Πληροφορίες

Η φωτογραφία μου
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/,

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Τρίτη, 9 Φεβρουαρίου 2016

Road Perception Based Geographical Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are going to be an emerging multihop communication exploit among vehicles to deliver data packets. The special characteristics of vehicular network make the communication link between vehicles unreliable. To handle high mobility and environmental obstacles, most of geographical routing protocols do not consider stable links during packet transmission which lead to higher delay and packet dropping in network. In this paper, we propose road perception based geographical routing protocol named RPGR for VANET. The proposed routing protocol incorporates relative distance, direction, and midrange forwarder node with traffic density to forward the data toward destination in order to improve geographical forwarding between and at the intersections. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol performs better as compared to existing solutions.

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Performance Investigation of 40 GB/s DWDM over Free Space Optical Communication System Using RZ Modulation Format

We successfully demonstrate 40 GB/s 8 channels’ Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) over free space optical (FSO) communication system. Each channel is transmitting 5 GB/s data rate in downstream separated by 0.8 nm (100 GHz) channel spacing with 1.8 GHz filter bandwidth. DWDM over FSO communication system is very effective in providing high data rate transmission with very low bit error rate (BER). The maximum reach of designed system is 4000 m without any compensation scheme. The simulation work reports minimum BER for Return-to-Zero (RZ) modulation format at different channels 1, 4, and 8 are found to be , , and at 4000 m distance, respectively. Sharp increase in BER occurs if data rate and distance increase up to 10 GB/s and 5000 m.

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Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

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Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Spectroscopic Properties, and Interaction with Ct-DNA of Zn(II) with 2-Aminoethanethiol Hydrochloride Ligand

The zinc(II) complex (C2H6NS)2Zn·ZnCl2 was synthesized with 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride and zinc sulfate heptahydrate as the raw materials in aqueous solution. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry. The crystal structure of the zinc(II) complex belongs to monoclinic system, space group   , with cell parameters of = 0.84294(4), = 0.83920(4), = 1.65787(8) nm, , and = 2.041 g/cm3. In this paper, the interaction of complex with Ct-DNA was investigated by UV-visible and viscosimetric techniques. Upon addition of the complex, important changes were observed in the characteristic UV-Vis bands (hyperchromism) of calf thymus DNA and some changes in specific viscosity. The experimental results showed that the complex is bound to DNA intercalative (intercalation binding).

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Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoaggregates from Gladius of Uroteuthis duvauceli

We report the synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of chitosan nanoaggregates from gladius of squid, Uroteuthis duvauceli. β-Chitin extracted from gladius was deacetylated to chitosan and further reduced to nanosize using ionic gelation process. The morphology and occurrence of chitosan nanoaggregates (CSNA) were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of deacetylation (DD%) calculated from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed high value (~94 ± 1.25%) for chitosan. The CSNA depicts low molecular weight, stable positive zeta potential, and less ash and moisture content with high water and fat binding capacity. The antimicrobial activity was tested against pathogenic microorganisms, which depicted significant rate of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli due to high cellular uptake. The antioxidant analysis for CSNA demonstrated high reducing power and scavenging activity towards superoxide radicals compared with the commercially available chitosan. Furthermore, nanoaggregates exhibited low cytotoxic behavior in biological in vitro tests performed using cervical cancer cell line. These results indicate that chitosan nanoaggregates synthesized from waste gladius will be highly efficient and safe candidate for biological applications as food packing film, drug carrier, and tissue engineering.

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Identification of Contour Lines from Average-Quality Scanned Topographic Maps

Contour line is the main linear feature on topographic maps. Extraction of contour lines is tedious and time-consuming process, but is still an interesting problem. This paper presents a novel method for extracting contour lines from average-quality scanned topographic maps. First, it uses spatial fuzzy -means algorithm (sFCM) to solve color aliasing and false color problems by taking into consideration both color and spatial information of topographic maps during color segmentation. In order to improve the categorizing rate, upper and lower cut-sets are introduced into sFCM. Second, to deal with the problem of thick lines, node segments are removed before gaps are repaired. Third, different methods are used to repair contour lines gaps according to the causes, which improves the break points matching accuracy. The performance of the method is tested on several topographic maps comparing with other methods, and the results show that the method can avoid misleading results caused by distortion and wrong branches at intersecting regions when using thinning algorithms and have more accurate and higher quality extraction results.

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A Retained Bullet in Pericardial Sac: Penetrating Gunshot Injury of the Heart

Penetrating cardiac trauma is rarely seen but when present there is a short time lag to keep the patients alive. Cardiac gunshot injuries are exceptional and it occurs mostly during interpersonal disagreements casualties or a mistakenly fired gun nowadays. Here we present a case of cardiac gunshot injury from the war of Kobani, Syria. The patient was mistakenly diagnosed to have a sole bullet in the left shoulder while he had a penetrating cardiac trauma with a bullet in the heart and pericardial effusion possibly giving rise to pericardial tamponade. Luckily the cardiac gunshot injury was noticed one day later and the patient was referred to a tertiary hospital. Intrapericardial bullet was conservatively followed up. The patient was discharged one week later after resection of the bullet in the shoulder.

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Prosthodontic Management of Xerostomic Patient: A Technical Modification

Xerostomia is often a contributing factor in both minor and serious health problems. It can affect nutrition and dental as well as psychological health. Common problems faced by such patients are glossitis, mucositis, angular cheilitis, dysgeusia, and difficulty in chewing and swallowing. One of the major problems associated with xerostomic patients is the poor tolerance and retention of removable dental prostheses because of thin dry atrophic mucosa and lack of a saliva film. This paper describes a new technique of incorporating a salivary reservoir in the maxillary complete denture. The salivary reservoir fabricated by this technique provided good lubrication of the oral tissues and was easily cleansed by the wearer and was fabricated from routine denture materials.

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Role of Viral miRNAs and Epigenetic Modifications in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinogenesis

MicroRNAs are short (21–23 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that typically silence posttranscriptional gene expression through interaction with target messenger RNAs. Currently, miRNAs have been identified in almost all studied multicellular eukaryotes in the plant and animal kingdoms. Additionally, recent studies reported that miRNAs can also be encoded by certain single-cell eukaryotes and by viruses. The vast majority of viral miRNAs are encoded by the herpesviruses family. These DNA viruses including Epstein-Barr virus encode their own miRNAs and/or manipulate the expression of cellular miRNAs to facilitate respective infection cycles. Modulation of the control pathways of miRNAs expression is often involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis through a specific cascade of transduction signals. Notably, latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is considered liable of causing several types of malignancies, including the majority of gastric carcinoma cases detected worldwide. In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs.

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Propagation of Love-Type Wave in Porous Medium over an Orthotropic Semi-Infinite Medium with Rectangular Irregularity

Propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed porous medium over a semi-infinite orthotropic medium with the irregular interface has been studied. The method of separation of variables has been adopted to get the dispersion relation of Love-type wave. The irregularity is assumed to be rectangular at the interface of the layer and half-space. Finally, the dispersion relation of Love wave has been obtained in classical form. The presence of porosity, irregularity, and initial stress in the dispersion equation approves the significant effect of these parameters in the propagation of Love-type waves in porous medium bounded below by an orthotropic half-space. The scientific effect of porosity, irregularity, and initial stress in the phase velocity of the Love-type wave propagation has been studied and shown graphically.

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Double homozygous mutations (R275W and M432V) in the ParkinGene associated with late-onset Parkinson's disease

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Are more effective placebos complicating clinical trials?



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Purkinje cell loss in essential tremor: Random sampling quantification and nearest neighbor analysis

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ABSTRACT

Introduction

Purkinje cell loss has been documented in some, although not all, postmortem studies of essential tremor. Hence, there is considerable controversy concerning the presence of Purkinje cell loss in this disease. To date, few studies have been performed.

Methods

Over the past 8 years, we have assembled 50 prospectively studied cases and 25 age-matched controls; none were reported in our previous large series of 33 essential tremor and 21 controls. In addition to methods used in previous studies, the current study used a random sampling approach to quantify Purkinje cells along the Purkinje cell layer with a mean of 217 sites examined in each specimen, allowing for extensive sampling of the Purkinje cell layer within the section. For the first time, we also quantified the distance between Purkinje cell bodies—a nearest neighbor analysis.

Results

In the Purkinje cell count data collected from fifteen 100 × fields, cases had lower counts than controls in all three counting criteria (cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli; all P < 0.001). Purkinje cell linear density was also lower in cases than controls (all P < 0.001). Purkinje cell linear density obtained by random sampling was similarly lower in cases than controls in all three counting criteria (cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli, all P ≤ 0.005). In agreement with the quantitative Purkinje cell counts, the mean distance from one Purkinje cell body to another Purkinje cell body along the Purkinje cell layer was greater in cases than controls (P = 0.002).

Conclusions

These data provide support for the neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells in essential tremor. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society



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Research consent capacity varies with executive function and memory in Parkinson's disease

ABSTRACT

Background

We examined the association between cognitive domains and research consent capacity in PD. Our hypothesis was that research consent capacity is best predicted by executive function.

Methods

A cohort of 90 PD patients and 30 healthy older adults were administered the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research, Dementia Rating Scale-2, and the MoCA. Experts classified patients as either “capable” or “not capable” of providing informed consent to participate in two clinical trials.

Results

MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research Reasoning scores for both clinical trial types were most associated with executive functions and delayed recall. As scores on these domains improved, the odds of an expert rating of “capable of consent” increased.

Conclusions

These results extend our previous findings by demonstrating that memory and executive abilities appear closely associated with capacity when evaluated using either a structured interview or expert judgment of that interview. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society



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Validation of conversion between mini–mental state examination and montreal cognitive assessment

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ABSTRACT

Introduction

Harmonizing data across cohorts is important for validating findings or combining data in meta-analyses. We replicate and validate a previous conversion of MoCA to MMSE in PD.

Methods

We used five studies with 1,161 PD individuals and 2,091 observations measured with both the MoCA and MMSE. We compared a previously published conversion table using equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing to our internally derived scores.

Results

Both conversions found good agreement within and across the studies when comparing true and converted MMSE (mean difference: 0.05; standard deviation: 1.84; median difference: 0; interquartile range: –1 to 1, using internal conversion).

Conclusions

These results show that one can get a reliable and valid conversion between two commonly used measures of cognition in PD studies. These approaches need to be applied to other scales and domains to enable large-scale collaborative analyses across multiple PD cohorts. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society



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Selective connectivity of dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum



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Jadea e il progetto Pink is Good di Fondazione Umberto Veronesi - SilhouetteDonna


SilhouetteDonna

Jadea e il progetto Pink is Good di Fondazione Umberto Veronesi
SilhouetteDonna
Pink is Good dal 2013 si pone un grande obiettivo: combattere il tumore al seno. ... Proprio in occasione di questo progetto, il brand Jadea ha realizzato 4 prodotti “Pink is Good” che saranno disponibili nei negozi a partire dal mese di febbraio: un ...

and more »


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Another Layer of Defense: The Adaptive Immune System - Discovery Institute


Discovery Institute

Another Layer of Defense: The Adaptive Immune System
Discovery Institute
These regions are called the secondary lymphoid tissue and consist of the lymph nodes, the spleen, the tonsils, and adenoids and the appendix. After they mature, lymphocytes migrate back and forth between the blood and the secondary lymphoid tissue ...



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Moyamoya Disease: A Rare Sickle Cell Trait Neurological Complication

The post Moyamoya Disease: A Rare Sickle Cell Trait Neurological Complication appeared first on Welcome to Avens.



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Distinct oxidative cleavage and modification of bovine [cu- zn]-SOD by an ascorbic acid/cu(II) system: Identification of novel copper binding site on SOD molecule

Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Author(s): Hiroshi Uehara, Shen Luo, Baikuntha Aryal, Rodney L. Levine, V. Ashutosh Rao
We investigated the combined effect of ascorbate and copper [Asc/Cu(II)] on the integrity of bovine [Cu-Zn]-superoxide dismutase (bSOD1) as a model system to study the metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO) and fragmentation of proteins. We found Asc/Cu(II) mediates specific cleavage of bSOD1 and generates 12.5 and 3.2kDa fragments in addition to oxidation/carbonylation of the protein. The effect of other tested transition metals, a metal chelator, and hydrogen peroxide on the cleavage and oxidation indicated that binding of copper to a previously unknown site on SOD1 is responsible for the Asc/Cu(II) specific cleavage and oxidation. We utilized tandem mass spectrometry to identify the specific cleavage sites of Asc/Cu(II)-treated bSOD1. Analyses of tryptic- and AspN-peptides have demonstrated the cleavage to occur at Gly31 with peptide bond breakage with Thr30 and Ser32 through diamide and α-amidation pathways, respectively. The three-dimensional structure of bSOD1 reveals the imidazole ring of His19 localized within 5 Angstrom from the α-carbon of Gly31 providing a structural basis that copper ion, most likely coordinated by His19, catalyzes the specific cleavage reaction.



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Lend your voice to karaoke night for crackin' cancer cause - Northern Star


Northern Star

Lend your voice to karaoke night for crackin' cancer cause
Northern Star
“IT'S a bit of a tongue-in-cheek thing, in that it's not a karaoke competition per se, it's about having fun.” That's the chorus being sung by Patrick Fitz-Bugden about the inaugural Lismore Corporate Karaoke Cup he's organising in aid of cancer patients.



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Solid cancer incidence among Chinese medical diagnostic X-ray workers, 1950-1995: estimation of radiation-related risks

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate solid cancer risk attributable to long-term, fractionated occupational exposure to low-doses of ionizing radiation. Based on cancer incidence for the period 1950-1995 in a cohort of 27,011 Chinese medical diagnostic X-ray workers and a comparison cohort of 25,782 Chinese physicians who did not use X-ray equipment in their work, we used Poisson regression to fit excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) dose-response models for incidence of all solid cancers combined. Radiation dose reconstruction was based on a previously published method that relied on simulating measurements for multiple X-ray machines, workplaces and working conditions, information about protective measures, including use of lead aprons, and work histories. The resulting model was used to estimate calendar year-specific badge dose calibrated as personal dose equivalent (Sv). To obtain calendar year-specific colon doses (Gy), we applied a standard organ conversion factor. 1643 cases of solid cancer were identified in 1.45 million person-years of follow-up. In both ERR and EAR models, a statistically significant radiation dose-response relationship was observed for solid cancers as a group. Averaged over both sexes, and using colon dose as the dose metric, the estimated ERR/Gy was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.48, 1.45), and the EAR was 22 per 104PY-Gy (95% CI: 14, 32) at age 50. We obtained estimates of the ERR and EAR of solid cancers per unit dose that are compatible with those derived from other populations chronically exposed to low dose-rate occupational or environmental radiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Methylation in Benign Prostate and Risk of Disease Progression in Men Subsequently Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer

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Abstract

In DNA from prostate tumors, methylation patterns in gene promoter regions can be a biomarker for disease progression. It remains unclear whether methylation patterns in benign prostate tissue—prior to malignant transformation—may provide similar prognostic information. To determine whether early methylation events predict prostate cancer outcomes, we evaluated histologically benign prostate specimens from 353 men who eventually developed prostate cancer and received “definitive” treatment (radical prostatectomy [58%] or radiation therapy [42%]). Cases were drawn from a large hospital-based cohort of men with benign prostate biopsy specimens collected between 1990 and 2002. Risk of disease progression associated with methylation was estimated using time-to-event analyses. Average follow-up was over 5 years; biochemical recurrence (BCR) occurred in 91 cases (26%). In White men, methylation of the APC gene was associated with increased risk of BCR, even after adjusting for standard clinical risk factors for prostate cancer progression (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.26; 95%CI 1.23-4.16). APC methylation was most strongly associated with a significant increased risk of BCR in White men with low prostate specific antigen at cohort entry (HR=3.66; 95%CI 1.51–8.85). In additional stratified analyses, we found that methylation of the RARB gene significantly increased risk of BCR in African American cases who demonstrated methylation of at least one of the other four genes under study (HR=3.80; 95%CI 1.07–13.53). These findings may have implications in the early identification of aggressive prostate cancer as well as reducing unnecessary medical procedures and emotional distress for men who present with markers of indolent disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Equivalent chemotherapy efficacy against leukemia in mice treated with topical vasoconstrictors to prevent cancer therapy side effects

Abstract

Topically applied vasoconstrictor is a new strategy to prevent oral mucositis and alopecia, two complications of chemotherapy and stem-cell transplant. We sought to determine whether mice treated with topical vasoconstrictor minutes before chemotherapy to suppress L1210 leukemia would develop a vasoconstrictor-induced L1210 cell sanctuary, and with it, significantly worse survival outcomes. B6D2F1 mice received 104 mouse L1210 leukemia cells via retro-orbital intravenous injection and were then divided into treatment groups, which included: i) no further treatment, ii) a single, sub-curative, intraperitoneal dose of cyclophosphamide (90 µg/gm bw) 24 hr after L1210 cell inoculation, iii) topical epinephrine (25-400 mM) to clipped dorsal backs 20 min before cyclophosphamide, or iv) orotopical phenylephrine (16-130 mM), epinephrine (10 mM) or norepinephrine (25 mM) 20 min before cyclophosphamide. All mice were then followed until day of death. Differences in median survival time and percent survival between mice receiving cyclophosphamide alone and mice treated with either orotopical phenylephrine, epinephrine or norepinephrine; or topical epinephrine before cyclophosphamide were not significantly different. A discernible leukemia sanctuary was not created by topical vasoconstrictor treatment prior to chemotherapy; there was no significant difference in leukemia progression between untreated mice and those treated with either orotopical or topical vasoconstrictor before chemotherapy. We have opened a Phase I/IIa dose escalation trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of orotopical phenylephrine in preventing oral mucositis in subjects undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning with cyclophosphamide plus total body irradiation. This could provide a cost-effective and convenient method to prevent oral mucositis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



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Blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury involved to inhibit the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats

Abstract

Blood glucose fluctuation is associated with diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of blood glucose fluctuation on diabetic nephropathy in rats and investigate its underlying mechanism. Diabetes in the rats was induced by a high sugar, high-fat diet, and a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)-injected intraperitoneally. Unstable blood sugar models were induced by subcutaneous insulin injection and intravenous glucose injection alternately. Body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and Creatinine clearance (Ccr) were assessed. T-SOD activity and MDA level were measured by assay kit. Change in renal tissue ultrastructure was observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Phosphorylated ser/thr protein kinase (p-AKT) (phosphor-Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) (phosphor-Ser9), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (BCL-2), and cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3) levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We observed that BUN and Scr were increased in diabetic rats, and Ccr was decreased. Furthermore, blood glucose fluctuations could exacerbate the Ccr changes. Renal tissue ultrastructure was also seriously injured by glucose variability in diabetic rats. In addition, glucose fluctuation increased the oxidative stress of renal tissue. Moreover, fluctuating blood glucose decreased p-AKT level and BCL-2, and increased p-GSK-3β, BAX, cleaved-caspase-3 levels, and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that blood glucose fluctuation accelerated renal injury is due, at least in part to its oxidative stress promoting and inhibiting the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats.



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Association of primary aldosteronism with chronic thyroiditis



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Electrocardiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism during workout

Abstract

Subclinical hyperthyroidism (sHT) was found to be associated with elevated heart rate, blood pressure and increased risk of extrasystoles. However, the full clinical relevance of morphological and functional implications of sHT on the cardiovascular system is still a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the influence of endogenous sHT on exercise capacity and cardiac function during workout with the use of exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) and perfusion scintigraphy. The studied group consisted of 44 consecutively recruited patients diagnosed with sHT. In all patients, ExECG, followed by post-exercise myocardial perfusion imaging, was performed. Both ExECG and scintigraphy were performed twice—in the state of sHT and after euthyroidism was restored. An average time period of exercise test was significantly longer in the state of euthyroidism than in sHT. An average oxygen consumption during exercise test was also higher after euthyroidism was achieved when compared to sHT. The end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes, stroke volume index and cardiac index were significantly larger in patients with sHT if compared values achieved after euthyroidism restoration. Stroke volume index was negatively correlated with TSH, and positively with free thyroid hormones values in the state of sHT, before euthyroidism was achieved. Cardiac index was positively correlated with free thyroid hormones levels. The obtained results indicate worse physical capacity in subjects with sHT and improvement of several parameters assessed during ExECG and perfusion scintiscan after therapy. Observed changes might reflect the mechanism of the deleterious effect exerted by sHT on the heart.



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Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes: the MÉDITA randomized controlled trial

Abstract

Mediterranean-style diets provide cardiovascular benefits and increase insulin sensitivity. There is little evidence that adherence to Mediterranean diet may influence the levels of the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess whether Mediterranean diet influences both C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and whether adherence to Mediterranean diet affects their circulating levels. In a two-arm, single-center trial, 215 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet (n = 108, 54 males and 54 females) or a low-fat diet (n = 107, 52 males and 55 females), with a total follow-up of 8.1 years. At baseline visit and at 1 year, body weight, HOMA index, CRP, and adiponectin and its fractions were assessed. Adherence to the diets was assessed by calculating the Mediterranean-diet score. At 1 year, CPR fell by 37 % and adiponectin rose by 43 % in the Mediterranean diet group, while remaining unchanged in the low-fat diet group. The pattern of adiponectin fractions (high and non-high molecular weight) showed a response similar to that of total adiponectin. Diabetic patients with the highest scores (6–9 points) of adherence to Mediterranean diet had lower circulating CRP level and higher circulating total adiponectin levels than the diabetic patients who scored <3 points on the scale (P = 0.001). The results of this randomized controlled trial demonstrate that Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu of type 2 diabetes.



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Diagnosis of turner syndrome in two mothers following their daughters' diagnosis



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Identification of several circulating microRNAs from a genome-wide circulating microRNA expression profile as potential biomarkers for impaired glucose metabolism in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Abstract

This study aimed to detect serum microRNAs (miRNAs) differentially expressed between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), PCOS patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and healthy controls. A TaqMan miRNA array explored serum miRNA profiles as a pilot study, then selected miRNAs were analyzed in a validation cohort consisting of 65 PCOS women with IGM, 65 PCOS women with NGT, and 45 healthy women The relative expression of miR-122, miR-193b, and miR-194 was up-regulated in PCOS patients compared with controls, whereas that of miR-199b-5p was down-regulated. Furthermore, miR-122, miR-193b, and miR-194 were increased in the PCOS-IGM group compared with the PCOS-NGT group. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that miR-193b and body mass index contributed independently to explain 43.7 % (P < 0.0001) of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance after adjustment for age. Investigation of diagnostic values confirmed the optimal combination of BMI and miR-193b to explore the possibility of IGM in PCOS women with area under the curve of 0.752 (95 % CI 0.667–0.837, P < 0.001). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the predicted target functions of these miRNAs mainly involved glycometabolism and ovarian follicle development pathways, including the insulin signaling pathway, the neurotrophin signaling pathway, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. This study expands our knowledge of the serum miRNA expression profiles of PCOS patients with IGM and the predicted target signal pathways involved in disease pathophysiology.



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The role of immune system exhaustion on cancer cells escape and anti-tumor immune induction after irradiation

Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer
Author(s): Fernando Mendes, Cátia Domingues, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Ana Margarida Abrantes, Ana Cristina Gonçalves, Jéssica Estrela, João Encarnação, Ana Salomé Pires, Mafalda Laranjo, Vera Alves, Ricardo Teixo, Ana Bela Sarmento, Maria Filomena Botelho, Manuel Santos Rosa
Immune surveillance seems to represent an effective tumor suppressor mechanism. However, some cancer cells survive and become variants, being poorly immunogenic and able to enter a steady-state phase. These cells become functionally dormant or remain hidden clinically throughout. Neoplastic cells seem to be able to instruct immune cells to undergo changes promoting malignancy. Radiotherapy may act as a trigger of the immune response. After radiotherapy a sequence of reactions occurs, starting in the damage of oncogenic cells by multiple mechanisms, leading to the immune system positive feedback against the tumor. The link between radiotherapy and the immune system is evident. T cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells and other immune cells seem to have a key role controlling the tumor. T cells may be dysfunctional and remain in a state of T cell exhaustion, nonetheless, they often retain a high potential for successful defense against cancer, being able to be mobilized to become highly functional. The lack of clinical trials on a large scale makes data little robust, in spite of promising information, there are still many variables in the studies relating to radiation and immune system. The clarification of the mechanisms underlying immune response to radiation exposure may contribute to treatment improvement, gain of life quality and span of patients.



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