Πέμπτη, 21 Φεβρουαρίου 2019

Clinical Infectious Diseases

The Association of Antibiotic Stewardship With Fluoroquinolone Prescribing in Michigan Hospitals: A Multi-hospital Cohort Study
Abstract
Background
Fluoroquinolones increase the risk of Clostridioides difficile infection and antibiotic resistance. Hospitals often use pre-prescription approval or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing. Whether these strategies impact aggregate fluoroquinolone use is unknown.
Methods
This study is a 48-hospital, retrospective cohort of general-care, medical patients hospitalized with pneumonia or positive urine culture between December 2015–September 2017. Hospitals were surveyed on their use of pre-prescription approval and/or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization (fluoroquinolone stewardship). After controlling for hospital clustering and patient factors, aggregate (inpatient and post-discharge) fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) exposure was compared between hospitals with and without fluoroquinolone stewardship.
Results
There were 11 748 patients (6820 pneumonia; 4928 positive urine culture) included at 48 hospitals. All hospitals responded to the survey: 29.2% (14/48) reported using pre-prescription approval and/or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing. After adjustment, fluoroquinolone stewardship was associated with fewer patients receiving a fluoroquinolone (37.1% vs 48.2%; P = .01) and fewer fluoroquinolone treatment days per 1000 patients (2282 vs 3096 days/1000 patients; P = .01), driven by lower inpatient prescribing. However, most (66.6%) fluoroquinolone treatment days occurred after discharge, and hospitals with fluoroquinolone stewardship had twice as many new fluoroquinolone starts after discharge as hospitals without (15.6% vs 8.4%; P = .003).
Conclusions
Hospital-based stewardship interventions targeting fluoroquinolone prescribing were associated with less fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization, but not at discharge. To limit aggregate fluoroquinolone exposure, stewardship programs should target both inpatient and discharge prescribing.


Prevalence, Predictors, and Successful Treatment Outcomes of Xpert MTB/RIF–identified Rifampicin-resistant Tuberculosis in Post-conflict Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012–2017: A Retrospective Province-Wide Cohort Study
Abstract
Background
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) jeopardizes global TB control. The prevalence and predictors of Rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB, a proxy for MDR-TB, and the treatment outcomes with standard and shortened regimens have not been assessed in post-conflict regions, such as the South Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to fill this knowledge gap and to inform the DRC National TB Program.
Methods
of adults and children evaluated for pulmonary TB by sputum smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) from February 2012 to June 2017. Multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan–Meier estimates, and multivariable Cox regression were used to assess independent predictors of RR-TB and treatment failure/death.
Results
Of 1535 patients Xpert-positive for TB, 11% had RR-TB. Independent predictors of RR-TB were a positive sputum smear (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63–3.59), retreatment of TB (aOR 4.92, 95% CI 2.31–10.45), and one or more prior TB episodes (aOR 1.77 per episode, 95% CI 1.01–3.10). Over 45% of RR-TB patients had no prior TB history or treatment. The median time from Xpert diagnosis to RR-TB treatment initiation was 12 days (interquartile range 3–60.2). Cures were achieved in 30/36 (83%) and 84/114 (74%) of patients on 9- vs 20/24-month MDR-TB regimens, respectively (P = .06). Predictors of treatment failure/death were the absence of directly observed therapy (DOT; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.77, 95% CI 1.2–6.66) and any serious adverse drug event (aHR 4.28, 95% CI 1.88–9.71).
Conclusions
Favorable RR-TB cure rates are achievable in this post-conflict setting with a high RR-TB prevalence. An expanded Xpert scale-up; the prompt initiation of shorter, safer, highly effective MDR-TB regimens; and treatment adherence support are critically needed to optimize outcomes.


The Association of Antibiotic Stewardship With Fluoroquinolone Prescribing in Michigan Hospitals: A Multi-hospital Cohort Study
Abstract
Background
Fluoroquinolones increase the risk of Clostridioides difficile infection and antibiotic resistance. Hospitals often use pre-prescription approval or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing. Whether these strategies impact aggregate fluoroquinolone use is unknown.
Methods
This study is a 48-hospital, retrospective cohort of general-care, medical patients hospitalized with pneumonia or positive urine culture between December 2015–September 2017. Hospitals were surveyed on their use of pre-prescription approval and/or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization (fluoroquinolone stewardship). After controlling for hospital clustering and patient factors, aggregate (inpatient and post-discharge) fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) exposure was compared between hospitals with and without fluoroquinolone stewardship.
Results
There were 11 748 patients (6820 pneumonia; 4928 positive urine culture) included at 48 hospitals. All hospitals responded to the survey: 29.2% (14/48) reported using pre-prescription approval and/or prospective audit and feedback to target fluoroquinolone prescribing. After adjustment, fluoroquinolone stewardship was associated with fewer patients receiving a fluoroquinolone (37.1% vs 48.2%; P = .01) and fewer fluoroquinolone treatment days per 1000 patients (2282 vs 3096 days/1000 patients; P = .01), driven by lower inpatient prescribing. However, most (66.6%) fluoroquinolone treatment days occurred after discharge, and hospitals with fluoroquinolone stewardship had twice as many new fluoroquinolone starts after discharge as hospitals without (15.6% vs 8.4%; P = .003).
Conclusions
Hospital-based stewardship interventions targeting fluoroquinolone prescribing were associated with less fluoroquinolone prescribing during hospitalization, but not at discharge. To limit aggregate fluoroquinolone exposure, stewardship programs should target both inpatient and discharge prescribing.


Prevalence, Predictors, and Successful Treatment Outcomes of Xpert MTB/RIF–identified Rifampicin-resistant Tuberculosis in Post-conflict Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012–2017: A Retrospective Province-Wide Cohort Study
Abstract
Background
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) jeopardizes global TB control. The prevalence and predictors of Rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB, a proxy for MDR-TB, and the treatment outcomes with standard and shortened regimens have not been assessed in post-conflict regions, such as the South Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to fill this knowledge gap and to inform the DRC National TB Program.
Methods
of adults and children evaluated for pulmonary TB by sputum smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) from February 2012 to June 2017. Multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan–Meier estimates, and multivariable Cox regression were used to assess independent predictors of RR-TB and treatment failure/death.
Results
Of 1535 patients Xpert-positive for TB, 11% had RR-TB. Independent predictors of RR-TB were a positive sputum smear (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63–3.59), retreatment of TB (aOR 4.92, 95% CI 2.31–10.45), and one or more prior TB episodes (aOR 1.77 per episode, 95% CI 1.01–3.10). Over 45% of RR-TB patients had no prior TB history or treatment. The median time from Xpert diagnosis to RR-TB treatment initiation was 12 days (interquartile range 3–60.2). Cures were achieved in 30/36 (83%) and 84/114 (74%) of patients on 9- vs 20/24-month MDR-TB regimens, respectively (P = .06). Predictors of treatment failure/death were the absence of directly observed therapy (DOT; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.77, 95% CI 1.2–6.66) and any serious adverse drug event (aHR 4.28, 95% CI 1.88–9.71).
Conclusions
Favorable RR-TB cure rates are achievable in this post-conflict setting with a high RR-TB prevalence. An expanded Xpert scale-up; the prompt initiation of shorter, safer, highly effective MDR-TB regimens; and treatment adherence support are critically needed to optimize outcomes.


Glycocalyx Breakdown is Associated with Severe Disease and Fatal Outcome in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
Abstract
Background
Interactions between the endothelium and infected erythrocytes, microvascular dysfunction and parasite sequestration play major roles in the pathogenesis of severe falciparum malaria. The glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-rich layer lining the endothelium mediating NO production and vascular homeostasis. The role of the glycocalyx in falciparum malaria and the association with disease severity is not known.
Methods
We prospectively enrolled Indonesian inpatients (≥18 years old) with severe (SM) or moderately-severe (MSM) falciparum malaria and healthy controls (HCs). Glycocalyx breakdown products were measured in enrolment samples of urine (glycosaminoglycans; dimethylmethylene blue [GAG-DMMB] and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [GAG-MS] assays) and plasma (syndecan-1; ELISA), and related to vascular NO bioavailability (reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry).
Results
A total of 129 subjects (SM=43, MSM=57, HC=29) were recruited. Syndecan-1 (µg/ml), GAG-DMMB and GAG-MS (g/mol creatinine) were increased in SM [median (range) 332.4 (85-3-1913), 3.16 (0.04-27.9) and 4.73 (2.02-27.13)] compared to MSM [99.1 (19.9-767.6), 1.28 (0.03-9.3) and 4.44 (1.19-13.87)], and HCs [48.9 (32.3-88.3), 0.11 (0.02-1.9) and 2.55 (0.73-10.19)]; P<0.001. In SM, GAG-DMMB and GAG-MS were increased in non-survivors (n=3) [median (IQR): 6.72 (3.80-27.87) and 12.15 (7.88-17.20)] compared to survivors n=39 [(3.10 (0.46-4.5) and 4.64 (2.02-15.20)]; P=0.03. Glycocalyx degradation was associated with parasite biomass in MSM (r=0.31, P=0.03 [syndecan-1]; r=0.48 [GAG-DMMB] and r=0.43 [GAG-MS], P<0.001), and SM patients (r=0.29, P=0.04, r=0.47; P=0.002 and r=0.33, P=0.04), and inversely associated with endothelial NO bioavailability.
Conclusions
Increased endothelial glycocalyx breakdown is associated with impaired vascular NO, severe disease and fatal outcome in adults with falciparum malaria, likely contributing to pathogenesis.


Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction in children less than 2 years of age presenting for medical care with diarrhea in rural Matlab, Bangladesh
Abstract
Background
Following the conclusion of a Rotarix vaccine (HRV) cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRT) in Matlab, Bangladesh, HRV was included in Matlab's routine immunization program. We describe the population-level impact of programmatic rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh in children <2 years of age
Methods
Interrupted time series were used to estimate the impact of HRVintroduction. Diarrheal surveillance collected between 2000 and 2014 within the two service delivery areas (icddr,b service area [ISA] and government service area [GSA]) of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System administered by icddr,b was used. Age-group specific incidence rates were calculated for both rotavirus-positive (RV+) and rotavirus-negative (RV-) diarrhea of any severity presenting to the hospital. Two models were used to assess impact within each service area: Model 1 used the pre-vaccine time period in all villages (HRV- and control-only) and Model 2 combined the pre-vaccine time period and the CRT time period using outcomes from control-only villages.
Results
Both models demonstrated a downward trend in RV+ diarrheal incidence in the ISA villages during 3.5 years of routine HRV use, though only Model 2 was statistically significant. Significant impact of HRV on RV+ diarrhea incidence in GSA villages was not observed in either model. Differences in population-level impact between the two delivery areas may be due to varied rotavirus vaccine coverage and presentation rate to the hospital.
Conclusions
This study provides initial evidence of the population-level impact of rotavirus vaccines in children <2 years of age in Matlab, Bangladesh. Further studies of rotavirus vaccine impact after nationwide introduction in Bangladesh are needed.


Transmission-blocking effects of primaquine and methylene blue suggest P. falciparum gametocyte sterilisation rather than effects on sex ratio
Abstract
Gametocyte density and sex-ratio can predict the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected after feeding on blood of patients receiving non-gametocytocidal drugs. Because primaquine and methylene blue sterilize gametocytes before affecting their density and sex-ratio, mosquito feeding experiments are required to demonstrate their early transmission-blocking effects.


Principal Controversies in Vaccine Safety in the United States
Abstract
Concerns about vaccine safety can lead to decreased acceptance of vaccines and resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases. We summarize the key evidence on some of the main current vaccine safety controversies in the United States, including: 1) MMR vaccine and autism; 2) thimerosal, a mercury-based vaccine preservative, and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders; 3) vaccine-induced Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS); 4) vaccine-induced autoimmune diseases; 5) safety of HPV vaccine; 6) aluminum adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases and other disorders; and 7) too many vaccines given early in life predisposing children to health and developmental problems. A possible small increased risk of GBS following influenza vaccination has been identified, but the magnitude of the increase is less than the risk of GBS following influenza infection. Otherwise, the biological and epidemiologic evidence does not support any of the reviewed vaccine safety concerns.


Insertion as resistance mechanism against integrase inhibitors in several retroviruses


Birth Cohort Studies Assessing Norovirus Infection and Immunity in Young Children: A Review
Abstract
Globally, noroviruses are among the foremost causes of acute diarrheal disease, yet there are many unanswered questions on norovirus immunity, particularly following natural infection in young children during the first 2 years of life when the disease burden is highest. We conducted a literature review on birth cohort studies assessing norovirus infections in children from birth to early childhood. Data on infection, immunity, and risk factors are summarized from 10 community-based birth cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Up to 90% of children experienced atleast one norovirus infection and up to 70% experienced norovirus-associated diarrhea, most often affecting children 6 months of age and older. Data from these studies help to fill critical knowledge gaps for vaccine development, yet study design and methodological differences limit comparison between studies, particularly for immunity and risk factors for disease. Considerations for conducting future birth cohort studies on norovirus are discussed.


In the Literature


Saddle Nose Deformity in an Immunosuppressed Patient


Cover


News


Ebola's Curse: 2013–2016 Outbreak in West Africa
By OldstoneMichael and OldstoneMadeleine. Elsevier, 2017. 126 pp. $89.95 (hardcover). ISBN: 9780128138885.

Cost-effectiveness and Cost-utility of the Adherence Improving Self-management Strategy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care: A Trial-based Economic Evaluation
Abstract
Background
Several promising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment adherence interventions have been identified, but data about their cost-effectiveness are lacking. This study examines the trial-based cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of the proven-effective Adherence Improving Self-Management Strategy (AIMS), from a societal perspective, with a 15-month time horizon.
Methods
Treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients at risk for viral rebound were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or AIMS in a multicenter randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. AIMS is a nurse-led, 1-on-1 self-management intervention incorporating feedback from electronic medication monitors, delivered during routine clinical visits. Main outcomes were costs per reduction in log10 viral load, treatment failure (2 consecutive detectable viral loads), and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).
Results
Two hundred twenty-three patients were randomized. From a societal perspective, AIMS was slightly more expensive than TAU but also more effective, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €549 per reduction in log10 viral load and €1659 per percentage decrease in treatment failure. In terms of QALYs, AIMS resulted in higher costs but more QALYs compared to TAU, which resulted in an ICER of €27759 per QALY gained. From a healthcare perspective, AIMS dominated TAU. Additional sensitivity analyses addressing key limitations of the base case analyses also suggested that AIMS dominates TAU.
Conclusions
Base case analyses suggests that over a period of 15 months, AIMS may be costlier, but also more effective than TAU. All additional analyses suggest that AIMS is cheaper and more effective than TAU. This trial-based economic evaluation confirms and complements a model-based economic evaluation with a lifetime horizon showing that AIMS is cost-effective.
Clinical Trials Registration
NCT01429142


First Human Case of Metacestode Infection Caused by Versteria sp. in a Kidney Transplant Recipient
Abstract
Cestodes are emerging agents of severe opportunistic infections among immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of human infection, with the recently-proposed genus Versteria causing an invasive, tumor-like hepatic infection with regional and distant extension in a 53-year-old female kidney transplant recipient from Atlantic Canada.


Doravirine/Lamivudine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate is Non-inferior to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Treatment-naive Adults With Human Immunodeficiency Virus–1 Infection: Week 48 Results of the DRIVE-AHEAD Trial
Abstract
Background
Doravirine (DOR), a novel non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is active against wild-type Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 and the most common NNRTI-resistant variants, and has a favorable and unique in vitro resistance profile.
Methods
DRIVE-AHEAD is a phase 3, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Antiretroviral treatment–naive adults with ≥1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL were randomized (1:1) to once-daily, fixed-dose DOR at 100 mg, lamivudine at 300 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) at 300 mg (DOR/3TC/TDF) or to efavirenz at 600 mg, emtricitabine at 200 mg, and TDF at 300 mg (EFV/FTC/TDF) for 96 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants with <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at week 48 (Food and Drug Administration snapshot approach; non-inferiority margin 10%).
Results
Of the 734 participants randomized, 728 were treated (364 per group) and included in the analyses. At week 48, 84.3% (307/364) of DOR/3TC/TDF recipients and 80.8% (294/364) of EFV/FTC/TDF recipients achieved <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (difference 3.5%, 95% CI, -2.0, 9.0). DOR/3TC/TDF recipients had significantly lower rates of dizziness (8.8% vs 37.1%), sleep disorders/disturbances (12.1% vs 25.2%), and altered sensorium (4.4% vs 8.2%) than EFV/FTC/TDF recipients. Mean changes in fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (-3.83 vs +13.26 mg/dL) were significantly different between DOR/3TC/TDF and EFV/FTC/TDF (−1.6 vs +8.7 mg/dL and −3.8 vs +13.3 mg/dL, respectively).
Conclusions
In HIV-1 treatment-naive adults, DOR/3TC/TDF demonstrated non-inferior efficacy to EFV/FTC/TDF at week 48 and was well tolerated, with significantly fewer neuropsychiatric events and minimal changes in LDL-C and non–HDL-C compared with EFV/FTC/TDF.
Clinical Trials Registration
NCT02403674


A 44-Year-Old Female With Overwhelming Sepsis
sepsisaspleniaRPSA geneHowell-Jolly bodiesStreptococcus pneumonia

Concurrent Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara Species in the United States, 2011–2014
To the Editor—We report supplemental findings incorporating Toxoplasma gondii serology results from our study of risk factors for Toxocara seropositivity in the United States [1] using stored serum samples collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2014. Whereas T. gondii is a protozoan parasite and Toxocara is an intestinal nematode, both share ingestion of contaminated soil as means of exposure in humans. Both parasites can contaminate soil when environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts or Toxocara cati eggs are shed in the feces of infected cats [23].





Hepatitis C Guidance 2018 Update: AASLD-IDSA Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Abstract
Recognizing the importance of timely guidance regarding the rapidly evolving field of hepatitis C management, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed a web-based process for the expeditious formulation and dissemination of evidence-based recommendations. Launched in 2014, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) guidance website undergoes periodic updates as necessitated by availability of new therapeutic agents and/or research data. A major update was released electronically in September 2017, prompted primarily by approval of new direct-acting antiviral agents and expansion of the guidance's scope. This update summarizes the latest release of the HCV guidance and focuses on new or amended recommendations since the previous September 2015 print publication. The recommendations herein were developed by volunteer hepatology and infectious disease experts representing AASLD and IDSA and have been peer reviewed and approved by each society's governing board.


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