Pesticides as risk factors for head and neck cancer: a review.

J Oral Pathol Med. 2018 Feb 28;:

Authors: Brasil VLM, Ramos Pinto MB, Bonan RF, Kowalski LP, da Cruz Perez DE

Abstract
Humans may be exposed to pesticides such as fungicides, herbicides and insecticides, during occupational and non-occupational activities. Pesticides could be related to cancer development mainly because of their effects on the endocrine and immune systems and their cumulative effect. The present review evaluated in current literature evidence of an association between exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC). A literature search for cohort studies was conducted in the PubMed, Web of science and Cochrane databases. Methodological quality of each study was rated with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) checklist. One thousand one hundred thirty-two studies were identified. Thirty-two were included. Most of the studies found addressed occupational exposure to pesticides and were conducted in Europe and North America. Eleven high-quality studies were found. Most of them found no association between exposure to pesticides and increased risk of HNC. Two studies found some evidence of a positive association between pesticide (malathion and atrazine) exposure and thyroid cancer. The literature review does not support a clear evidence for association between pesticides exposure and HNC. Only limited evidence points to a positive association between exposure to some pesticides and thyroid cancer. Further standardized studies based on appropriate designs are required to clarify the effect of pesticides on the genesis of HNC, considering dose, length of exposure and type of pesticide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29489035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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[Pedicled Flaps for Reconstruction of Head and Neck Region].

[Pedicled Flaps for Reconstruction of Head and Neck Region].

Klin Onkol. 2017;31(1):59-65

Authors: Pink R, Dvořák Z, Heinz P, Michl P, Tvrdý P, Azar B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There has been a consistent increase in the number of publications on pedicled flaps for the reconstruction of post ablation defects in the oropharyngeal area. In principle, tissue is lifted from a donor site and moved to a recipient site without disruption of blood supply. The donor site is an exact anatomically defined region of tissue that is capable of sustaining its own blood supply. The benefits of pedicled flaps include lower technical demands that obviate the need for microsurgical anastomosis and shorter operating times. For this reason, they are mostly indicated in elderly and at risk patients. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience with the regional (pedicled) (submental, supraclavicular) flaps with a focus on reliability, function, cosmesis, donor site morbidity, and oncological safety.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reconstructive techniques using distal flaps are described in 12 patients. A submental flap for reconstruction was used in 7 patients. In 5 patients, we used the supraclavicular flap. A total of 9 patients were treated primarily for squamous cell carcinoma of the orofacial region, and 3 for low-grade adenocarcinoma of the small salivary gland.
RESULTS: In 5 patients, there was successful engraftment of the submental flap. Ischemia and necrosis of the edges of the flap occurred in 1 case. In one patient, the 3rd day after surgery, the flap was almost totally necrotised. The supraclavicular flap in 4 patiets healed completely, 1 time during the postoperative period it was infected with partial loss of the outer part of the flap from the pre auricular region. In one case there was necrosis of the terminal part of the flap in the reconstructed part of the tongue, the defect was healed by granulation tissue. In all patients, after reconstruction using supraclavicular and submental flaps, the donor site closed primarily with minimal morbidity.
CONCLUSION: Regional (pedicled) flaps are thin, and pliable with good cosmetic and functional results. Reconstruction using these flaps can be accomplished in one-stage with minimum morbidity of the donor site.Key words: pedicled flap - surgical flap - head and neck cancersSubmitted: 11. 5. 2017Accepted: 5. 11. 2017 The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.

PMID: 29488780 [PubMed - in process]



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Non-melanoma Skin Cancer - a Clinicopathological Study of Patients with Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Non-melanoma Skin Cancer - a Clinicopathological Study of Patients with Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Klin Onkol. 2017;31(1):40-45

Authors: Bartoš V, Kullová M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in Caucasians. It mainly includes two major keratinocyte tumors - basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The objective of the study was to analyze and compare the clinicopathological differences between patients with BCC and SCC of the skin.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort of 541 patients with a total of 719 BCCs, and 126 patients with a total of 162 SCCs were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: While there was virtually the same proportion of men (49.91%) and women (50.09%) in BCC patients, SCCs occurred more frequently in men (68.2%) than in women (31.8%). The mean age of the individuals with BCC and SCC was 70.8 and 78.2 years, resp. The number of BCCs rises from 50 years of age and this increase showed a linear trend up to 80 years, subsequently followed by decline. SCC lesions occur more rapidly from 70 years of age followed by a sharp increase that exhibited an exponential relationship. BCCs and SCCs occurred predominantly on the head and neck region, comprising a total of 69.8% and 81.4% of the cases, resp. However, BCC lesions were seen more often on the face and SCC lesions were diagnosed more frequently on the extra-facial parts of the head. Further, BCCs occurred more frequently on the trunk, and particularly on the back, compared to SCCs.
CONCLUSION: Although BCC and SCC are covered under common term NMSC, they manifest several clinicopathological differences. Despite sharing common etiologic determinants, at least from the onco-epidemiologic perspective, they should be considered separately.Key words: non-melanoma skin cancer - basal cell carcinoma - squamous cell carcinoma.

PMID: 29488777 [PubMed - in process]



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 702: Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Root Ca2+ and K+ Fluxes Correlate with Salt Tolerance in Cereals: Towards the Cell-Based Phenotyping

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 702: Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Root Ca2+ and K+ Fluxes Correlate with Salt Tolerance in Cereals: Towards the Cell-Based Phenotyping

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19030702

Authors: Haiyang Wang Lana Shabala Meixue Zhou Sergey Shabala

Salinity stress-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated oxidative damage is one of the major factors limiting crop production in saline soils. However, the causal link between ROS production and stress tolerance is not as straightforward as one may expect, as ROS may also play an important signaling role in plant adaptive responses. In this study, the causal relationship between salinity and oxidative stress tolerance in two cereal crops—barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum)—was investigated by measuring the magnitude of ROS-induced net K+ and Ca2+ fluxes from various root tissues and correlating them with overall whole-plant responses to salinity. We have found that the association between flux responses to oxidative stress and salinity stress tolerance was highly tissue specific, and was also dependent on the type of ROS applied. No correlation was found between root responses to hydroxyl radicals and the salinity tolerance. However, when oxidative stress was administered via H2O2 treatment, a significant positive correlation was found for the magnitude of ROS-induced K+ efflux and Ca2+ uptake in barley and the overall salinity stress tolerance, but only for mature zone and not the root apex. The same trends were found for wheat. These results indicate high tissue specificity of root ion fluxes response to ROS and suggest that measuring the magnitude of H2O2-induced net K+ and Ca2+ fluxes from mature root zone may be used as a tool for cell-based phenotyping in breeding programs aimed to improve salinity stress tolerance in cereals.



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 703: Influence of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in PPAR-δ, PPAR-γ, and PRKAA2 on the Changes in Anthropometric Indices and Blood Measurements through Exercise-Centered Lifestyle Intervention in Japanese Middle-Aged Men

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 703: Influence of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in PPAR-δ, PPAR-γ, and PRKAA2 on the Changes in Anthropometric Indices and Blood Measurements through Exercise-Centered Lifestyle Intervention in Japanese Middle-Aged Men

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19030703

Authors: Yuichiro Nishida Minako Iyadomi Hirotaka Tominaga Hiroaki Taniguchi Yasuki Higaki Hiroaki Tanaka Chisato Shimanoe Megumi Hara Keitaro Tanaka

The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPAR-δ), PPAR-γ, and α2 isoforms of the catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKAA2) on the extent of changes in anthropometric indices and blood measurements through exercise-centered lifestyle intervention in middle-aged men. A total of 109 Japanese middle-aged male subjects (47.0 ± 0.4 years) participated in the baseline health checkup, 6-month exercise-centered lifestyle intervention, and second checkup conducted several months after the subject completed the intervention. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and clinical measurements, including hemoglobin Alc (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GTP), were measured at the baseline and second checkup. The three SNPs of PPAR-δ A/G (rs2267668), PPAR-γ C/G (rs1801282), and PRKAA2 A/G (rs1418442) were determined. Blunted responses in the reduction in the BMI and waist circumference were observed in A/A carriers of PPAR-δ SNP compared with G allele carriers (all p &lt; 0.05). The A/A carriers also displayed less-marked improvements in HbA1c, TG, ALT, and γ-GTP (all p &lt; 0.05). The current results suggest that A/A carriers of PPAR-δ SNP (rs2267668) may enjoy fewer beneficial effects of exercise-centered lifestyle intervention on anthropometric indices and blood measurements.



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JFB, Vol. 9, Pages 22: Recent Advances in Biomaterials for 3D Printing and Tissue Engineering

JFB, Vol. 9, Pages 22: Recent Advances in Biomaterials for 3D Printing and Tissue Engineering

Journal of Functional Biomaterials doi: 10.3390/jfb9010022

Authors: Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka Karthik Tappa

Three-dimensional printing has significant potential as a fabrication method in creating scaffolds for tissue engineering. The applications of 3D printing in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are limited by the variety of biomaterials that can be used in this technology. Many researchers have developed novel biomaterials and compositions to enable their use in 3D printing methods. The advantages of fabricating scaffolds using 3D printing are numerous, including the ability to create complex geometries, porosities, co-culture of multiple cells, and incorporate growth factors. In this review, recently-developed biomaterials for different tissues are discussed. Biomaterials used in 3D printing are categorized into ceramics, polymers, and composites. Due to the nature of 3D printing methods, most of the ceramics are combined with polymers to enhance their printability. Polymer-based biomaterials are 3D printed mostly using extrusion-based printing and have a broader range of applications in regenerative medicine. The goal of tissue engineering is to fabricate functional and viable organs and, to achieve this, multiple biomaterials and fabrication methods need to be researched.



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Staff must be trained to speak clearly for those with hearing difficulties

I was pleased to see the importance of understanding speech in acute healthcare settings raised in a large circulation journal.1 Two points spring to mind.Firstly, staff calling patients into...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=q1hKhQ-Q1tg:Aq3z-xNwtqs:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=q1hKhQ-Q1tg:Aq3z-xNwtqs:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=q1hKhQ-Q1tg:Aq3z-xNwtqs:F7zBnMy recent?i=q1hKhQ-Q1tg:Aq3z-xNwtqs:-BTjWOF


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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 430: Health Disparities in the Relationship of Neighborhood Greenness to Mental Health Outcomes in 249,405 U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 430: Health Disparities in the Relationship of Neighborhood Greenness to Mental Health Outcomes in 249,405 U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030430

Authors: Scott Brown Tatiana Perrino Joanna Lombard Kefeng Wang Matthew Toro Tatjana Rundek Carolina Gutierrez Chuanhui Dong Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk Maria Nardi Jack Kardys José Szapocznik

Prior studies suggest that exposure to the natural environment may be important for optimal mental health. The present study examines the association between block-level greenness (vegetative presence) and mental health outcomes, in a population-based sample of 249,405 U.S. Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years living in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, whose location did not change from 2010 to 2011. Multilevel analyses examined relationships between greenness, as measured by mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index from satellite imagery at the Census block level, and each of two mental health outcomes; Alzheimer’s disease and depression, respectively, after statistically adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood income level of the individuals. Higher block-level greenness was linked to better mental health outcomes: There was a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (by 18%) and depression (by 28%) for beneficiaries living in blocks that were 1 SD above the mean for greenness, as compared to blocks that were 1 SD below the mean. Planned post-hoc analyses revealed that higher levels of greenness were associated with even greater mental health benefits in low-income neighborhoods: An increase in greenness from 1 SD below to 1 SD above the mean was associated with 37% lower odds of depression in low-income neighborhoods, compared to 27% and 21% lower odds of depression in medium- and high-income neighborhoods, respectively. Greenness may be effective in promoting mental health in older adults, particularly in low-income neighborhoods, possibly as a result of the increased opportunities for physical activity, social interaction, or stress mitigation.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 428: An Interoperable System toward Cardiac Risk Stratification from ECG Monitoring

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 428: An Interoperable System toward Cardiac Risk Stratification from ECG Monitoring

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030428

Authors: Cristina Soguero-Ruiz Inmaculada Mora-Jiménez Javier Ramos-López Teresa Quintanilla Fernández Antonio García-García Daniel Díez-Mazuela Arcadi García-Alberola José Rojo-Álvarez

Many indices have been proposed for cardiovascular risk stratification from electrocardiogram signal processing, still with limited use in clinical practice. We created a system integrating the clinical definition of cardiac risk subdomains from ECGs and the use of diverse signal processing techniques. Three subdomains were defined from the joint analysis of the technical and clinical viewpoints. One subdomain was devoted to demographic and clinical data. The other two subdomains were intended to obtain widely defined risk indices from ECG monitoring: a simple-domain (heart rate turbulence (HRT)), and a complex-domain (heart rate variability (HRV)). Data provided by the three subdomains allowed for the generation of alerts with different intensity and nature, as well as for the grouping and scrutinization of patients according to the established processing and risk-thresholding criteria. The implemented system was tested by connecting data from real-world in-hospital electronic health records and ECG monitoring by considering standards for syntactic (HL7 messages) and semantic interoperability (archetypes based on CEN/ISO EN13606 and SNOMED-CT). The system was able to provide risk indices and to generate alerts in the health records to support decision-making. Overall, the system allows for the agile interaction of research and clinical practice in the Holter-ECG-based cardiac risk domain.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 429: Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 429: Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030429

Authors: Caitlin Maikawa Naomi Zimmerman Manuel Ramos Mittal Shah James Wallace Krystal Pollitt

Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group). Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise. Exhaust was filtered to assess responses induced by the particulate and gas fractions. Short-term exposure to particulate matter from GDI engine exhaust induced upregulation of genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism (Cyp1b1) and inflammation (TNFα) in the lungs of non-allergic mice. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the particulate fraction of the exhaust, and this response was therefore likely attributable to the presence of these PAHs. The particle fraction of GDI engine exhaust further contributed to enhanced methacholine responsiveness in the central and peripheral tissues in animals with airway hyperresponsiveness. As GDI engines gain prevalence in the vehicle fleet, understanding the health impacts of their emissions becomes increasingly important.



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The natural history of autoimmune Addison’s disease with a non-classical presentation: a case report and review of literature

Authors: Manso, Jacopo / Pezzani, Raffaele / Scarpa, Riccardo / Gallo, Nicoletta / Betterle, Corrado


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Clinically relevant discrepancies between different rheumatoid factor assays

Authors: Falkenburg, Willem J.J. / von Richthofen, Helen J. / Koers, Jana / Weykamp, Cas / Schreurs, Marco W.J. / Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth E. / Haagen, Inez-Anne / Lems, Willem F. / Hamann, Dörte / van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan / Rispens, Theo


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IL8 and IL16 levels indicate serum and plasma quality

Authors: Kofanova, Olga / Henry, Estelle / Quesada, Rocio Aguilar / Bulla, Alexandre / Linares, Hector Navarro / Lescuyer, Pierre / Shea, Kathi / Stone, Mars / Tybring, Gunnel / Bellora, Camille / Betsou, Fay


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Frontmatter



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Serum exosomal hnRNPH1 mRNA as a novel marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Xu, Hong / Dong, Xueyan / Chen, Yueming / Wang, Xianjun


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Athletes beware before throwing towels to audiences

Authors: Diamandis, Eleftherios P.


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A Black Swan in clinical laboratory practice: the analytical error due to interferences in immunoassay methods

Authors: Clerico, Aldo / Belloni, Lucia / Carrozza, Cinzia / Correale, Mario / Dittadi, Ruggero / Dotti, Claudio / Fortunato, Antonio / Vignati, Giulio / Zucchelli, Gian Carlo / Migliardi, Marco /


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Reply to: Hyperuricemia does not seem to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease

Authors: Braga, Federica / Ferraro, Simona / Pasqualetti, Sara / Panteghini, Mauro


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The venous thromboembolic risk and the clot wave analysis: a useful relationship?

Authors: Ruberto, Maria Filomena / Marongiu, Francesco / Mandas, Antonella / Mameli, Antonella / Porru, Mariagrazia / Cianchetti, Elisabetta / Barcellona, Doris


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Indirect method for validating transference of reference intervals

Authors: Lykkeboe, Simon / Nielsen, Claus Gyrup / Christensen, Peter Astrup


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Copeptin as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients admitted to Emergency Department with syncope, presyncope and vertiginous syndrome

Authors: Schiavon, Luca / Casarotti, Alessandra / Mion, Monica M. / Vigolo, Stefania / Vettore, Gianna / Zaninotto, Martina / Plebani, Mario


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Autovalidation and automation of the postanalytical phase of routine hematology and coagulation analyses in a university hospital laboratory

Authors: Mlinaric, Ana / Milos, Marija / Coen Herak, Désirée / Fucek, Mirjana / Rimac, Vladimira / Zadro, Renata / Rogic, Dunja


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Hyperuricemia does not seem to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease

Authors: Battaggia, Alessandro / Scalisi, Andrea / Puccetti, Luca


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Selective changes in cholesterol metabolite levels in plasma of breast cancer patients after tumor removal

Authors: Soucek, Pavel / Vrana, David / Ueng, Yune-Fang / Wei, Shouzou / Kozevnikovova, Renata / Guengerich, Frederick Peter


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Analytical quality: an unfinished journey

Authors: Plebani, Mario


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Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for control of microbial biofilms: a review

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Theranostic pH-sensitive nanoparticles for highly efficient targeted delivery of doxorubicin for breast tumor treatment

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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 700: Anti-Hypertensive Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 700: Anti-Hypertensive Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19030700

Authors: Nobutomo Ikarashi Takahiro Toda Yusuke Hatakeyama Yoshiki Kusunoki Risako Kon Nanaho Mizukami Miho Kaneko Sosuke Ogawa Kiyoshi Sugiyama

We have previously demonstrated that acacia polyphenol (AP) exerts strong anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-atopic dermatitis effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-hypertensive effects of AP. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with hypertension and control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used. WKY and SHR were fed AP-containing food or AP-free food (control group) ad libitum for 4 weeks, and their blood pressures were measured. After AP administration, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in the SHR group than in the control group. There were no differences in the systolic or diastolic blood pressure of WKY between the AP group and the control group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in SHR kidneys were not altered by AP administration. Blood SOD activity in SHR was significantly higher in the AP group than in the control group. AP exerts anti-hypertensive effects on hypertension but has almost no effect on normal blood pressure. The anti-hypertensive effects of AP may be related to the anti-oxidative effects of increased blood SOD activity.



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 701: Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Four Meliaceae Species and Comparative Analyses

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 701: Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Four Meliaceae Species and Comparative Analyses

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19030701

Authors: Malte Mader Birte Pakull Céline Blanc-Jolivet Maike Paulini-Drewes Zoéwindé Bouda Bernd Degen Ian Small Birgit Kersten

The Meliaceae family mainly consists of trees and shrubs with a pantropical distribution. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes of four Meliaceae species were sequenced and compared with each other and with the previously published Azadirachta indica plastome. The five plastomes are circular and exhibit a quadripartite structure with high conservation of gene content and order. They include 130 genes encoding 85 proteins, 37 tRNAs and 8 rRNAs. Inverted repeat expansion resulted in a duplication of rps19 in the five Meliaceae species, which is consistent with that in many other Sapindales, but different from many other rosids. Compared to Azadirachta indica, the four newly sequenced Meliaceae individuals share several large deletions, which mainly contribute to the decreased genome sizes. A whole-plastome phylogeny supports previous findings that the four species form a monophyletic sister clade to Azadirachta indica within the Meliaceae. SNPs and indels identified in all complete Meliaceae plastomes might be suitable targets for the future development of genetic markers at different taxonomic levels. The extended analysis of SNPs in the matK gene led to the identification of four potential Meliaceae-specific SNPs as a basis for future validation and marker development.



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