|The Association of Antibiotic Stewardship With Fluoroquinolone Prescribing in Michigan Hospitals: A Multi-hospital Cohort Study|
BackgroundFluoroquinolones increase the risk of Clostridioides difficile infection and antibiotic resistance. Hospitals often use pre-prescription approval or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing. Whether these strategies impact aggregate fluoroquinolone use is unknown.
MethodsThis study is a 48-hospital, retrospective cohort of general-care, medical patients hospitalized with pneumonia or positive urine culture between December 2015–September 2017. Hospitals were surveyed on their use of pre-prescription approval and/or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization (fluoroquinolone stewardship). After controlling for hospital clustering and patient factors, aggregate (inpatient and post-discharge) fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) exposure was compared between hospitals with and without fluoroquinolone stewardship.
ResultsThere were 11 748 patients (6820 pneumonia; 4928 positive urine culture) included at 48 hospitals. All hospitals responded to the survey: 29.2% (14/48) reported using pre-prescription approval and/or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing. After adjustment, fluoroquinolone stewardship was associated with fewer patients receiving a fluoroquinolone (37.1% vs 48.2%; P = .01) and fewer fluoroquinolone treatment days per 1000 patients (2282 vs 3096 days/1000 patients; P = .01), driven by lower inpatient prescribing. However, most (66.6%) fluoroquinolone treatment days occurred after discharge, and hospitals with fluoroquinolone stewardship had twice as many new fluoroquinolone starts after discharge as hospitals without (15.6% vs 8.4%; P = .003).
ConclusionsHospital-based stewardship interventions targeting fluoroquinolone prescribing were associated with less fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization, but not at discharge. To limit aggregate fluoroquinolone exposure, stewardship programs should target both inpatient and discharge prescribing.
|Prevalence, Predictors, and Successful Treatment Outcomes of Xpert MTB/RIF–identified Rifampicin-resistant Tuberculosis in Post-conflict Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012–2017: A Retrospective Province-Wide Cohort Study|
BackgroundMultidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) jeopardizes global TB control. The prevalence and predictors of Rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB, a proxy for MDR-TB, and the treatment outcomes with standard and shortened regimens have not been assessed in post-conflict regions, such as the South Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to fill this knowledge gap and to inform the DRC National TB Program.
Methodsof adults and children evaluated for pulmonary TB by sputum smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) from February 2012 to June 2017. Multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan–Meier estimates, and multivariable Cox regression were used to assess independent predictors of RR-TB and treatment failure/death.
ResultsOf 1535 patients Xpert-positive for TB, 11% had RR-TB. Independent predictors of RR-TB were a positive sputum smear (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63–3.59), retreatment of TB (aOR 4.92, 95% CI 2.31–10.45), and one or more prior TB episodes (aOR 1.77 per episode, 95% CI 1.01–3.10). Over 45% of RR-TB patients had no prior TB history or treatment. The median time from Xpert diagnosis to RR-TB treatment initiation was 12 days (interquartile range 3–60.2). Cures were achieved in 30/36 (83%) and 84/114 (74%) of patients on 9- vs 20/24-month MDR-TB regimens, respectively (P = .06). Predictors of treatment failure/death were the absence of directly observed therapy (DOT; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.77, 95% CI 1.2–6.66) and any serious adverse drug event (aHR 4.28, 95% CI 1.88–9.71).
ConclusionsFavorable RR-TB cure rates are achievable in this post-conflict setting with a high RR-TB prevalence. An expanded Xpert scale-up; the prompt initiation of shorter, safer, highly effective MDR-TB regimens; and treatment adherence support are critically needed to optimize outcomes.
|Hepatitis C Guidance 2018 Update: AASLD-IDSA Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C Virus Infection|
AbstractRecognizing the importance of timely guidance regarding the rapidly evolving field of hepatitis C management, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed a web-based process for the expeditious formulation and dissemination of evidence-based recommendations. Launched in 2014, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) guidance website undergoes periodic updates as necessitated by availability of new therapeutic agents and/or research data. A major update was released electronically in September 2017, prompted primarily by approval of new direct-acting antiviral agents and expansion of the guidance's scope. This update summarizes the latest release of the HCV guidance and focuses on new or amended recommendations since the previous September 2015 print publication. The recommendations herein were developed by volunteer hepatology and infectious disease experts representing AASLD and IDSA and have been peer reviewed and approved by each society's governing board.