Κυριακή, 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2018

Investigation of the composition and antioxidant activity of acetone and methanol extracts of Daphne sericea L. and Daphne gnidioides L.

Abstract

The compositions of methanol and acetone extracts obtained from Daphne sericea L. and Daphne gnidioides L. were investigated. The antioxidant activities of each extract were determined by various test methods. Phenolic composition profile analysis by HPLC–DAD showed that D. gnidioides extracts contain more phenolic compounds than D. sericea extracts. Among the components, syringic acid was found to be the most abundant one in D. gnidioides extracts (42.8 and 38.4 mg per g dry extract of methanol and acetone, respectively). Total flavonoid, total phenolic and total carotenoid contents of methanolic D. gnidioides extracts were found to be 244.5 mg rutin/g dry weight of extract, 1219.3 mg GAE/g dry weight of extract and 11.9 mg/g dry weight of extract, respectively. DPPH·, ABTS·+ and O 2·− assays were applied to plant extracts as radical scavenging activity tests. Methanolic extracts of D. sericea and D. gnidioides showed the highest radical scavenging activities according to DPPH· and ABTS·+ tests (61.6 and 147.2 in terms of IC50, respectively). Antioxidant activity tests for measuring lipid oxidation inhibiting capacity were carried in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and bovine brain extract (BBE). Methanolic extracts of D. gnidioides and D. sericea demonstrated remarkable lipid oxidation inhibiting capacity in LDL and BBE tests.



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Primary purulent bacterial pericarditis due to Streptococcus intermedius in an immunocompetent adult: a case report

Acute purulent bacterial pericarditis is of rare occurrence in this modern antibiotic era. Primary involvement of the pericardium without evidence of underlying infection elsewhere is even rarer. It is a rapid...

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Review: Limb regeneration in humans: dream or reality?

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Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
Source:Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger
Author(s): Lorenzo Alibardi
Appendage regeneration occurs by a sequence of events resembling those that take place during development in the embryo. This requires embryonic conditions such as hydration and hyaluronate content where Wnt and other signaling pathways, together with non- coding RNAs, can be re-expressed. These conditions among vertebrates are fully met only in amputated limbs of amphibians, likely because they are neotenic and maintain larval characteristics, including immaturity of their immune system and permanence of numerous stem cells. Although some key genes orchestrating limb regeneration are also present in amniotes, including humans, these genes are not expressed after injury. In amniotes a key problem for regeneration derives from the efficient immune system, largely deficient in anamniotes. As a consequence, wounds and appendage loss tend to scar instead of regenerating. Efforts of regenerative medicine in the attempt to induce the regrowth of limbs in humans must produce outgrowths with high hydration and hyaluronate content in order to create the immune-suppressed conditions similar to those present during development. The induced blastema must be manipulated for long periods of time in order to maintain the same regions present during limb development, an apical epidermal ridge and a polarizing region that forms gradients of expression of Wnt, Shh, FGF, BMP and Hox-genes. Pharmacological treatments to direct the regenerating limb into normal growth without risk of inducing abnormal or tumorigenic growth must be monitored during the course of the regeneration process − a medical treatment lasting years to fully regain the size of the lost appendage.



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Unsaturated aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) alters the structural integrity of HSA with consequences in the immuno-pathology of rheumatoid arthritis

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Publication date: June 2018
Source:International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 112
Author(s): Farzana Khan, Moinuddin, Abdul Rouf Mir, Sidra Islam, Minhal Abidi, Mohammed Amir Husain, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Human serum albumin (HSA) - the most abundant plasma protein plays an important role in the transport of endogenous and exogenous molecules in the body. Its modifications have been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders. We have studied the interaction of HNE with HSA at a molecular level by docking experiment and the results suggest a strong interaction between HNE and HSA. Immunological studies revealed that the circulating auto-antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have a stronger affinity towards HNE-modified HSA. The HSA isolated from RA patients (RA-HSA) exhibited HNE mediated damage in its secondary and tertiary structure when compared to HSA derived from healthy human subjects (NH-HSA). RA patients presented a significant rise in carbonyls and a considerable decline in free thiol content. Preferential binding of experimentally induced anti-HNE-HSA antibodies to RA-HSA over NH-HSA was observed by ELISA. The results suggest HNE induced structural perturbations in HSA with neoepitopes that generate anti-HNE-HSA antibodies in RA. Hence, HNE-HSA may provide lead towards the development of a biomarker for the disease.



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Editorial Board



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Prevalence of nasolacrimal canal obstruction and epiphora following maxillary orthognathic surgery

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Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018
Source:International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Author(s): E.M. Ozcan, G. Dergin, S. Basa
Acquired injuries of the nasolacrimal apparatus may be the result of craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures, facial trauma, or inflammation. Injury to the nasolacrimal duct system following maxillary orthognathic surgery is rarely reported. This study evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of epiphora developing after Le Fort I surgery. The records of 83 patients who underwent maxillary orthognathic surgery over a 2-year period were reviewed. The prevalence of postoperative epiphora was 3.6% and it persisted for a mean of 32.7 days. No patient required further surgical treatment of the nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Clinicians should evaluate the lacrimal canal position and schedule close postoperative follow-up of injuries to the nasolacrimal apparatus. These may become permanent, necessitating additional surgery.



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Targeting the B-cell receptor pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is an aggressive malignant lymphoma that constitutes approximately 30%-40% of all cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), making it the most common type of lymphoma. While once considered to be a single disease entity, many distinct clinical and morphological variants are now recognized.[1] Additionally, over recent years, gene expression profiling and other molecular high resolution technologies have revealed that DLBCL is genetically heterogeneous. According to gene expression profiling, most cases can be divided into one of two major molecular subtypes, according to their cell of origin (COO) - a germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype or an activated B-cell (ABC) subtype.

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When and how to use carboplatin in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer?

For metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), docetaxel was the first drug to show an overall survival (OS) benefit in two large phase III trials published in 2004 [1,2]. Until 2010 when cabazitaxel and abiraterone were shown to prolong survival after first-line docetaxel chemotherapy, physicians had very little treatment options to offer for men with mCRPC, and docetaxel re-challenge was frequently used despite the lack of prospective trial data [3,4].

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Survival Outcomes Among Lung Cancer Patients Treated Using a Multidisciplinary Team Approach

Does a multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach to lung cancer care yield superior outcomes to a traditional care model? This investigation included >4,000 patients and compared survival outcomes between lung cancer patients participating in an MDT program with those receiving traditional care. The results suggest a significant survival benefit of the MDT approach for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

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Atezolizumab in Japanese Patients With Previously Treated, Advanced Non–small-cell Lung Cancer: A Subgroup Analysis of the Phase 3 OAK Study

Atezolizumab is effective and well tolerated in pretreated advanced/metastatic non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined atezolizumab’s efficacy and safety in 64 Japanese patients with NSCLC in the same setting via a subanalysis of the phase 3 OAK study. Atezolizumab improved overall survival versus docetaxel and was generally well tolerated, thus offering a potential NSCLC treatment for Japanese patients.

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Targeting the B-cell receptor pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is an aggressive malignant lymphoma that constitutes approximately 30%-40% of all cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), making it the most common type of lymphoma. While once considered to be a single disease entity, many distinct clinical and morphological variants are now recognized.[1] Additionally, over recent years, gene expression profiling and other molecular high resolution technologies have revealed that DLBCL is genetically heterogeneous. According to gene expression profiling, most cases can be divided into one of two major molecular subtypes, according to their cell of origin (COO) - a germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype or an activated B-cell (ABC) subtype.

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Endonasal measurements by acoustic rhinometry in children: A preliminary study

The acoustic reflection method (ARM) is a non-invasive technique which uses the reflection of acoustic waves to measure the cross sectional area of nasal cavities in adults and patency of endotracheal tubes. Characteristics and volume of normal nasal cavities in pre-school children has so far not been studied.

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Comparing audiological outcomes between the Bonebridge and bone conduction hearing aid on a hard test band: Our experience in children with atresia and microtia

To compare the audiological results of Bone Conduction Hearing Aid (BCHA) on hard test band and Bonebridge (BB) implant among children with microtia and atresia.

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The role of local CpG DNA methylation in mediating the 17q21 asthma-susceptibility GSDMB/ORMDL3 expression quantitative trait locus



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Increased GATA-3 and T-bet expression in eosinophilic esophagitis vs gastroesophageal reflux disease



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The Obese-Asthma Phenotype in Children: An Exacerbating Situation?

Current evidence regarding the relationship between childhood obesity, decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and poor asthma control is conflicting.

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Protein corona-mediated targeting of nano-carriers to B cells allows redirection of allergic immune responses

Nanoparticle (NP) based vaccines are attractive immunotherapy tools due to their capability to co-deliver antigen and adjuvant to antigen presenting cells. Their cellular distribution and serum protein interaction (“protein corona”) after systemic administration and its impact on functional properties of NP is poorly understood.

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Benralizumab attenuates airway eosinophilia in prednisone-dependent asthma



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High Number of Early Respiratory Infections in Association with Allergic Sensitization to Mold promotes Childhood Asthma



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Impact of Food Allergy on the Growth of Children with Moderate-Severe Atopic Dermatitis

Children with moderate-severe atopic dermatitis and food allergy (especially milk) exhibit reduced weight and height, while those with atopic dermatitis alone are often overweight or obese, and their body mass index correlates with eczema severity.

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ADA2 deficiency: clonal lymphoproliferation in a subset of patients



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Surgical treatment of axillary bromhidrosis by combining suction-curettage with subdermal undermining through a miniature incision

The suction-curettage technique has been widely applied in the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis. However, it can only moderately eradicate the malodor. From 2011 to 2013, we performed the suction-curettage procedure alone in 91 patients with primary axillary bromhidrosis (group A). From 2014 to 2016, we refined the suction-curettage technique by performing wide subdermal scissors undermining through a miniature incision in 80 patients (group B). Through a miniature incision at the inferior pole of the central axillary crease, the entire subcutaneous tissues containing apocrine glands were initially dissected with scissors within the axillary area and then the undermined apocrine glands were removed by suction-curettage.

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Quality of life improvement after chest wall masculinization in female-to-male transgender patients: a prospective study using the BREAST-Q and body uneasiness test

Background: Chest reconstruction in many female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals is an essential element of treatment for their gender dysphoria. In existing literature, there are very few longitudinal studies utilizing validated survey tools to evaluate patient reported outcomes surrounding this surgery. The purpose of our study is to prospectively evaluate patient reported satisfaction, improvement in body image, and quality of life following FTM chest wall reconstruction. Methods: Our study was a prospective analysis of FTM patients who underwent chest reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.A.) between April 2015 and June 2016.

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Novel carbazole sulfonamide microtubule-destabilizing agents exert potent antitumor activity against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide due to its chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Currently, there is a lack of effective small molecule drugs for the treatment of ESCC. Microtubules are an attractive target for cancer therapy since they play a central role in various fundamental cell functions. We investigated the anti-ESCC activity and mechanisms of the small molecule tubulin ligands, SL-3-19 and SL-1-73, which are two carbazole sulfonamide derivatives, in vitro and in vivo for the first time.

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Survivin-targeting miR-542-3p overcomes HER3 signaling-induced chemoresistance and enhances the antitumor activity of paclitaxel against HER2-overexpressing breast cancer

Elevated expression of HER3, which interacts with HER2 in breast cancer cells, confers chemoresistance via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt-dependent upregulation of Survivin. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Ectopic expression or specific knockdown of HER3 in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells did not alter Survivin mRNA levels and Survivin protein stability, supporting the notion that HER3 signaling may regulate specific miRNAs that target Survivin to alter its protein translation.

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Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV prevents high fat diet-induced liver cancer angiogenesis by downregulating chemokine ligand 2

Obesity is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is typically accompanied by higher levels of serum dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). However, the role of DPP4 in obesity-promoted HCC is unclear. Here, we found that consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promoted HCC cell proliferation and metastasis and led to poor survival in a carcinogen-induced model of HCC in rats. Notably, genetic ablation of DPP4 or treatment with a DPP4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) prevented HFD-induced HCC. Moreover, HFD-induced DPP4 activity facilitated angiogenesis and cancer cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo, and vildagliptin prevented tumor progression by mediating the pro-angiogenic role of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2).

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LZTS2 inhibits PI3K/AKT activation and radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by interacting with p85

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity is aberrantly activated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that Leucine zipper tumor suppressor 2 (LZTS2) was downregulated and predicted poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Furthermore, we identified the PI3K subunit p85 as a novel LZTS2-interacting protein using an unbiased proteomics approach. Moreover, we demonstrated that LZTS2 competes with p110 for p85 binding and inhibits activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

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Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling promotes nuclear localization of FOXA transcription factor SGF1 via Ser91 phosphorylation

Publication date: April 2018
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1865, Issue 4
Author(s): Li Ma, Kang Li, Yaxin Guo, Xiang Sun, Huimin Deng, Kai Li, Qili Feng, Sheng Li
Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling promotes cell proliferation and cell survival. We previously reported that Ras1CA overexpression, specifically in the posterior silk glands (PSGs) of the silkworm Bombyx mori, increased fibroin synthesis and cell size, resulting in improved silk yields. In this study, we compared the iTRAQ-based phosphoproteomic profiles of PSGs from wild-type and Ras1CA-overexpressing silkworms. Silk gland factor 1 (SGF1), a FOXA transcription factor that plays a critical role in activating fibroin gene expression, was identified as a phosphoprotein harboring Ser91 as a potential MAPK phosphorylation site. Ser91 phosphorylation of SGF1 was enhanced by Ras1CA overexpression, and this finding was verified by selected reaction monitoring. Consistently, MAPK activity is well correlated with Ser91 phosphorylation of SGF1 and its nuclear localization in PSG cells during silkworm development. Ras1CA overexpression and treatment with inhibitors of Ras signaling promoted or inhibited SGF1 nuclear localization, respectively; mutation of Ser91 to Ala91 eliminated SGF1 nuclear localization. Moreover, MAPK binds to SGF1 and directly phosphorylates Ser91, demonstrating Ser91 as a MAPK phosphorylation site in SGF1. In conclusion, Ras-Raf-MAPK signaling promotes SGF1 nuclear localization for transactivation via Ser91 phosphorylation in silkworms, showing that FOXA transcription factors are regulated via MAPK phosphorylation in animals.



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Coverage of the dorsal surface of a digit based on a pedicled free-style perforator flap concept

Reconstruction of the finger and thumb dorsum has been considered difficult due to the need for a thin and flexible flap, and the surrounding tissue is sometimes insufficient for a local flap. The purpose of this report is to describe our concept for finger and thumb dorsum reconstruction with free-style perforator flaps and our clinical experience with transfer of various perforator flaps.

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“Reply - preventing the cheese-wire effect by combining steri-strips” and sutures for the management of lacerations in thin-skinned individuals. january 2017 volume 70, issue 1, pages 134-136.”

We read with interest the experimental results attaining to the technical tip of using the Steri-Strip/Suture combination. This method is indeed a useful technique in helping prevention of the cheese-wiring seen in frail skinned individuals although the application of this can be sometimes difficult, particularly if the wound is moist. The application of Steri-Strips can be quite problematic in the actively, or prone to, bleeding wound and in this instance, we would advocate the simple adjunct of using tincture of benzoin as a topical adhesive agent.

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Mitochondrial transgene expression via an artificial mitochondrial DNA vector in cells from a patient with a mitochondrial disease

Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
Source:Journal of Controlled Release
Author(s): Takuya Ishikawa, Kana Somiya, Reina Munechika, Hideyoshi Harashima, Yuma Yamada
To achieve mitochondrial gene therapy, developing a mitochondrial transgene expression system that produces therapeutic proteins in mitochondria of disease cells is essential. We previously reported on the design of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) containing a CMV promotor and a NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system, and showed that the mitochondrial transfection of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) resulted in the efficient production of the Nluc luciferase protein in human HeLa cells. This mitochondrial transfection was achieved using a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier for delivering a cargo to mitochondria via membrane fusion. We report herein that mitochondrial transfection using the MITO-Porter results in mitochondrial transgene expression in G625A fibroblasts obtained from a patient with a mitochondrial disease. We investigated the effect of promoters and the basic structure of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) on gene expression efficiency, and were able to construct a high performance mitochondrial DNA vector, pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) [hND4] that contains a human mitochondrial endogenous gene. We also constructed an RP/KALA-MITO-Porter composed of the KALA peptide (cell-penetrating peptide) with a mitochondrial RNA aptamer to enhance cellular uptake and mitochondrial targeting. Finally, the mitochondrial transfection of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) [hND4] in G625A fibroblasts using the RP/KALA-MITO-Porter resulted in strong mitochondrial transgene expression.

Graphical abstract

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A photosensitive liposome with NIR light triggered doxorubicin release as a combined photodynamic-chemo therapy system

Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
Source:Journal of Controlled Release
Author(s): Qingpo Li, Wei Li, Haixiao Di, Lihua Luo, Chunqi Zhu, Jie Yang, Xiaoyi Yin, Hang Yin, Jianqing Gao, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
The targeted drug delivery with the help of nanocarriers and the controlled drug release at the lesion sites are the most effective ways to enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects. Here, we built a light sensitive liposome (Her2-I&D-LSL) which was formed by a special phospholipid (PLsPC) and a hydrophobically modified photosensitizer (ICG-ODA). DOX was employed as the therapeutic drug, encapsulating in the internal phase of the liposome whose surface was modified by Her2 antibodies for recognizing tumor cells with high Her2 receptor expression. Mediated by NIR light, Her2-I&D-LSL was proved to generate sufficient ROS to realize PDT, which then triggered the release of DOX for combined chemotherapy. The ROS generation and DOX release were verified to be strictly controlled by NIR light and the proportion of ICG-ODA. Thanks to the mediation of Her2 receptor, the specific DOX release and the combination of PDT-chemotherapy triggered by NIR light, Her2-I&D-LSL showed a significant accumulation in MCF7 and SKOV3 tumors, thus leading to the strongest tumor growth inhibition effect compared to PDT alone (I-LSL) or chemotherapy alone (D-LSL). Her2-I&D-LSL also possessed a great biocompatibility due to the targeted treatment, holding promise for future cancer therapy in clinic.

Graphical abstract

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Prevention and Management of Complications in Otosclerosis Surgery

Surgical management of otosclerosis is a relatively safe and effective procedure, with a high rate of hearing improvement and a low rate of undesirable outcomes and complications. Many of these potential complications are common to any middle ear surgery, but many are unique to surgery involving the stapes footplate. Preventing complications with stapes surgery and minimizing their impact may be achieved by preparation as well as surgical experience.

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Special Anatomic Considerations in Otosclerosis Surgery

The anatomy of the vestibular organs together with considerations of the middle and inner ear anatomy relevant to stapes surgery is discussed. An archival collection of macerated and freshly frozen human temporal bones underwent micro–computed tomography (CT) with subsequent volume-rendering. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and the topographic anatomy of the oval window were considered. Micro-CT and 3D rendering revealed the relationship between the otolith organs and the oval window. Anatomic variations were extensive and included the distance between the footplate and the reconstructed macula margins. A “no-go” zone is suggested for the surgeon to avoid injury during stapes surgery.

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On #worldcancerday , keep a critical eye out for misinformation and unproven cures, or causes, of cancer. Take mobi… https://t.co/2LztUaSdx5

On #worldcancerday , keep a critical eye out for misinformation and unproven cures, or causes, of cancer. Take mobi… https://t.co/2LztUaSdx5

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Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

Calorie restriction (CR), which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL), chronic calorie restriction (CCR), and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (). These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO) categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE95371). We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus.

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Emotion lies in the eye of the listener: Emotional arousal to novel sounds is reflected in the sympathetic contribution to the pupil dilation response and the P3

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Publication date: March 2018
Source:Biological Psychology, Volume 133
Author(s): Andreas Widmann, Erich Schröger, Nicole Wetzel
Novel sounds in the auditory oddball paradigm elicit a biphasic dilation of the pupil (PDR) and P3a as well as novelty P3 event-related potentials (ERPs). The biphasic PDR has been hypothesized to reflect the relaxation of the iris sphincter muscle due to parasympathetic inhibition and the constriction of the iris dilator muscle due to sympathetic activation. We measured the PDR and the P3 to neutral and to emotionally arousing negative novels in dark and moderate lighting conditions. By means of principal component analysis (PCA) of the PDR data we extracted two components: the early one was absent in darkness and, thus, presumably reflects parasympathetic inhibition, whereas the late component occurred in darkness and light and presumably reflects sympathetic activation. Importantly, only this sympathetic late component was enhanced for emotionally arousing (as compared to neutral) sounds supporting the hypothesis that emotional arousal specifically activates the sympathetic nervous system. In the ERPs we observed P3a and novelty P3 in response to novel sounds. Both components were enhanced for emotionally arousing (as compared to neutral) novels. Our results demonstrate that sympathetic and parasympathetic contributions to the PDR can be separated and link emotional arousal to sympathetic nervous system activation.



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Exercise reduces depression and inflammation but intensity matters

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Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
Source:Biological Psychology
Author(s): Emily M. Paolucci, Dessi Loukov, Dawn M.E. Bowdish, Jennifer J. Heisz
BackgroundExercise may help to mitigate symptoms of depression by reducing inflammation; however, little is known about the influence of exercise intensity on depressed mood.MethodsIn the present study, sixty-one university students were assigned to six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIT), moderate continuous training (MCT), or no exercise (CON) during their academic term. We measured changes in depression, anxiety and perceived stress along with pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and C-reactive protein (CRP).ResultsDepression increased for CON, demonstrating how quickly mental health can decline for students during their academic term. In contrast, MCT decreased depression and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α levels. Although HIT decreased depressive symptoms, it also increased perceived stress, TNF-α and IL-6 relative to MCT. This may be due to the higher level of physical stress evoked by the more strenuous exercise protocol.ConclusionsTaken together, the results suggest that moderate-intensity exercise may be an optimal intensity of exercise for the promotion of mental health by decreasing TNF-α. This is critical for informing the use of exercise as medicine for mental health.



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Oral carcinoma cuniculatum presenting with moth-eaten destruction of the mandible

Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
Source:Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Author(s): Chunye Zhang, Yuhua Hu, Zhen Tian, Ling Zhu, Chenping Zhang, Jiang Li
Objective.Carcinoma cuniculatum(CC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the clinicopathological findings in a new case.Study Design.Literature review and retrospective study of a case with CC.Results.The clinical and imaging findings of CC are diverse; some cases might be challenging to diagnose accurately by biopsy. This article reports a case of CC that occurred in the retromolar region with involvement of the mandible. The patient was a 39-year-old man. Clinically, the lesion manifested as an ulcerative mass in the mandibular molar region. Imaging results showed that the lesion in the jaw exhibited moth-eaten destruction without obvious expansion of the jaw bone. The postoperative pathological examinations were consistent with CC; additionally, metastases were present in one level II lymph node and one submandibular lymph node. Left soft tissue metastasis and right cervical lymph node metastases were detected after 10 and 27 months after surgery, respectively.Conclusions.CC is a rare epithelial malignant tumor and has variable clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of CC mainly depends upon pathological features. Most patients with CC have a good prognosis; only a small percentage of patients might experience lymph node metastasis.



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Cryopreservation effects on sperm function and fertility in two threatened crane species

Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
Source:Cryobiology
Author(s): Megan E. Brown, Ram P. Singh, Budhan Pukazhenthi, Carol L. Keefer, Nucharin Songsasen
The capacity to cryopreserve semen from captive cranes facilitates production of offspring from behaviorally incompatible or geographically separated pairs, and allows for long-term preservation of valuable genetic materials. The present study sought to develop effective cryopreservation protocols for whooping (Grus americana) and white-naped (Grus vipio) cranes, through examining the influences of two permeating (DMA and Me2SO) and one non-permeating (sucrose) cryoprotectants, as well as vitamin E on post-thaw sperm survival. In Study 1, ejaculates (whooping: n = 10, white-naped: n = 8) were collected and cryopreserved in one of six cryo-diluents (crane extender with: DMA; DMA+0.1M sucrose; Me2SO; Me2SO+0.1M sucrose; 0.1M sucrose; 0.2M sucrose) using a two-step cooling method. Frozen samples were thawed and assessed for overall motility, motion characteristics, membrane integrity, morphology, and ability to bind to the inner perivitelline membrane (IPVM). In Study 2, whooping crane ejaculates (n = 15) were frozen in crane extender containing Me2SO alone or with vitamin E (5 μg/mL or 10 μg/mL). Frozen samples were thawed and assessed as in Study 1, except the binding assay. White-naped crane sperm were more tolerant to cryopreservation than whooping crane (15% vs 6% post-thawed motility). In both species, sperm cryopreserved in medium containing Me2SO alone displayed higher post thaw survival and ability to bind to IPVM than the other cryodiluent treatments. Vitamin E supplementation exerted no benefits to post thaw motility or membrane integrity. The findings demonstrated that there was species specificity in the susceptibility to cryopreservation. Nevertheless, Me2SO was a preferred cryoprotectant for sperm from both whooping and white-naped cranes.



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Understand the mechanism of action of bisphosphonates and denosumab for the treatment of bone metastases:… https://t.co/96IJuOkuu8

Understand the mechanism of action of bisphosphonates and denosumab for the treatment of bone metastases:… https://t.co/96IJuOkuu8

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2018 AHA/ASA stroke guidelines & Radiology


The following are key points to remember from the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke:

  • These 2018 guidelines are an update to the 2013 guidelines, which were published prior to the six positive "early window" mechanical thrombectomy trials that emerged in 2015 and 2016 showed a clear benefit of "extended window" mechanical thrombectomy for certain patients with large vessel occlusion who could be treated out to 16-24 hours

  •  IV tPA should be administered to all eligible acute stroke patients within 3 hours of last known normal and to a more selective group of eligible acute stroke patients (based on ECASS III exclusion criteria) within 4.5 hours of last known normal. Centers should attempt to achieve door-to-needle times of 60>

  • Prior to initiation of IV tPA in most patients, a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) and glucose are the only required tests. 
  • Centers should attempt to obtain a noncontrast head CT within 20 minutes of arrival in ≥50% of stroke patients who may be candidates for IV tPA or mechanical thrombectomy

  • For patients who may be candidates for mechanical thrombectomy, an urgent CT angiogram or magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram (to look for large vessel occlusion) is recommended, but this study should not delay treatment with IV tPA if indicated.

  •  Patients ≥18 years should undergo mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever if they have minimal prestroke disability, have a causative occlusion of the internal carotid artery or proximal middle cerebral artery, have a National Institutes of Health stroke scale score of ≥6, have a reassuring noncontrast head CT (ASPECT score of ≥6), and if they can be treated within 6 hours of last known normal. No perfusion imaging (CT-P or MR-P) is required in these patients.

  • In selected acute stroke patients within 6-24 hours of last known normal who have evidence of a large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation obtaining perfusion imaging (CT-P or MR-P) or an MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence is recommended to help determine whether the patient is a candidate for mechanical thrombectomy.


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Defence strategies: How immunology took its great leap forward

The Beautiful Cure sets the stage for a coming revolution in immunology, with fascinating stories of how researchers solved puzzles they didn’t know existed

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Old Scientist: Separating the sheep from the sheep

What sort of high-tech innovation would you expect to see coming out of New Zealand? Livestock looms large in February issues of New Scientist past

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Diabetes, diet and #prostate cancer rates show the tangled web of mens health across the globe - healthy living in… https://t.co/vRNAaCFRAt

Diabetes, diet and #prostate cancer rates show the tangled web of mens health across the globe - healthy living in… https://t.co/vRNAaCFRAt

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Today is #WorldCancerDay! Join the global movement to show that #WeCanICan take action to prevent & fight #cancer.… https://t.co/QWjZ20YVhI

Today is #WorldCancerDay! Join the global movement to show that #WeCanICan take action to prevent & fight #cancer.… https://t.co/QWjZ20YVhI

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Defence strategies: How immunology took its great leap forward

c0066705-macrophage_engulfing_tb_bacteri

The Beautiful Cure sets the stage for a coming revolution in immunology, with fascinating stories of how researchers solved puzzles they didn’t know existed

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Old Scientist: Separating the sheep from the sheep

atyry0-800x533.jpg

What sort of high-tech innovation would you expect to see coming out of New Zealand? Livestock looms large in February issues of New Scientist past

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Or head to https://t.co/xVwK3id9CE for treatment guidance, nursing and care recommendations , and what the latest r… https://t.co/85h8XY88tp

Or head to https://t.co/xVwK3id9CE for treatment guidance, nursing and care recommendations , and what the latest r… https://t.co/85h8XY88tp

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RT @hifa_org : HIFA supports World Cancer Day. Too many people are dying for lack of information to prevent and manage cancer. https://t.co/…

RT @hifa_org : HIFA supports World Cancer Day. Too many people are dying for lack of information to prevent and manage cancer. https://t.co/…

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This #worldcancerday , head to https://t.co/Y8RR24m04D to read about the latest advances in cancer care, start e-le… https://t.co/mD199aYqYh

This #worldcancerday , head to https://t.co/Y8RR24m04D to read about the latest advances in cancer care, start e-le… https://t.co/mD199aYqYh

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Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 18: PGC-1α-Derived Peptide Influences Energy in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts

Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 18: PGC-1α-Derived Peptide Influences Energy in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts

Cosmetics doi: 10.3390/cosmetics5010018

Authors: Lenka Suchá Romana Šuláková Roman Fryčák Iva Dolečková

Mitochondrial energy metabolism declines during aging. PGC-1α is a transcription coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of energetic metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cells. The aim of this study was to compare the PPARGC1A gene expression level in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) derived from young and old donors. A PGC-1α-derived peptide was then synthetized and its ability to affect the PPARGC1A gene expression and mitochondrial function was tested. We assessed changes in PPARGC1A gene expression using quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of the PGC-1α-derived peptide on energy production was determined using an ATP bioluminescent assay kit. We also studied changes in mitochondrial membrane potential using JC-1 fluorescent dye and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA dye in NHDF cells after UVA/B irradiation alone and in combination with a peptide treatment. The PPARGC1A gene expression decreased in an aged human dermal fibroblast. The PGC-1α-derived peptide was synthetized and increased the PPARGC1A gene expression and ATP levels in cells. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential in UVA/B irradiated cells treated with the tested PGC-1α-derived peptide was increased compared to irradiated controls. Moreover, the ROS levels in UVA/B irradiated cells treated with the PGC-1α-derived peptide decreased. On the basis of our results, PGC-1α emerges as an interesting target to combat decreasing energetic metabolism in aging skin cells. Indeed, the PGC-1α-derived peptide increasing the PPARGC1A gene expression improved the mitochondrial function and increased energy production in the cells.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 267: Conceptualizing and Managing Medical Emergencies Where No Formal Paramedical System Exists: Perspectives from a Remote Indigenous Community in Canada

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 267: Conceptualizing and Managing Medical Emergencies Where No Formal Paramedical System Exists: Perspectives from a Remote Indigenous Community in Canada

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020267

Authors: Jeffrey Curran Stephen Ritchie Jackson Beardy David VanderBurgh Karen Born John Lewko Aaron Orkin

(1) Background: Remote communities in Canada lack an equitable emergency medical response capacity compared to other communities. Community-based emergency care (CBEC) training for laypeople is a model that has the potential to enhance the medical emergency response capacity in isolated and resource-limited contexts. The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of medical emergencies and to conceptualize and present a framework for what a medical emergency is for one remote Indigenous community in northwestern Ontario, in order to inform the development of CBEC training. (2) Methods: This study adhered to the principles of community-based participatory research and realist evaluation; it was an integrated component of the formative evaluation of the second Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative (SLWEREI) training course in 2012. Twelve members of Sachigo Lake First Nation participated in the training course, along with local nursing staff, police officers, community Elders, and course instructors (n = 24 total), who participated in interviews, focus groups, and a collaborative discussion of local health issues in the development of the SLWEREI. (3) Results: The qualitative results are organized into sections that describe the types of local health emergencies and the informal response system of community members in addressing these emergencies. Prominent themes of health adversity that emerged were an inability to manage chronic conditions and fears of exacerbations, the lack of capacity for addressing mental illness, and the high prevalence of injury for community members. (4) Discussion: A three-point framework of what constitutes local perceptions of an emergency emerged from the findings in this study: (1) a sense of isolation; (2) a condition with a potentially adverse outcome; and (3) a need for help.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 268: Will Green CSR Enhance Innovation? A Perspective of Public Visibility and Firm Transparency

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 268: Will Green CSR Enhance Innovation? A Perspective of Public Visibility and Firm Transparency

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020268

Authors: Weiwei Wu Yexin Liu Tachia Chin Wenzhong Zhu

In response to the asking and requiring of stakeholders to be more environmentally responsible, firms must commit to green corporate social responsibility (CSR). Firms being green and responsible always can acquire intangible resources that are important for firm innovation. Given the scarcity of existing research addressing relevant issues in depth, this paper expands our understanding of green CSR by revealing its antecedent effects on firm innovation performance. We also include public visibility and firm transparency as contingency factors to explore the relationship between green CSR and firm innovation performance. Using data collected from publicly listed firms in China, we find that greater innovation performance is associated with an increase in firm green CSR, and the positive relationship between green CSR and innovation performance is moderated by public visibility and firm transparency. Based on the results, theoretical contributions and practical implications are outlined.



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Brain Sciences, Vol. 8, Pages 26: What is Developmental Dyslexia?

Brain Sciences, Vol. 8, Pages 26: What is Developmental Dyslexia?

Brain Sciences doi: 10.3390/brainsci8020026

Authors: John Stein

Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but it also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems. I discuss how the ‘magnocellular theory’ attempts to do this in terms of slowed and error prone temporal processing which leads to dyslexics’ defective visual and auditory sequencing when attempting to read. I attempt to deal with the criticisms of this theory and show how it leads to a number of successful ways of helping dyslexic children to overcome their reading difficulties.



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 464: Role of Corneal Stromal Cells on Epithelial Cell Function during Wound Healing

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 464: Role of Corneal Stromal Cells on Epithelial Cell Function during Wound Healing

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19020464

Authors: Bhavani Kowtharapu Radovan Murín Anselm Jünemann Oliver Stachs

Following injury, corneal stromal keratocytes transform into repair-phenotype of activated stromal fibroblasts (SFs) and participate in wound repair. Simultaneously, ongoing bi-directional communications between corneal stromal-epithelial cells also play a vital role in mediating the process of wound healing. Factors produced by stromal cells are known to induce proliferation, differentiation, and motility of corneal epithelial cells, which are also subsequently the main processes that occur during wound healing. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the effect of SFs conditioned medium (SFCM) on corneal epithelial cell function along with substance P (SP). Antibody microarrays were employed to profile differentially expressed cell surface markers and cytokines in the presence of SFCM and SP. Antibody microarray data revealed enhanced expression of the ITGB1 in corneal epithelial cells following stimulation with SP whereas SFCM induced abundant expression of IL-8, ITGB1, PD1L1, PECA1, IL-15, BDNF, ICAM1, CD8A, CD44 and NTF4. All these proteins have either direct or indirect roles in epithelial cell growth, movement and adhesion related signaling cascades during tissue regeneration. We also observed activation of MAPK signaling pathway along with increased expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vimentin, β-catenin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. Additionally, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulating transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 expression were enhanced in the presence of SFCM. SP enriched the expression of integrin subunits α4, α5, αV, β1 and β3 whereas SFCM increased α4, α5, αV, β1 and β5 integrin subunits. We also observed increased expression of Serpin E1 following SP and SFCM treatment. Wound healing scratch assay revealed enhanced migration of epithelial cells following the addition of SFCM. Taken together, we conclude that SFCM-mediated sustained activation of ZEB1, Slug in combination with upregulated migration-associated integrins and ERK (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase)-FAK-paxillin axis, may lead to induce type 2 EMT-like changes during corneal epithelial wound healing.



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Inguinal Endometriosis Visualized on I-131 Whole Body Scan.

Inguinal Endometriosis Visualized on I-131 Whole Body Scan.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):52-54

Authors: Çayır D, Araz M, Apaydın M, Çakal E

Abstract
We present a rare case with inguinal iodine-131 (I-131) uptake on whole body scan. The patient was suffering from a painful right inguinal mass during menstrual period, which was later sonographically and histopathologically confirmed to be an inguinal focus of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a previously reported site of radioiodine uptake and detection of radioiodine uptake in the inguinal region has also been described. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of I-131 uptake in an inguinal endometriosis focus. History and physical examination of the patient are both very important in identifying the etiology of the ectopic uptake sites on I-131 whole body scan, and inguinal endometriosis should be kept in mind while reporting inguinal radioiodine uptake on I-131 whole body scan.

PMID: 29393056 [PubMed]



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Tc-99m MDP Bone SPECT/CT Findings of a Patient Detected with a New Mutation in LEMD3 Gene: A Case of Osteopoikilosis.

Tc-99m MDP Bone SPECT/CT Findings of a Patient Detected with a New Mutation in LEMD3 Gene: A Case of Osteopoikilosis.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):48-51

Authors: Silov G, Erdoğan Z, Erdoğan M, Özdal A, Gençer H, Akalın T, Karaçavuş S

Abstract
Osteopoikilosis is an inherited condition with autosomal dominant trait resulting in sclerotic foci throughout the skeleton. It has been suggested that loss-of-function mutations of LEMD3 gene located on 12q14.3 result in osetopoikilosis. A bp heterozygote deletion was detected in our patient at the cytosine nucleotide at position 1105 with molecular genetic analysis. Although this mutation has not been previously described, it was considered to be the most likely cause of the disease in our patient due to frame shift and premature stop codon formation. As in our case, three phase bone scintigraphy and whole body imaging did not reflect the true extent of lesion sites and lesion activity. SPECT/CT images could reflect lesion location and activity more accurately, and could be a good alternative for differential diagnosis of unexplained bone pain and sclerotic lesions in one examination.

PMID: 29393055 [PubMed]



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Primary Thyroid Lymphoma: External Beam Radiation Therapy Induced Thyroiditis Mimics Residual Disease on Serial 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging.

Primary Thyroid Lymphoma: External Beam Radiation Therapy Induced Thyroiditis Mimics Residual Disease on Serial 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):41-47

Authors: Makis W, Ciarallo A, Probst S

Abstract
A 67-year-old female patient with no prior history of benign thyroid disease was diagnosed with primary thyroid lymphoma and was staged with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). She was treated with chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy, and a follow-up PET/CT showed significant reduction in the size of the thyroid lymphoma with persistent intense 18F-FDG uptake, which was interpreted as partial response to therapy. However, two subsequent PET/CT studies showed no change in the persistent intense 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid and a biopsy confirmed the presence of thyroiditis with no evidence of residual lymphoma. Follow-up PET/CTs performed over the subsequent three years showed stable intensely 18F-FDG avid thyroiditis with no evidence of lymphoma recurrence. We present the imaging characteristics of a long term radiation treatment induced thyroiditis mimicking 18F-FDG avid residual disease on PET/CT.

PMID: 29393054 [PubMed]



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Inflammatory and Ischemic Post Liver Transplant Complications Mimic Malignancy on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

Inflammatory and Ischemic Post Liver Transplant Complications Mimic Malignancy on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):37-40

Authors: Makis W, Ciarallo A, Probst S

Abstract
A 65-year-old male patient with a one year history of liver transplantation was referred for an 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to rule out post transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Multiple foci of intense abnormal 18F-FDG uptake were seen in the transplanted liver which were concerning for malignancy. Explantation of the liver approximately 1 month following the PET/CT revealed multiple inflammatory and ischemic changes including large bile duct necrosis, acute cholangitis, bile duct obstruction changes and periportal fibrosis, with no evidence of malignancy. We present the 18F-FDG PET/CT image findings of this case.

PMID: 29393053 [PubMed]



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Unilateral Muscle Artifacts due to Non-compliance During Uptake Phase of 18F-FDG PET/CT in an Oncologic Patient.

Unilateral Muscle Artifacts due to Non-compliance During Uptake Phase of 18F-FDG PET/CT in an Oncologic Patient.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):32-36

Authors: Makis W, Hudson EW

Abstract
A 49-year-old male patient with a prior history of poor compliance with medical appointments was referred for an 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the staging of a rectal squamous cell carcinoma. The PET/CT showed unilateral diffuse skeletal muscle 18F-FDG uptake as well as bilateral salivary gland uptake artifacts, suggestive of non-compliance with patient preparation instructions. The PET/CT nurse noted that during the 18F-FDG uptake phase, the patient appeared intoxicated, and she found two beer cans hidden in the waste disposal beside his chair just prior to imaging. The patient only admitted to eating a cookie approximately 30 minutes after the injection of 18F-FDG PET/CT and denied consuming alcohol during the uptake phase. We present the imaging findings of non-compliance with patient instructions during the uptake phase of 18F-FDG.

PMID: 29393052 [PubMed]



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The Contribution of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Stress Fracture of the Proximal Tibia.

The Contribution of SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Stress Fracture of the Proximal Tibia.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):29-31

Authors: Okudan B, Coşkun N, Arıcan P

Abstract
Stress fractures are injuries most commonly seen in the lower limbs and are usually caused by repetitive stress. While the distal and middle third of the tibia is the most frequent site for stress fractures (almost 50%), stress fractures of the proximal tibia is relatively rare and could be confused with other types of tibial fractures, thus altering management plans for the clinician. Early diagnosis of stress fractures is also important to avoid complications. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of stress fractures, especially bone scan. Combined with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) it is an important imaging technique for stress fractures in both upper and lower extremities, and is widely preferred over other imaging techniques. In this case, we present the case of a 39-year-old male patient diagnosed with stress fracture of the proximal tibia and demonstrate the contribution of CT scan fused with SPECT imaging in the early diagnosis of stress fracture prior to other imaging modalities.

PMID: 29393051 [PubMed]



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Sphenoid Bone Fibrous Dysplasia Detected Incidentally on Bone Scintigraphy by the Contribution of SPECT/CT Hybrid Imaging.

Sphenoid Bone Fibrous Dysplasia Detected Incidentally on Bone Scintigraphy by the Contribution of SPECT/CT Hybrid Imaging.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):25-28

Authors: Şan H, Okuyucu K, Öner AO, Emer Ö, Karaçalıoğlu AÖ

Abstract
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign fibroosseous bone disorder. It has poliostotic and monostotic patterns. Monostotic FD is frequently asymptomatic and is usually discovered incidentally by radiologic imaging performed for other reasons. Bone scintigraphy is valuable for identifying disease extent. Craniofacial FD (CFD) is a form of the disease where lesions are limited to contiguous bones of the craniofacial skeleton. We presented a case with monostotic CFD who was detected incidentally on bone scintigraphy single-photon emission computed tomography/computerized tomography while being investigated for inflammatory arthropaties.

PMID: 29393050 [PubMed]



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Contribution of 18F-FDG PET/CT to Staging of Head and Neck Malignancies.

Contribution of 18F-FDG PET/CT to Staging of Head and Neck Malignancies.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):19-24

Authors: Ceylan Y, Ömür Ö, Hatipoğlu F

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Accurate staging of head and neck cancer (HNC) plays an important role in patient management as well as protection of functional characteristics of the head and neck region. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as part of HNC staging to clinical evaluation and treatment planning.
METHODS: Clinical records of 138 HNC cases who has undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-five cases who had accessible clinical follow-up data were included in the study group, and their PET/CT and conventional imaging findings were evaluated.
RESULTS: In the case group with a PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of primary lesion the sensitivity rates for PET/CT and MRI were calculated as 91.3% and 82.6%, the positive predictive values (PPV) as 91.3% and 82.6%, specificity as 71.4% and 42.8%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) as 71.4% and 42.8%, respectively. In terms of metastatic lymph node evaluation, the sensitivity was calculated as 100% and 88.8%, the NPV as 100% and 83.3%, respectively. The PPV and specificity was 100% for both modalities. In the case group with CT for primary lesion evaluation, the sensitivity and PPV were found as 95.2% and 100% for PET/CT, and as 85.7% and 94.7% for CT, respectively. in metastatic lymph node evaluation, the sensitivity was found as 100% for PET/CT and 50% for CT, and the PPV, specificity and NPV were determined as 100% for both methods. PET/CT findings resulted in a change in 'tumor, node, metastasis' staging in 5 cases.
CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT in HNC contributes to staging, thus playing a role in treatment planning, especially in patients with locally advanced disease.

PMID: 29393049 [PubMed]



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Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests.

Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):10-18

Authors: Demir M, Toklu T, Abuqbeitah M, Çetin H, Sezgin HS, Yeyin N, Sönmezoğlu K

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor.
METHODS: According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated aspects were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, image quality, count loss and random events correction accuracy.
RESULTS: The findings of this study demonstrated superior sensitivity (~ 4 folds) of PET scanner in PET/MR compared to PET/CT system. Image quality test exhibited higher contrast in PET/MR (~ 9%) compared with PET/CT. The scatter fraction of PET/MR was 43.4% at noise equivalent count rate (NECR) peak of 218 kcps and the corresponding activity concentration was 17.7 kBq/cc. Whereas the scatter fraction of PET/CT was found as 39.2% at NECR peak of 72 kcps and activity concentration of 24.3 kBq/cc. The percentage error of the random event correction accuracy was 3.4% and 3.1% in PET/MR and PET/CT, respectively.
CONCLUSION: It was concluded that PET/MR system is about 4 times more sensitive than PET/CT, and the contrast of hot lesions in PET/MR was ~ 9% higher than PET/CT. These outcomes also emphasize the possibility to achieve excellent clinical PET images with low administered dose and/or a short acquisition time in PET/MR.

PMID: 29393048 [PubMed]



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The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Evaluating Elevated Levels of Tumor Markers in Breast Cancer.

The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Evaluating Elevated Levels of Tumor Markers in Breast Cancer.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):3-9

Authors: Göktaş İ, Cayvarlı H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the follow-up of breast cancer patients, who underwent a PET/CT scan due to a suspicion of recurrence based on elevated levels of serum tumor markers.
METHODS: Seventy-seven consecutive patients were included in this study. PET/CT scan results were compared with the final diagnoses that were obtained from histopathological sampling or a minimum 6 months of radiological follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting recurrence were calculated.
RESULTS: All 77 patients had increased serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels while 37 had increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. According to PET/CT scan results, 59 of 77 patients (PET/CT positive) had local recurrence and/or distant metastasis while there was no pathological finding in 18 patients (PET/CT negative). In a follow-up of minimum 6 months, tumor recurrence was confirmed in 58 of "PET/CT positive" patients while no tumor recurrence was detected in 16 of "PET/CT negative" patients. According to these results the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting recurrence on a per-person basis were calculated as 98%, 88%, 96%, 94% and 96%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In case of elevated levels of serum tumor markers, PET/CT has a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting tumor recurrence in patients with breast cancer, and it is an effective modality that can be used in addition to conventional imaging techniques.

PMID: 29393047 [PubMed]



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The Evolving Role of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Theranostics and Personalized Therapeutic Applications.

The Evolving Role of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Theranostics and Personalized Therapeutic Applications.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2018 Feb 01;27(1):1-2

Authors: Bozkurt MF, Özcan Z

PMID: 29393046 [PubMed]



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Mentoring: an art and a responsibility



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Incidence and sociodemographic characteristics of eczema diagnosis in children: a cohort study



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Human Th17 cell development requires processing of dendritic cell-derived CXCL8 by neutrophil elastase



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Age-dependent Effect of Ambient Ozone on Emergency Asthma Hospitalizations in Hong Kong



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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 463: The Study of Anti-/Pro-Oxidant, Lipophilic, Microbial and Spectroscopic Properties of New Alkali Metal Salts of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 463: The Study of Anti-/Pro-Oxidant, Lipophilic, Microbial and Spectroscopic Properties of New Alkali Metal Salts of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19020463

Authors: Monika Kalinowska Ewelina Bajko Marzena Matejczyk Piotr Kaczyński Bożena Łozowicka Włodzimierz Lewandowski

Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium salts of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 5-CQA) were synthesized and described by FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy), FT-Raman (Raman spectroscopy), UV (UV absorption spectroscopy), 1H (400.15 MHz), 13C (100.63 MHz) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The quantum–chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level were done in order to obtain the optimal structures, IR spectra, NBO (natural bond orbital) atomic charges, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) orbitals and chemical reactivity parameters for 5-CQA and Li, Na and K 5-CQAs (chlorogenates). The DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were used for the preliminary estimation of the antioxidant properties of alkali metal chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid. In the DPPH assay the EC50 parameter were equal to 7.39 μM for 5-CQA and was in the range of 4.50–5.89 μM for salts. The FRAP values for two different concentrations (5 and 2.5 μM) of the studied compounds were respectively 114.22 and 72.53 μM Fe2+ for 5-CQA, whereas for salts they were 106.92–141.13 and 78.93–132.00 μM Fe2+. The 5-CQA and its alkali metal salts possess higher antioxidant properties than commonly applied antioxidants (BHA, BHT, l-ascorbic acid). The pro-oxidant action of these compounds on trolox oxidation was studied in the range of their concentration 0.05–0.35 μM. The lipophilicity (logkw) of chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid was determined by RP-HPLC (reverse phase—high performance liquid chromatography) using five different columns (C8, PHE (phenyl), CN (cyano), C18, IAM (immobilized artificial membrane)). The compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against E. coli, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes and antifungal activity against Candida sp. The 5-CQA possessed lower antibacterial (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC = 7.06 mM) and antifungal (MIC = 14.11 mM) properties than its alkali metal salts (MIC values: 6.46–2.63 mM and 12.91–5.27mM, respectively). The synthesized chlorogenates possessed better antioxidant, lipophilic, antimicrobial as well as lower pro-oxidant properties than the ligand alone. Moreover, a systematic change of the activity of alkali metal salts along the series Li→Cs suggests that there are correlations between the studied biological properties. The type of metal cation in the carboxylate group of chlorogenate is crucial for the activity of studied compounds.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 266: Do Authoritarian Governments Respond to Public Opinion on the Environment? Evidence from China

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 266: Do Authoritarian Governments Respond to Public Opinion on the Environment? Evidence from China

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020266

Authors: Xiao Tang Weiwei Chen Tian Wu

Given its serious impacts on the public’s health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public’s environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011–2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public’s dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study’s findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 265: Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Nursing Assistants Working in Nursing Homes

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 265: Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Nursing Assistants Working in Nursing Homes

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020265

Authors: Kin Cheung Grace Szeto Godfrey Lai Shirley Ching

The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WRMSs) in different body parts for nursing assistants (NAs) working in nursing homes is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of WRMSs in nursing assistants and the factors associated with them. Four hundred and forty NAs from 52 nursing homes, recruited by convenience sampling, participated in this cross-sectional study in 2014–2015. A valid and reliable study questionnaire was used to collect data. The results of our study found that 88.4% of NAs reported at least one body part with WRMSs. These NAs reported more symptoms in the shoulders than lower back. Adverse workstyle (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08) was the only factor associated with WRMSs after adjustment for potential confounders using multivariable logistic regression. This adverse workstyle could be developed because of physical and psychological work demands. Efforts should be directed at integrating “workstyle intervention” into lifestyle physical activity training to this group of healthcare workers.



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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 264: The Effect of a Leisure Time Physical Activity Intervention Delivered via a Workplace: 15-Month Follow-Up Study

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 264: The Effect of a Leisure Time Physical Activity Intervention Delivered via a Workplace: 15-Month Follow-Up Study

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020264

Authors: Marit Skogstad Lars-Kristian Lunde Bente Ulvestad Hans Aass Thomas Clemm Asgeir Mamen Øivind Skare

In line with recommendations from both the World Health Organization and the European Union some employers encourage workplace health promotion through physical activity (PA) facilities and leisure time PA-initiatives. The current study describes a 15-month follow-up after an 8-week workplace delivered PA-initiative, investigates if improvements in cardiovascular risk status are sustainable, and elucidates differences according to educational level. One hundred and twenty one employees (43 women) were examined before and after the 8-week PA-initiative and 94 at the 15-month follow-up. PA-levels, blood pressure, resting heart rate, lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP), and selected markers of inflammation were registered at baseline, immediately after the 8-week PA-initiative, and 15 months after baseline. At the end of follow-up (15-month), PA-levels—increased during the 8-week intervention—had returned to baseline values. None of the five improvements in cardiovascular markers (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), P-selectin, CD40Ligand (CD40L) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)) seen at the 8-week follow-up were sustained. At the 15-month follow-up as compared to baseline HbA1c, CRP (log) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were reduced by 0.06 mmol/L (95% CI −0.11,−0.01), 0.25 mg/L (95% CI −0.46,−0.04) and 0.39 pg/mL (95% CI −0.75, −0.04), respectively. At baseline, there were differences in cardiovascular risk factors comparing men with low versus high levels of education. No differences in changes in outcomes between these groups of men were found during follow-up. In this study highly educated men generally have lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors, but the effect of PA on such markers in this group do not differ from the effects seen in less educated men.



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Mercury removal by engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing different rice metallothionein isoforms

Abstract

Mercury is one of the more common and potentially most harmful toxic metals. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. In the present work, genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells, which express four rice metallothionein (MT) isoforms as fusions with glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were tested for their ability to remove mercury. The results showed that the E. coli cells expressing OsMT1, OsMT2, OsMT3, and OsMT4 are able to remove 20, 13.7, 10, and 7 nmol Hg2+/mg (dry weight) from the culture medium, respectively. The recombinant GSTOsMTs were purified using affinity chromatography. The UV absorption spectra and the results of 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid (DTNB) assay recorded after the reconstitution of the apo-OsMTs with mercury confirmed that the different OsMT isoforms were able to form mercury complexes in vitro with different binding capacities and different binding strength.



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Targeted muscle reinnervation: advances and opportunities

It is with interest, and some concern, that we read the recent letter from Messrs Nikkhah et al. (1). Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical development for the rehabilitation community with enormous potential to improve the quality of life for amputees. However, their letter fails to clarify exactly what TMR is, and how it can benefit amputees. There are two aspects to TMR. Kuiken's first aim was to improve the control of a myoelectric prostheses and secondly to strive for “intuitive” manipulation of a prosthesis (2,3).

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Population-based cross-sectional study to assess newborn hearing screening program in central Germany

Airway management during adenoidectomy is traditionally performed through endotracheal intubation (ETT). Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) may be less stimulating to the airway and allow for shorter overall operating room time. Previous studies report LMA use during adenotonsillectomy with conversion rates to ETT of up to 17%. There has been no prior evaluation of LMA use during adenoidectomy alone. In this study, we attempt to identify the rate and contributing factors of LMA failure during adenoidectomy.

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Epidemiological trends among preterm infants with apnea. A twelve-year database review

This study sought to characterize trends in the diagnosis of apnea, associated comorbidities and complications, and 30-day readmission rates in preterm singleton infants.

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Sleep endoscopy findings in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy

Describe the patterns of obstruction in persistent pediatric OSA and their relationship with patient weight.

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The split hypoglossal nerve versus the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer for facial reanimation: a comparative study

Long-standing cases of facial paralysis are currently treated with free functional muscle transfer. Several nerves are mentioned in the literature to supply the free muscle transfer. The aim of this study is to compare the split hypoglossal nerve and the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer in facial reanimation.Of 94 patients with long-standing, unilateral facial palsy, 49 were treated using the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the split hypoglossal nerve, and 45 patients were treated using the healthy contralateral buccal branch of the facial nerve.

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Calcinosis cutis

Calcinosis cutis: a condition in which calcium deposits form in the skin. This can result from a number of conditions, but is most commonly due to the process known as dystrophic calcification, in which calcium deposits develop in the body as a response to injury and healing of tissues. It also can be seen in individuals with malignant or benign tumors, inflammation, certain skin or soft tissue infections, autoimmune conditions like systemic sclerosis, and metabolic disorders. In some individuals, firm nodules or lumps can be felt beneath the skin.

Also referred to as cutaneous calcification.



MedTerms (TM) is the Medical Dictionary of MedicineNet.com.
We Bring Doctors' Knowledge To You

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CCL19-producing fibroblastic stromal cells restrain lung carcinoma growth by promoting local antitumor T cell responses

A particular characteristic of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the composition of the tumor microenvironment with a very high proportion of fibroblastic stromal cells (FSC).

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IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 263: Fat Mass Index and Body Mass Index Affect Peak Metabolic Equivalent Negatively during Exercise Test among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan

IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 263: Fat Mass Index and Body Mass Index Affect Peak Metabolic Equivalent Negatively during Exercise Test among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020263

Authors: Shenghui Tuan Hungtzu Su Yijen Chen Minhui Li Yunjen Tsai Chunhan Yang Kolong Lin

Peak metabolic equivalent (MET) is the most reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The aim of this study was to examine the association between CRF indicated by peak MET and body mass index (BMI) or fat mass index (FMI) in Taiwanese children and adolescents (C-A). Data of 638 C-A aged 10–18 that received symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing was analyzed. Anthropometry-body composition was measured by vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI was defined as body weight (kg)/body height (m)2 and FMI was defined as fat mass (kg)/body height (m)2. BMI was grouped by Taiwanese obesity cut-off points. FMI Class-I was categorized by percentage of body fat. FMI Class-II used the reference values from Korean C-A. Excess adiposity was defined as (1) “overweight” and “obesity” by BMI, (2) greater than the sex- and age-specific 75th percentile of whole subjects by FMI Class-I, and (3) greater than 95th percentiles of reference value by FMI Class-II. Boys had significantly higher fat mass and FMI, and had more excess adiposity than girls (all p < 0.05). Both boys and girls with excess adiposity (by any definition) had lower MET at anaerobic threshold (AT MET) and peak MET (all p < 0.001). BMI and FMI were significantly negatively associated with both AT MET and peak MET significantly (all p < 0.001). FMI (95% CI: −0.411~−0.548) correlated with peak MET more than BMI (95% CI: −0.134~ −0.372) did. Excess adiposity affected CRF negatively. It is concluded that weight management should start early in childhood.



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Direct visualization of nucleolar G-quadruplexes in live cells by using a fluorescent light-up probe

Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): Suge Zhang, Hongxia Sun, Hongbo Chen, Qian Li, Aijiao Guan, Lixia Wang, Yunhua Shi, Shujuan Xu, Meirong Liu, Yalin Tang
BackgroundDirect detection of G-quadruplexes in human cells has become an important issue due to the vital role of G-quadruplex related to biological functions. Despite several probes have been developed for detection of the G-quadruplexes in cytoplasm or whole cells, the probe being used to monitor the nucleolar G-quadruplexes is still lacking.MethodsFormation of the nucleolar G-quadruplex structures was confirmed by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The binding affinity and selectivity of Thioflavin T (ThT) towards various DNA/RNA motifs in solution and gel system were measured by using fluorescence spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), respectively. G-quadruplex imaging in live cells was directly captured by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).ResultsFormation of the rDNA and rRNA G-quadruplex structures is demonstrated in vitro. ThT is found to show much higher affinity and selectivity towards these G-quadruplex structures versus other nucleic acid motifs either in solution or in gel system. The nucleolar G-quadruplexes in living cells are visualized by using ThT as a fluorescent probe. G-quadruplex-ligand treatments in live cells lead to sharp decrease of ThT signal.ConclusionsThe natural existence of the G-quadruplexes structure in the nucleoli of living cells is directly visualized by using ThT as an indicator.General significanceThe research provides substantive evidence for formation of the rRNA G-quadruplex structures, and also offers an effective probe for direct visualization of the nucleolar G-quadruplexes in living cells.



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Development of the “Day 100 Talk”: Addressing existing communication gaps during the early cancer treatment period in childhood cancer

Abstract

Background

Families’ communication needs during the early cancer treatment period (ECTP) may not be optimally met by current practices. We sought to identify potential communication gaps and to ameliorate these by developing a novel in-depth conversation between families and their pediatric oncologists, the “Day 100 Talk” (D100), during the ECTP.

Procedure

We conducted semistructured interviews with parents and patients undergoing childhood cancer treatment for < 7 months. Interviews sought to elicit perceived communication gaps regarding cancer care and inform D100 development. Following qualitative analysis of interview responses, we developed a three-part D100 conversation tool consisting of a preparatory family worksheet, a conversation guide, and a family summary sheet. We presented the tool during interviews and a focus group with pediatric oncology providers and revised it to incorporate provider input.

Results

Twenty-two stakeholders (six parents, five adolescents, and 11 providers) participated in interviews or a focus group. Parents and patients perceived insufficient anticipatory guidance as the most important communication gap. They also reported sometimes withholding worries and cancer-related beliefs. Meanwhile, oncology providers worried about “opening Pandora's Box” and limited clinical time. Additionally, providers reported employing indirect methods such as surmising to determine families’ needs and relying on psychosocial clinicians to engage families around potentially “taboo” issues of emotional coping and spirituality.

Conclusion

Creating a communication occasion (D100), ensuring complementary disciplinary expertise through joint participation by oncologists and psychosocial clinicians, and providing a conversation tool to prompt disclosure by families and facilitate anticipatory guidance may ameliorate existing communication gaps during the ECTP.



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A novel frameshift mutation in the MPL gene in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia



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