Πληροφορίες

Η φωτογραφία μου
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/,

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Κυριακή, 22 Ιανουαρίου 2017

Head and Neck Cancer Therapeutic and Drug Pipeline Review H2 - EIN News (press release)


Head and Neck Cancer Therapeutic and Drug Pipeline Review H2
EIN News (press release)
Head and Neck Cancer is a cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, or larynx). The common symptoms of cancer of the head and neck include persistent pain in the throat, pain or ...

and more »


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JCM, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Mechanisms of Regulatory B cell Function in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases beyond IL-10

In the past two decades it has become clear that in addition to antigen presentation and antibody production B cells play prominent roles in immune regulation. While B cell-derived IL-10 has garnered much attention, B cells also effectively regulate inflammation by a variety of IL-10-independent mechanisms. B cell regulation has been studied in both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. While collectively called regulatory B cells (Breg), no definitive phenotype has emerged for B cells with regulatory potential. This has made their study challenging and thus unique B cell regulatory mechanisms have emerged in a disease-dependent manner. Thus to harness the therapeutic potential of Breg, further studies are needed to understand how they emerge and are induced to evoke their regulatory activities.

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Head and Neck Cancer Therapeutic and Drug Pipeline Review H2 - EIN News (press release)


Head and Neck Cancer Therapeutic and Drug Pipeline Review H2
EIN News (press release)
Head and Neck Cancer is a cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, or larynx). The common symptoms of cancer of the head and neck include persistent pain in the throat, pain or ...

and more »


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Adhesive Through-Reinforcement Improves the Fracture Toughness of a Laminated Birch Wood Composite

In this paper we test the hypothesis that adhesive through-reinforcement in combination with glass-fibre reinforcement of adhesive bond lines will significantly improve the fracture toughness of a laminated birch wood composite. We test this hypothesis using a model composite consisting of perforated veneer that allowed a polyurethane adhesive to penetrate and reinforce veneers within the composite. Model composite specimens were tested for mode I fracture properties, and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of fracture surfaces. Our results clearly show that through-reinforcement, and also reinforcing adhesive bond lines with glass-fibre, significantly improved fracture toughness of the birch wood composite. Our results also indicate that improvements in fracture toughness depended on the level of reinforcement. Improvements in fracture toughness were related to the ability of the reinforcement to arrest crack development during fracture testing and the fibre bridging effect of glass-fibre in adhesive bond lines. We conclude that through-reinforcement is an effective way of improving the fracture toughness of laminated wood composites, but further research is needed to develop practical ways of creating such reinforcement in composites that more closely resemble commercial products.

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Transcriptional Profile of Kidney from Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common diabetic microvascular complication, is characterized by progressive glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in DN remain to be elucidated. We explored changes in the transcriptional profile in spontaneous type 2 diabetic db/db mice by using the cDNA microarray. Compared with control db/m mice, the db/db mice exhibited marked increases in body weight, kidney weight, and urinary albumin excretion. Renal histological analysis revealed mesangial expansion and thickness of the basement membrane in the kidney of the db/db mice. A total of 355 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by microarray analysis. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that biological oxidation, bile acid metabolism, and steroid hormone synthesis were the 3 major significant pathways. The top 10 hub genes were selected from the constructed PPI network of DEGs, including Ccnb2 and Nr1i2, which remained largely unclear in DN. We believe that our study can help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying DN.

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Efficacy and Tolerability of Travoprost 0.004/Timolol 0.5 Fixed-Dose Combination for the Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Inadequately Controlled with Beta-Blocker Monotherapy

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TTFC) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) inadequately controlled on beta-blocker monotherapy. Methods. In this phase IV, open-label study, 156 patients on beta-blocker monotherapy with mean intraocular pressure (IOP) between 18 and 32 mmHg were randomized (no washout period) to receive TTFC for 8 weeks (TTFC group) or to continue beta-blocker monotherapy for 4 weeks followed by TTFC for the remaining 4 weeks (beta-blocker group). Results. The mean IOP (±standard deviation) at baseline in the TTFC and beta-blocker groups was  mmHg and  mmHg, respectively, and at weeks 4 and 8, was  mmHg and  mmHg, respectively, in TTFC group and  mmHg and  mmHg, respectively, in the beta-blocker group. There was a significant least squares mean difference between TTFC and beta-blocker in 8 a.m. IOP at week 4 (−4.6 mmHg; one-sided 95% confidence interval [−inf, −3.9]; [primary endpoint]); the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval was within the prespecified limit (

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Analyzing the Influence of Neighborhood Development Pattern on Modal Choice

Although several studies have been undertaken on the association between built environmental characteristics and travel patterns in western societies, the impacts of the local built environment on individuals’ travel behavior considering the specific conditions of developing nations have remained largely unknown. Thus, this paper investigates the travel behavior effects of local planning and design in three residential neighborhoods of Shiraz, a city in the southwest of Iran. The data on land use and built environment characteristics were extracted primarily from an existing digital map and GIS, whereas the data on individuals’ socioeconomics and their daily travel behavior were purposefully collected using a field questionnaire survey (). A nested logit model (NLM) based on the microeconomic utility concept was then applied to discover the impacts of personal characteristics and built environment factors on the choice mode of the individuals. The results and the associated policy implications can be helpful in defining a strategic agenda for neighborhood design and planning.

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Investigating the heterogeneity of alkylating agents’ efficacy and toxicity between sexes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide (MAIAGE study)

Abstract

Background

A marginal interaction between sex and the type of alkylating agent was observed for event-free survival in the Euro-EWING99-R1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in Ewing sarcoma. To further evaluate this interaction, we performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of RCTs assessing cyclophosphamide versus ifosfamide in any type of cancer.

Methods

A literature search produced two more eligible RCTs (EICESS92 and IRS-IV). The endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS, main endpoint) and overall survival (OS). The hazard ratios (HRs) of the treatment-by-sex interaction and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were assessed using stratified multivariable Cox models. Heterogeneity of the interaction across age categories and trials was explored. We also assessed this interaction for severe acute toxicity using logistic models.

Results

The meta-analysis comprised 1,528 pediatric and young adult sarcoma patients from three RCTs: Euro-EWING99-R1 (n = 856), EICESS92 (n = 155), and IRS-IV (n = 517). There were 224 PFS events in Euro-EWING99-R1 and 200 in the validation set (EICESS92 + IRS-IV), and 171 and 154 deaths in each dataset, respectively. The estimated treatment-by-sex interaction for PFS in Euro-EWING99-R1 (HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.00–3.00) was not replicated in the validation set (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.55–1.72), without heterogeneity across trials (P = 0.62). In the pooled analysis, the treatment-by-sex interaction was not significant (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.89–1.95, P = 0.17), without heterogeneity across age categories (P = 0.88) and trials (P = 0.36). Similar results were observed for OS. No significant treatment-by-sex interaction was observed for leucopenia/neutropenia (P = 0.45), infection (P = 0.64), or renal toxicity (P = 0.20).

Conclusion

Our meta-analysis did not confirm the hypothesis of a treatment-by-sex interaction on efficacy or toxicity outcomes.



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Combination of bevacizumab, irinotecan, and temozolomide for refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma: Results of a phase II study

Abstract

Background

The rationale for studying the combination of bevacizumab, irinotecan, and temozolomide (BIT) in neuroblastoma (NB) is based on the following: (i) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with an aggressive phenotype, (ii) anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab enhances irinotecan-mediated suppression of NB xenografts, (iii) bevacizumab safety has been established in pediatric phase I studies, and (iv) irinotecan + temozolomide (IT) is a standard salvage chemotherapy.

Procedure

We conducted a phase II study of BIT in patients with measurable/evaluable refractory or relapsed high-risk NB (http://ift.tt/PmpYKN, NCT01114555). Each cycle consisted of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) on days 1 and 15 plus irinotecan (50 mg/m2/day IV) and temozolomide (150 mg/m2/day orally) on days 4–8. Patients could have previously received, but not relapsed on, IT. An early stopping rule mandated continuing therapy only if more than five patients of 27 evaluable patients achieved partial response (PR) or complete response (CR) after four cycles.

Results

Thirty-three heavily pretreated patients (nine primary refractory; 24 relapsed) received one to eight cycles of BIT. Toxicities were expected and transient. Grade 4 toxicities were neutropenia (30%) and thrombocytopenia (24%). Grade 3 toxicities included hepatic transaminitis (15%), proteinuria (9%), and diarrhea (3%). Overall responses were as follows: three CR (all in prior IT-treated patients), 18 no response, and 12 progressive disease. Only one of 23 patients assessable for the early stopping rule regarding efficacy achieved PR/CR, so patient accrual was discontinued. Median progression-free survival and overall survival was 7.7 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 5.6 months, respectively; all patients continued anti-NB therapy post-BIT.

Conclusions

BIT was well tolerated, but the addition of bevacizumab did not improve response rates in resistant NB compared to historical data for IT.



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Awareness of cord blood collection and the impact on banking

Abstract

Background

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation especially in minority populations with limited chances of finding a histocompatible volunteer donor in the registry. UCB has the advantages of early availability, successful outcomes despite some histocompatibility mismatch, and low incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Public cord blood banks that disseminate UCB products for transplant depend on voluntary donation at participating hospitals and obstetrical providers for collection.

Procedure

Using survey questionnaires, we evaluated attitudes toward UCB donation, the frequency of donation, and provider opinions on UCB collection in the greater St. Louis metropolitan area that caters to minority ethnicities in significant numbers.

Results

Our data suggest that nervousness and lack of information regarding the donation and utility of the product were ubiquitous reasons for not donating. Additionally, irrespective of age or level of education, women relied on healthcare providers for information regarding UCB donation. Providers reported primarily time constraints to discussing UCB donation at prenatal visits (54%). Of the interviewees, 62% donated UCB. Fallout due to refusal or preferring private banking was miniscule.

Conclusions

These results suggest that dedicated personnel focused on disseminating information, obtaining consent, and collecting the UCB product at major hospitals can enrich cord blood banks especially with minority cords. Sustained and focused efforts could improve upon a relatively high wastage rate and ensure a robust supply of UCB products at local public banks.



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The clinical presentation and genotype of protein C deficiency with double mutations of the protein C gene

Abstract

Background

Severe protein C (PC) deficiency is a rare heritable thrombophilia leading to thromboembolic events during the neonatal period. It remains unclear how individuals with complete PC gene (PROC) defects develop or escape neonatal stroke or purpura fulminans (PF).

Procedure

We studied the onset of disease and the genotype of 22 PC-deficient patients with double mutations in PROC based on our cohort (n = 12) and the previous reports (n = 10) in Japan.

Results

Twenty-two patients in 20 unrelated families had 4 homozygous and 18 compound heterozygous mutations. Sixteen newborns presented with PF (n = 11, 69%), intracranial thromboembolism and hemorrhage (n = 13, 81%), or both (n = 8, 50%), with most showing a plasma PC activity of <10%. Six others first developed overt thromboembolism when they were over 15 years of age, showing a median PC activity of 31% (range: 19–52%). Fifteen of the 22 patients (68%) had the five major mutations (G423VfsX82, V339M, R211W, M406I, and F181V) or two others (E68K and K193del) that have been reported in Japan. Three of the six late-onset cases, but none of the 16 neonatal cases, had the K193del mutation, which has been reported to be the most common variant of Chinese thrombophilia. A novel mutation of A309V was determined in a family of two patients with late onset.

Conclusions

The genotype of double-PROC mutants might show less diversity than heterozygous mutants in terms of the timing of the onset of thrombophilia (newborn onset or late onset).



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Concurrent myeloid sarcoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and hypereosinophilia in an infant with a germline SMARCB1 mutation

Abstract

We report a 1-year-old female child presenting with hypereosinophilia who was found to have concurrent myeloid sarcoma and a central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT). She was later found to have a germline mutation in SMARCB1. Concurrent hematologic malignancy and CNS AT/RT have not previously been described in the context of a SMARCB1 loss-of-function germline mutation.



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Patterns and influences in health-related quality of life in children with immune thrombocytopenia: A study from the Dallas ITP Cohort

Abstract

Background

Relationships between clinical/demographic factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remain poorly understood. Recent studies reveal conflicting information about factors that contribute to HRQoL.

Methods

This was a prospective, single-institution, cohort study of newly diagnosed children with ITP. Serial evaluations of HRQoL were performed using the Kid's ITP Tools (KIT), scored from 0 (worst) to 100 (best), at enrollment and 1 week, 6 months, and 12 months following diagnosis. All visits included bleeding severity grading. Relationships between HRQoL and platelet count, treatment, bleeding severity, and course of disease were examined.

Results

A total of 99 children with newly diagnosed ITP were evaluable for analysis. KIT scores were low at diagnosis for parents (median 26, range 15–43) and children (median 65, range 55–81) and were not influenced by age or platelet count. At diagnosis, children who received treatment had lower platelet counts (P = 0.005), more severe hemorrhage (P < 0.0125), and lower HRQoL by parent, child, and proxy reporting (P < 0.05). Oral bleeding negatively impacted proxy-reported disease burden at diagnosis (P = 0.01). Persistence of disease and lower platelet counts at 6 and 12 month visits were the only factors noted to consistently impact quality of life beyond diagnosis for both parents and children.

Conclusions

HRQoL is low at diagnosis but significantly improves over time. Patients with ongoing disease and lower platelet counts continue to have significant disease burden.



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First experience of the AML-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group in pediatric patients with standard-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoid acid

Abstract

Recently, studies in adults with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) showed high cure rates in low-risk patients treated with all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), while toxicities were significantly reduced compared to the standard treatment with ATRA and chemotherapy. Here we report about first experience with 11 pediatric patients with low-risk APL treated with ATRA and ATO. All patients stayed in molecular remission. All suffered from hyperleukocytosis. Two patients experienced reversible severe side effects. One suffered from osteonecroses at both femurs, seizures, as well as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the other patient had an abducens paresis.



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Head and Neck Cancer Therapeutic and Drug Pipeline Review H2 - EIN News (press release)


Head and Neck Cancer Therapeutic and Drug Pipeline Review H2
EIN News (press release)
Head and Neck Cancer is a cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, or larynx). The common symptoms of cancer of the head and neck include persistent pain in the throat, pain or ...



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Trusts introduce bedside eyesight check to reduce inpatient falls

A tool to help hospital ward staff quickly assess a patient’s eyesight has been introduced for use by trusts in England and Wales with the aim of reducing trips and falls while patients are in...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=XiuOVS0CusI:QeN3PJw1RK4:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=XiuOVS0CusI:QeN3PJw1RK4:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=XiuOVS0CusI:QeN3PJw1RK4:F7zBnMy recent?i=XiuOVS0CusI:QeN3PJw1RK4:-BTjWOF


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Eating overcooked starchy food is linked to cancer, agency warns

Consumers are being warned about the dangers of overcooking toast, potatoes, and other starchy food because acrylamide, a chemical that is produced during cooking, has been linked to cancer.The...
recent?d=yIl2AUoC8zA recent?d=dnMXMwOfBR0 recent?i=5m86qGjjX7c:PjAk08g3DoE:V_sGLiP recent?d=qj6IDK7rITs recent?i=5m86qGjjX7c:PjAk08g3DoE:gIN9vFw recent?d=l6gmwiTKsz0 recent?d=7Q72WNTAKBA recent?i=5m86qGjjX7c:PjAk08g3DoE:F7zBnMy recent?i=5m86qGjjX7c:PjAk08g3DoE:-BTjWOF


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Cervical cancer death rates higher among older and black women

A woman's risk of dying of cervical cancer is higher than long believed, particularly among older and black women, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health-led research suggests. The researchers found that black women in the United States are...

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E-cigarettes are expanding tobacco product use among youth

E-cigarettes - thought by some to be responsible for a decline in youth cigarette smoking - are actually attracting a new population of adolescents who might not otherwise have smoked tobacco products, according to a new UC San Francisco study. In the...

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 228: Molecular Basis for the Neutralization of Tumor Necrosis Factor α by Certolizumab Pegol in the Treatment of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

Monoclonal antibodies against TNFα, including infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab pegol, are widely used for the treatment of the inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, the crystal structures of TNFα, in complex with the Fab fragments of infliximab and adalimumab, have revealed the molecular mechanisms of these antibody drugs. Here, we report the crystal structure of TNFα in complex with the Fab fragment of certolizumab pegol to clarify the precise antigen-antibody interactions and the structural basis for the neutralization of TNFα by this therapeutic antibody. The structural analysis and the mutagenesis study revealed that the epitope is limited to a single protomer of the TNFα trimer. Additionally, the DE loop and the GH loop of TNFα play critical roles in the interaction with certolizumab, suggesting that this drug exerts its effects by partially occupying the receptor binding site of TNFα. In addition, a conformational change of the DE loop was induced by certolizumab binding, thereby interrupting the TNFα-receptor interaction. A comprehensive comparison of the interactions of TNFα blockers with TNFα revealed the epitope diversity on the surface of TNFα, providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TNFα blockers. The accumulation of these structural studies can provide a basis for the improvement of therapeutic antibodies against TNFα.

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Replaceable Jejunal Feeding Tubes in Severely Ill Children

Long-term enteral nutrition in chronically ill, malnourished children represents a clinical challenge if adequate feeding via nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes fails. We evaluated the usefulness and complications of a new type of surgical jejunostomy that allows for easier positioning and replacement of the jejunal feeding tube in children. We surgically inserted replaceable jejunal feeding tubes (RJFT) connected to a guide thread which exited through a separate tiny opening of the abdominal wall. In a retrospective case series, we assessed the effectiveness and complications of this technique in severely ill children suffering from malnutrition and complex disorders. Three surgical complications occurred, and these were addressed by reoperation. Four children died from their severe chronic disorders within the study period. The RJFT permitted continuous enteral feeding and facilitated easy replacement of the tube. After the postoperative period, jejunal feeding by RJFT resulted in adequate weight gain. This feeding access represents an option for children in whom sufficient enteral nutrition by nasogastric tubes or gastrostomy proved impossible. Further studies are required to investigate the safety and effectiveness of this surgical technique in a larger case series.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome: A constellation of conditions that place people at high risk for coronary artery disease. These conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and a poor lipid profile with elevated LDL ("bad") cholesterol, low HDL ("good") cholesterol, elevated triglycerides. All of these conditions are associated with high blood insulin levels. The fundamental defect in the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance in both adipose tissue and muscle. Drugs that decrease insulin resistance also usually lower blood pressure and improve the lipid profile.

Also called the insulin resistance syndrome, syndrome X, dysmetabolic syndrome X, and Reaven syndrome. The term Reaven syndrome refers to the Stanford University physician Gerald Reaven who first described the syndrome at the 1988 Banting Lecture of the annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association.



MedTerms (TM) is the Medical Dictionary of MedicineNet.com.
We Bring Doctors' Knowledge To You

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A temporary deficiency in self-control: Can heightened motivation overcome this effect?

Abstract

Self-control is important for everyday life and involves behavioral regulation. Self-control requires effort, and when completing two successive self-control tasks, there is typically a temporary drop in performance in the second task. High self-reported motivation and being made self-aware somewhat counteract this effect—with the result that performance in the second task is enhanced. The current study explored the relationship between self-awareness and motivation on sequential self-control task performance. Before employing self-control in an antisaccade task, participants initially applied self-control in an incongruent Stroop task or completed a control task. After the Stroop task, participants unscrambled sentences that primed self-awareness (each started with the word “I”) or unscrambled neutral sentences. Motivation was measured after the antisaccade task. Findings revealed that, after exerting self-control in the incongruent Stroop task, motivation predicted erroneous responses in the antisaccade task for those that unscrambled neutral sentences, and high motivation led to fewer errors. Those primed with self-awareness were somewhat more motivated overall, but motivation did not significantly predict antisaccade performance. Supporting the resource allocation account, if one was motivated—intrinsically or via the manipulation of self-awareness—resources were allocated to both tasks leading to the successful completion of two sequential self-control tasks.



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The N2pc component reliably captures attentional bias in social anxiety

Abstract

We systematically compared different measures of attentional bias (i.e., reaction times, the N2pc component in the EEG, and explicit stimulus ratings) on their ability to reveal attentional engagement to threatening versus neutral facial stimuli in a Dot Probe Task and tested their relation to trait measures of general and social anxiety. We found that the N2pc component reflects a bias toward angry faces with excellent internal consistency. Similar results were obtained for explicit ratings. Reaction time (RT) differences, however, were not indicative of attentional biases and showed zero odd-even reliability. We further found that both higher (i.e., more negative) N2pc amplitudes and earlier peak latencies were associated with more severe symptoms of social anxiety even when controlling for general trait anxiety. The explicit rating biases were also specifically associated with social anxiety. Conversely, the RT bias was not related to social anxiety levels but to general trait anxiety. This highlights the importance of valid and reliable outcome measures for interventions such as attentional bias modification protocols. Mutual exclusivity of different bias operationalizations is discussed.



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Sonocatalytic Degradation of Antibiotics Tetracycline by Mn-Modified Diatomite

Mn-modified diatomite was prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent calcinations processes. It was used as catalyst for sonocatalytic degradation of antibiotics tetracycline. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the morphology and crystal structure of the modified diatomite were similar to these of raw diatomite. Despite containing very limited amount of Mn oxides, the Mn-modified diatomite showed much higher sonocatalytic activity than the raw diatomite. The increases in both MnSO4 concentration of the wet impregnation solution and the catalyst dosage could enhance the degradation of antibiotics tetracycline significantly. values for ultrasonication, catalyst adsorption, and both processes combined (0.10 mol/L MnSO4-modified diatomite) were 1.22 × 10−4, 0.00193, and 0.00453 min−1, respectively, while the corresponding values of were 0.956, 0.986, and 0.953, respectively. These results demonstrated the significant synergetic effect by combining ultrasonication and catalyst adsorption processes. The presence of isopropanol, KBr, and NaN3 quenched a series of reactive oxygen species sharply, indicating the dominant role of reactive oxygen species in the sonocatalytic process. In contrast, the addition of Fe(II) enhanced the degradation due to the generation of more radicals in the concurrent Fenton reaction. All the results indicated that Mn-modified diatomite had the great potential for water treatment by sonocatalytic oxidation.

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Current Management of Traumatic Macular Holes

Traumatic macular hole (TMH) is not a rare clinical condition, especially in young population. Its prognosis is of complexity and uncertainty, with a relatively high rate of spontaneous closure in some cases. Modern vitrectomy surgery plays an important role in the treatment of TMH, although the functional outcomes may be compromised by the concomitant retinal pathologies. Decision-making about the time of vitrectomy, especially in pediatric patients, remains to be clarified further.

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Systemic Identification of Hevea brasiliensis EST-SSR Markers and Primer Screening

This research aimed to systematically identify and preliminarily validate the Hevea brasiliensis expressed sequence tag (EST) information using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and provide evidence for further development of SSR molecular marker. The definition of general SSR features of Hevea EST splicing sequences and development of SSR primers founded the basis of diversity analysis and variety identification for Hevea tree resource. 1134 SSR loci were identified in the EST splicing sequence and distributed in 840 Unigene. The occurrence rate of SSR loci was 23.9%, and the average distribution distance of EST-SSR was 2.59 kb. The major repeat type was mononucleotide repeat motif, which accounted for 38.89%, while the corresponding value was 36.95% for dinucleotide repeat motif and 18.17% for trinucleotide repeat motif; the proportion of other motifs was only 5.99%. The superior repeat motifs for mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide were A/T, AG/CT, and AAG/CTT, respectively. 739 pair of primers were designed for 1134 SSR loci. PCR amplification was performed on Hevea Reyan5-11, Reyan87-6-47, and PR107, and 180 pairs of primers were selected which were able to amplify polymorphism bands.

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Operational Simulation of LC Ladder Filter Using VDTA

In this paper, a systematic approach for implementing operational simulation of LC ladder filter using voltage differencing transconductance amplifier is presented. The proposed filter structure uses only grounded capacitor and possesses electronic tunability. PSPICE simulation using 180 nm CMOS technology parameter is carried out to verify the functionality of the presented approach. Experimental verification is also performed through commercially available IC LM13700/NS. Simulations and experimental results are found to be in close agreement with theoretical predictions.

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Outdoor Environment and Pediatric Asthma: An Update on the Evidence from North America

Introduction. The evidence about the association between asthma and outdoor environmental factors has been inadequate for certain allergens. Even less is known about how these associations vary across seasons and climate regions. We reviewed recent literature from North America for research related to outdoor environmental factors and pediatric asthma, with attention to spatial-temporal variations of these associations. Method. We included indexed literature between years 2010 and 2015 on outdoor environmental factors and pediatric asthma, by searching PubMed. Results. Our search resulted in 33 manuscripts. Studies about the link between pediatric asthma and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) consistently confirmed the correlation between TRAP and asthma. For general air pollution, the roles of PM2.5 and CO were consistent across studies. The link between asthma and O3 varied across seasons. Regional variation exists in the role of SO2. The impact of pollen was consistent across seasons, whereas the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was less consistent. Discussion. Recent studies strengthened the evidence about the roles of PM2.5, TRAP, CO, and pollen in asthma, while the evidence for roles of PM10-2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in asthma was less consistent. Spatial-temporal details of the environment are needed in future studies of asthma and environment.

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The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The product (Bioactive® [BA]) was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC]) and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC]) counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red staining (ARS). Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (), but TC did not (). Ca (~110 ppm) and hydroxide ions (pH 11) were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

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Calculations on Lie Algebra of the Group of Affine Symplectomorphisms

We find the image of the affine symplectic Lie algebra from the Leibniz homology to the Lie algebra homology . The result shows that the image is the exterior algebra generated by the forms . Given the relevance of Hochschild homology to string topology and to get more interesting applications, we show that such a map is of potential interest in string topology and homological algebra by taking into account that the Hochschild homology is isomorphic to . Explicitly, we use the alternation of multilinear map, in our elements, to do certain calculations.

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On the Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Aluminium 7075 Matrix Composite Material Reinforced with SiC and TiC Produced by Powder Metallurgy Method

Metal matrix composites are widely used in components of various components of industrial equipment because of their superior material properties like high stiffness to weight ratio and high impact strength and fracture toughness while compared to the conventional material. Due to the concepts of high strength to low weight ratio, Al 7075 was extensively applied in aircraft engine and wings. Even if Al 7075 has higher hardness, higher strength, excellent wear resistance, and high-temperature corrosion protection, it is in need of further enhancement of properties for increasing its applicability. This paper presents the mechanical behavior of aluminium 7075 reinforced with Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Titanium Carbide (TiC) through powder metallurgy route. These specimens were produced by powder metallurgy method. The hybrid composite was made by Al 7075 alloy as the matrix with Silicon Carbide and Titanium Carbide as reinforcement. Silicon Carbide and Titanium Carbide are mixed in different weight ratio based on the design matrix formulated through a statistical tool, namely, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Enhanced mechanical properties have been obtained with 90% of Al 7075, 4% of TiC, and 8% of SiC composition in the composite. Coefficient of friction appears to be more which has been determined by ring compression test.

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Preparing and Analyzing Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) Library for the Mammary Tissue of Local Turkish Kivircik Sheep

Kivircik sheep is an important local Turkish sheep according to its meat quality and milk productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiles of both prenatal and postnatal stages for the Kivircik sheep. Therefore, two different cDNA libraries, which were taken from the same Kivircik sheep mammary gland tissue at prenatal and postnatal stages, were constructed. Total 3072 colonies which were randomly selected from the two libraries were sequenced for developing a sheep ESTs collection. We used Phred/Phrap computer programs for analysis of the raw EST and readable EST sequences were assembled with the CAP3 software. Putative functions of all unique sequences and statistical analysis were determined by Geneious software. Total 422 ESTs have over 80% similarity to known sequences of other organisms in NCBI classified by Panther database for the Gene Ontology (GO) category. By comparing gene expression profiles, we observed some putative genes that may be relative to reproductive performance or play important roles in milk synthesis and secretion. A total of 2414 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database (GW996847–GW999260). EST data in this study have provided a new source of information to functional genome studies of sheep.

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The Application of Hemospray in Gastrointestinal Bleeding during Emergency Endoscopy

Introduction. Gastrointestinal bleeding represents the main indication for emergency endoscopy (EE). Lately, several hemostatic powders have been released to facilitate EE. Methods. We evaluated all EE in which Hemospray was used as primary or salvage therapy, with regard to short- and long-term hemostasis and complications. Results. We conducted 677 EE in 474 patients (488 examinations in 344 patients were upper GI endoscopies). Hemospray was applied during 35 examinations in 27 patients (19 males), 33 during upper and 2 during lower endoscopy. It was used after previous treatment in 21 examinations (60%) and in 14 (40%) as salvage therapy. Short-term success was reached in 34 of 35 applications (97.1%), while long-term success occurred in 23 applications (65.7%). Similar long-term results were found after primary application (64,3%) or salvage therapy (66,7%). Rebleeding was found in malignant and extended ulcers. One major adverse event (2.8%) occurred with gastric perforation after Hemospray application. Discussion. Hemospray achieved short-term hemostasis in virtually all cases. The long-term effect is mainly determined by the type of bleeding source, but not whether it was applied as first line or salvage therapy. But, even in the failures, patients had benefit from hemodynamic stabilization and consecutive interventions in optimized conditions.

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A Dual Case of Peritonitis and Central Nervous System Infection Caused by Nutritionally Variant Streptococcal Species

Nutritional variant streptococci (NVS) are difficult to identify bacteria that can cause invasive infections such as endocarditis and meningitis. NVS as a cause of peritonitis has not been routinely described. This case of NVS as the etiology of peritonitis associated with previous neurosurgery and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt revision demonstrates its potential role as a significant pathogen in patients with peritonitis and VP shunts. Therapy consists of vancomycin plus a second agent but since there are no standards for susceptibility testing, clinical response remains the standard for determining the efficacy of treatment. When there is central nervous system (CNS) involvement it is important to include drugs with appropriate CNS penetration.

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Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study

The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.

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Plasma DNA Mediate Autonomic Dysfunctions and White Matter Injuries in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

Background. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is well known in Parkinson’s disease (PD) presentation and it produces hypoperfusion of vital organs. The association between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and oxidative stress was examined in previous animal models. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation were thought to have roles in PD pathogenesis. Owing to the relative low intrinsic antioxidative properties, brain white matter (WM) is vulnerable to the oxidative stress. This study is conducted to examine possible relationships by using a hypothesis-driven mediation model. Methods. Twenty-nine patients with PD and 26 healthy controls participated in this study, with complete examinations of cardiac autonomic parameters, plasma DNA level, and WM integrity. A single-level three-variable mediation model was used to investigate the possible relationships. Results. The elevated serum oxidative stress biomarkers include plasma nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA, and poorer cardiac autonomic parameters and multiple regional microstructural WM changes are demonstrated. Further mediation analysis shows that plasma nuclear DNA served as the mediators between poorer baroreflex sensitivity and mean diffusivity changes in cingulum. Conclusions. These results provide a possible pathophysiology for how the poor baroreflex sensitivity and higher oxidative stress adversely impacted the WM integrity. This model could provide us with a piece of the puzzle of the entire PD pathogenesis.

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Comparison of Treatment Outcomes of Surgical Repair in Inguinal Hernia with Classic versus Preperitoneal Methods on Reduction of Postoperative Complications

Background. This study aims to evaluate and compare the results of inguinal herniorrhaphy with mesh in classic and preperitoneal method. Methods. Our study community includes 150 candidate patients for inguinal herniorrhaphy with mesh. Totally, 150 candidate patients for inguinal herniorrhaphy were randomly divided into two groups: (1) classic group in which the floor of the canal was repaired and the mesh was located on the floor of the canal and (2) preperitoneal group in which the mesh was installed under the canal and then the floor was repaired. Results. The frequency of recurrence was 10 (13.3%) and 2 (2.66%) in the classic and preperitoneal group, respectively. The frequency of postsurgical pain was 21 (28%) in the classic group and 9 (12%) in the preperitoneal group. The postsurgical hematoma was observed in 7 (9.3%) and 9 (12%) in the classic and preperitoneal group, respectively. Also, the frequency of postsurgical seroma was 8 (10.7%) and 1 (1.3%) in the patients treated with the classic and preperitoneal method, respectively. Conclusion. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the preperitoneal method is a more suitable method for inguinal herniorrhaphy than the classic one because of fewer complications, according to the findings of this study.

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Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation

This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (K-USER-P) in patients with stroke. Stroke patients participated in this study. The Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation was translated from English into Korean. A total of 120 questionnaires involving the K-USER-P were distributed to rehabilitation hospitals and centers by mail. Of those, 100 questionnaires were returned and 67 were included in the final analysis after exclusion of questionnaires with insufficient responses. We analyzed the questionnaires for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. The results indicated that internal consistency coefficients of the frequency, restriction, and satisfaction domains were 0.69, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.63, 0.45, and 0.71 for the three domains, respectively. Intercorrelations between the SF-12 and the London Handicap Scale were generally moderate to good. The Korean version of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation can be used as a measure of the participation level of stroke patients in clinical practice and the local community.

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Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Relieves Pain in Cervical Spine Metastases

Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been shown to release spinal pain and stabilize the vertebral body. PVP is suggested as an alternative treatment in spinal metastasis. Although cervical metastases is less prevalent than thoracic and lumbar spine, PVP procedure in cervical vertebrae remains technical challenging. We retrospectively analyzed the data from patients () who underwent PVP using anterolateral approach to treat severe neck pain and restricted cervical mobility from metastatic disease. Patients were rated using modified Tokuhashi score and Tomita score before the procedure. Visual analog scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), analgesic use, and imaging (X-ray or CT) were evaluated before PVP and 3 days, 3 months, and 6 months after PVP. All patients were in late stage of cancer evaluated using modified Tokuhashi and Tomita score. The cement leakage rate was 63.6% (14 of the 22 vertebrae) with no severe complications. VAS, NDI, and analgesic use were significantly decreased 3 days after the procedure and remained at low level until 6 months of follow-up. Our result suggested PVP effectively released the pain from patients with cervical metastasis. The results warrant further clinical investigation.

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Progenitor Cells for Arterial Repair: Incremental Advancements towards Therapeutic Reality

Coronary revascularization remains the standard treatment for obstructive coronary artery disease and can be accomplished by either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Considerable advances have rendered PCI the most common form of revascularization and improved clinical outcomes. However, numerous challenges to modern PCI remain, namely, in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis, underscoring the importance of understanding the vessel wall response to injury to identify targets for intervention. Among recent promising discoveries, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have garnered considerable interest given an increasing appreciation of their role in vascular homeostasis and their ability to promote vascular repair after stent placement. Circulating EPC numbers have been inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk, while administration of EPCs in humans has demonstrated improved clinical outcomes. Despite these encouraging results, however, advancing EPCs as a therapeutic modality has been hampered by a fundamental roadblock: what constitutes an EPC? We review current definitions and sources of EPCs as well as the proposed mechanisms of EPC-mediated vascular repair. Additionally, we discuss the current state of EPCs as therapeutic agents, focusing on endogenous augmentation and transplantation.

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Consensus on the Definition of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Neurologists-Based Delphi Study (CEPA Study)

To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD). To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study). An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition.

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New system helps doctors differentiate between HPV-related and ... - Omaha World-Herald


Irish Independent

New system helps doctors differentiate between HPV-related and ...
Omaha World-Herald
HPV-associated throat cancer is a new and unique disease that behaves differently from the older type of throat cancer related to tobacco and alcohol use that ...
Heather Keating who beat cervical cancer: 'Any child I have will get the HPV vaccine'Irish Independent

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 229: Surface Modification of Titanium with BMP-2/GDF-5 by a Heparin Linker and Its Efficacy as a Dental Implant

In this study, we prepared human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2)/human growth and differentiation factor-5 (hGDF-5)-coated titanium (Ti) disc and screw types for controlled release of the growth factors (GFs). The two growth factors were coated onto Ti with a smooth surface using their specific interaction with heparin, because they have heparin binding sites in their molecular structures. Efficacy of the two growth factor-coated Ti for enhancement of bone formation and osseointegration was compared to pristine Ti, and hBMP-2- and hGDF-5-coated Ti in vivo. The surface chemical composition, surface morphology, and wettability characteristics of the metal samples were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement, respectively. The initial burst of hBMP-2, hGDF-5, and their combination, occurred within one day of the release study, resulting in 12.5%, 4.5%, and 13.5%/3.2%, and then there was a sustained, even release of these two growth factors from the coated metal for 30 days. In vitro tests revealed that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the two growth factor-coated Ti had a higher proliferation rate and a higher activity for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which led to a larger amount of calcium deposition and larger expressions of type I collagen (COL 1), ALP, and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNAs. In vivo animal tests using ten white New Zealand rabbits showed that the two growth factor-coated Ti enhanced bone formation and osseointegration at the interface between the implants and host bone. In addition, histological evaluation showed that bone remodeling, including bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, actively occurred between the two growth factor-coated Ti and host bone. Consequently, it is suggested that Ti surface modification with the combination of hBMP-2 and hGDF-5 for the two growth factor-coated Ti implants can improve the clinical properties of implants for orthopedic and dental applications.

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 226: The Long Non-Coding RNA RHPN1-AS1 Promotes Uveal Melanoma Progression

Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are significantly correlated with the pathogenesis, development and metastasis of cancers. RHPN1 antisense RNA 1 (RHPN1-AS1) is a 2030-bp transcript originating from human chromosome 8q24. However, the role of RHPN1-AS1 in uveal melanoma (UM) remains to be clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular function of RHPN1-AS1 in UM. The RNA levels of RHPN1-AS1 in UM cell lines were examined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed to quench RHPN1-AS1 expression, and UM cells stably expressing short hairpin (sh) RHPN1-AS1 were established. Next, the cell proliferation and migration abilities were determined using a colony formation assay and a transwell migration/invasion assay. A tumor xenograft model in nude mice was established to confirm the function of RHPN1-AS1 in vivo. RHPN1-AS1 was significantly upregulated in a number of UM cell lines compared with the normal human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line. RHPN1-AS1 knockdown significantly inhibited UM cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that RHPN1-AS1 could be an oncoRNA in UM, which may serve as a candidate prognostic biomarker and target for new therapies in malignant UM.

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IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 231: Evolutionary Conservation of pou5f3 Genomic Organization and Its Dynamic Distribution during Embryogenesis and in Adult Gonads in Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a member of POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) transcription factor family Class V that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Though it has been deeply investigated in mammals, its lower vertebrate homologue, especially in the marine fish, is poorly studied. In this study, we isolated the full-length sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus pou5f3 (Popou5f3), and we found that it is homologous to mammalian Oct4. We identified two transcript variants with different lengths of 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) generated by alternative polyadenylation (APA). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were implemented to characterize the spatial and temporal expression pattern of Popou5f3 during early development and in adult tissues. Our results show that Popou5f3 is maternally inherited, abundantly expressed at the blastula and early gastrula stages, then greatly diminishes at the end of gastrulation. It is hardly detectable from the heart-beating stage onward. We found that Popou5f3 expression is restricted to the adult gonads, and continuously expresses during oogenesis while its dynamics are downregulated during spermatogenesis. Additionally, numerous cis-regulatory elements (CRE) on both sides of the flanking regions show potential roles in regulating the expression of Popou5f3. Taken together, these findings could further our understanding of the functions and evolution of pou5f3 in lower vertebrates, and also provides fundamental information for stem cell tracing and genetic manipulation in Paralichthys olivaceus.

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Altamura: L'Oncologico di Bari tra i primi in Italia a usare la Termoablazione - AltamuraLife


AltamuraLife

Altamura: L'Oncologico di Bari tra i primi in Italia a usare la Termoablazione
AltamuraLife
Achille consapevole che l'IRRCS ha le carte in regola per diventare centro di riferimento anche per la termoablazione applicata ai tumori testa-collo non operabili, e prima di una chiosa finale: «Tutto questo non sarebbe potuto accadere senza il ...

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Heather Keating who beat cervical cancer: 'Any child I have will get the HPV vaccine' - Irish Independent


Irish Independent

Heather Keating who beat cervical cancer: 'Any child I have will get the HPV vaccine'
Irish Independent
HPV causes a number of cancers in men and women. For women, ongoing HPV infections can lead to cervical cancer. The HPV has also been linked to other forms of cancers in men and women, including cancers of the anus, throat, mouth, tongue, tonsil, ...

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Bayesian latent variable models for hierarchical clustered count outcomes with repeated measures in microbiome studies

ABSTRACT

Motivated by the multivariate nature of microbiome data with hierarchical taxonomic clusters, counts that are often skewed and zero inflated, and repeated measures, we propose a Bayesian latent variable methodology to jointly model multiple operational taxonomic units within a single taxonomic cluster. This novel method can incorporate both negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial responses, and can account for serial and familial correlations. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that is built on a data augmentation scheme using Pólya-Gamma random variables. Hierarchical centering and parameter expansion techniques are also used to improve the convergence of the Markov chain. We evaluate the performance of our proposed method through extensive simulations. We also apply our method to a human microbiome study.



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Heather Keating who beat cervical cancer: 'Any child I have will get the HPV vaccine' - Irish Independent


Heather Keating who beat cervical cancer: 'Any child I have will get the HPV vaccine'
Irish Independent
HPV causes a number of cancers in men and women. For women, ongoing HPV infections can lead to cervical cancer. The HPV has also been linked to other forms of cancers in men and women, including cancers of the anus, throat, mouth, tongue, tonsil, ...



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Atopic dermatitis and early childhood caries: Results of the GUSTO study

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing form of inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 10% of children in the United States.1 AD has been associated with sleep disturbances, along with various comorbid allergic conditions, resulting in poor quality of life. In the last decade, studies have demonstrated an epidermal skin barrier defect, caused by various genetic mutations, to be an additional predisposing factor.2 Early childhood caries (ECC), a chronic diet-mediated infectious oral disease, has been reported to be the most common chronic childhood disease in the United States.

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Certain Toxicities Could Be Correlated With mTOR Efficacy in Metastatic RCC

A study has shown a link between metabolic toxicities and the efficacy of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (Source: CancerNetwork)

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Are potatoes now a cancer risk? Here’s what you need to know

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A UK health campaign is taking aim at a substance found in starchy foods cooked at high temperatures. But what exactly is the case against acrylamide?

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Are potatoes now a cancer risk? Here’s what you need to know

A UK health campaign is taking aim at a substance found in starchy foods cooked at high temperatures. But what exactly is the case against acrylamide?

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"Cannabis terapeutica: funziona per dolore e nausea. Ma non è una ... - La Repubblica


La Repubblica

"Cannabis terapeutica: funziona per dolore e nausea. Ma non è una ...
La Repubblica
Una revisione scientifica che ha analizzato oltre diecimila studi mette sotto la lente d'ingrandimento l'uso della marijuana chiarendo quali sono gli ambiti nei ...
Cannabis, una nuova analisi su rischi e benefici - GalileoGalileo

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Serological Screening Suggests Extensive Presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in Backyard Chickens in Southern Mozambique

A total of 459 serum samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens originating from 4 villages in Mandlakazi district, Southern Mozambique, were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay [ELISA] kits. Anti-MG and anti-MS antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed and the overall seroprevalence was 48.8% [95% CI 39.1–57.8] and 84.5% [95% CI 76.8–90.4], respectively. The risk of being seropositive for both diseases was higher [] in Chidenguele village than other villages. It is concluded that MG and MS serum antibodies are present in backyard chickens.

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Potential Usefulness of Streptococcus pneumoniae Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Antibacterial Vaccines

The secretion of extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) is a common phenomenon that occurs in archaea, bacteria, and mammalian cells. The EMVs of bacteria play important roles in their virulence, biogenesis mechanisms, and host cell interactions. Bacterial EMVs have recently become the focus of attention because of their potential as highly effective vaccines that cause few side effects. Here, we isolated the EMVs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and examined their potential as new vaccine candidates. Although the S. pneumoniae bacteria were highly pathogenic in a mouse model, the EMVs purified from these bacteria showed low pathological activity both in cell culture and in mice. When mice were injected intraperitoneally with S. pneumoniae EMVs and then challenged, they were protected from both the homologous strain and another pathogenic serotype of S. pneumoniae. We also identified a number of proteins that may have immunogenic activity and may be responsible for the immune responses by the hosts. These results suggest that S. pneumoniae EMVs or their individual immunogenic antigens may be useful as new vaccine agents.

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Estimates for Weak Solutions to Nonlinear Degenerate Parabolic Systems

This paper is devoted to the estimates for weak solutions to nonlinear degenerate parabolic systems related to Hörmander’s vector fields. The reverse Hölder inequalities for degenerate parabolic system under the controllable growth conditions and natural growth conditions are established, respectively, and an important multiplicative inequality is proved; finally, we obtain the estimates for the weak solutions by combining the results of Gianazza and the Caccioppoli inequality.

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Macrophages as Key Drivers of Cancer Progression and Metastasis

Macrophages are one of the most abundant immune cells in the tumour microenvironment of solid tumours and their presence correlates with reduced survival in most cancers. Macrophages are present at all stages of tumour progression and stimulate angiogenesis, tumour cell invasion, and intravasation at the primary site. At the metastatic site, macrophages and monocytes prepare for the arrival of disseminated tumour cells and promote their extravasation and survival by inhibiting immune-mediated clearance or by directly engaging with tumour cells to activate prosurvival signalling pathways. In addition, macrophages promote the growth of disseminated tumour cells at the metastatic site by organising the formation of a supportive metastatic niche. The development of agents inhibiting the recruitment or the protumorigenic effector functions of macrophages in both the primary tumour and at the metastatic site is a promising strategy to improve cancer survival in the future.

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Recurrence of Postoperative Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy Resulting from Status Epilepticus

Introduction. Classically, stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, displays the pathognomonic feature of reversible left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery stenosis following stressful event(s). Temporary reduction in ejection fraction (EF) resolves spontaneously. Variants of SIC exhibiting mid-ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities have been identified. Recent case series present SIC as a finding in association with sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This case presents a patient who develops recurrence of nonapical cardiomyopathy secondary to status epilepticus. Case Report. Involving a postoperative, postmenopausal woman having two distinct episodes of status epilepticus (SE) preceding two incidents of SIC. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) confirms the patient’s baseline EF of 60% prior to the second event. Postoperatively, SE occurs, and the initial electrocardiogram exhibits T-wave inversions with subsequent elevation of troponin I. Postoperative TTE shows an EF of 30% with mid-ventricular wall akinesia restoring baseline EF rapidly. Conclusion. This case identifies the need to understand SIC and its diagnostic criteria, especially when cardiac catheterization is neither indicated nor available. Sudden cardiac death should be considered as a possible complication of refractory status epilepticus. The pathophysiology in SUDEP is currently unknown; yet a correlation between SUDEP and SIC is hypothesized to exist.

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A Trigonometrically Fitted Block Method for Solving Oscillatory Second-Order Initial Value Problems and Hamiltonian Systems

In this paper, we present a block hybrid trigonometrically fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström method (BHTRKNM), whose coefficients are functions of the frequency and the step-size for directly solving general second-order initial value problems (IVPs), including Hamiltonian systems such as the energy conserving equations and systems arising from the semidiscretization of partial differential equations (PDEs). Four discrete hybrid formulas used to formulate the BHTRKNM are provided by a continuous one-step hybrid trigonometrically fitted method with an off-grid point. We implement BHTRKNM in a block-by-block fashion; in this way, the method does not suffer from the disadvantages of requiring starting values and predictors which are inherent in predictor-corrector methods. The stability property of the BHTRKNM is discussed and the performance of the method is demonstrated on some numerical examples to show accuracy and efficiency advantages.

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Niki Bezzant: A turmeric latte won't prevent cancer - Rockhampton Morning Bulletin


Rockhampton Morning Bulletin

Niki Bezzant: A turmeric latte won't prevent cancer
Rockhampton Morning Bulletin
That doesn't mean these things are not good, healthy foods. Blueberries and quinoa are well worth including in our super diet. And, if you like the spicy taste of a tongue-staining turmeric latte, there's no reason not to enjoy it. If you have it with ...

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Association of posterior EEG alpha with prioritization of religion or spirituality: A replication and extension at 20-year follow-up

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Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
Source:Biological Psychology
Author(s): Craig E. Tenke, Jürgen Kayser, Connie Svob, Lisa Miller, Jorge E. Alvarenga, Karen Abraham, Virginia Warner, Priya Wickramaratne, Myrna M. Weissman, Gerard E. Bruder
A prior report (Tenke et al., 2013 Biol. Psychol. 94:426–432) found that participants who rated religion or spirituality (R/S) highly important had greater posterior alpha after 10 years compared to those who did not. Participants who subsequently lowered their rating also had prominent alpha, while those who increased their rating did not. Here we report EEG findings 20 years after initial assessment. Clinical evaluations and R/S ratings were obtained from 73 (52 new) participants in a longitudinal study of family risk for depression. Frequency PCA of current source density transformed EEG concisely quantified posterior alpha. Those who initially rated R/S as highly important had greater alpha compared to those who did not, even if their R/S rating later increased. Furthermore, changes in religious denomination were associated with decreased alpha. Results suggest the possibility of a critical stage in the ontogenesis of R/S that is linked to posterior resting alpha.



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Differential effects of eating and drinking on wellbeing − An ecological ambulatory assessment study

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Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
Source:Biological Psychology
Author(s): Jana Strahler, Urs M. Nater
IntroductionVarious behaviors, such as physical activity and sleep, have been shown to have stress-reducing and beneficial effects on wellbeing. In contrast, the rewarding effects of eating and drinking have rarely been investigated, particularly using ecologically valid approaches, and little is known about mediating mechanisms on the biological level.MethodsSeventy-seven healthy young adults completed items on eating and drinking as well as momentary wellbeing (measured by mood, energy, tension, stress and fatigue levels) on an iPod touch 5x/day for 4 consecutive days. With each entry, a saliva sample was collected for the later assessment of cortisol, alpha-amylase and salivary flow rate as markers of neuroendocrine and autonomic activity, respectively.ResultsHierarchical linear models showed better momentary wellbeing on various scales after the consumption of juice, coffee and alcohol. Having a snack predicted lower fatigue levels. In contrast, consuming high-fat food resulted in impaired wellbeing. With regard to affect-induced eating as well as biomarkers, only a few associations emerged as significant. However, autonomic activity partially mediated the alcohol-stress association.ConclusionThese findings corroborate previous reports that dietary behaviors could have rewarding effects, but also challenge the assumption of a general mood-enhancing and stress-relieving effect of certain foods. Findings on biomarkers provide first insights into underlying biological mechanisms. Research on further assumed mechanisms (reward-associated brain networks) and moderators (hedonic overeating) is highly warranted. Moreover, implications for addiction research are discussed.



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Tracing Cellular Origin of Human Exosomes Using Multiplex Proximity Extension Assay [Research]

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-coated objects such as exosomes and microvesicles, released by many cell-types. Their presence in body fluids and the variable surface composition and content render them attractive potential biomarkers. The ability to determine their cellular origin could greatly move the field forward. We used multiplex proximity extension assays (PEA) to identify with high specificity and sensitivity the protein profiles of exosomes of different origins, including seven cell lines and two different body fluids. By comparing cells and exosomes, we successfully identified the cells originating the exosomes. Furthermore, by principal component analysis of protein patterns human milk EVs and prostasomes released from prostate acinar cells clustered with cell lines from breast and prostate tissues, respectively. Milk exosomes uniquely expressed CXCL5, MIA and KLK6, while prostasomes carried NKX31, GSTP1 and SRC, highlighting that EVs originating from different origins express distinct proteins. In conclusion, PEA provides a powerful protein screening tool in exosome research, for purposes of identifying the cell source of exosomes, or new biomarkers in diseases such as cancer and inflammation.



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Dimethyl-2-[(acridin-9-yl)methylidene]-malonate as fluorescent probe for histochemical analysis

Abstract

Fluorescent compounds have been widely used for biomolecule labeling in cytochemistry and histochemistry analysis. Here, it is described the optical properties of dimethyl 2-[(acridin-9-yl)methylidene]-malonate (LPSF/IP-81), an acridine derivative. This compound was conjugated to Concanavalin A (Con A) lectin and applied as sugar probe in lectin histochemistry. Evaluation of luminescent properties showed that LPSF/IP-81 is photoluminescent with excitation at 360 nm and emission at 428 nm. Con A hemagglutinating activity and LPSF/IP81 photoluminescence were unaltered after conjugation. Circular dichroism of Con A-LPSF/IP81 conjugate showed the maintenance of the Con A structure. Lectin histochemistry with Con A-LPSF/IP81 conjugate demonstrated different pattern recognition studying normal, fibroadenoma, and invasive ductal carcinoma of human breast. These findings indicate that LPSF/IP-81 can be proposed as an alternative probe for histochemical analysis.



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The new issue is now available.Multicultural Relations

Vol.12

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The new issue is now available.The Japanese Journal of Real Estate Sciences

Vol.28 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Hyomen Kagaku

Vol.38 No.1

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The new issue is now available.Chikyukagaku

Vol.39 No.4

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The new issue is now available.Les etudes merleau-pontiennes

Vol.20

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The new issue is now available.Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology

Vol.41

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newly available online.Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology



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newly available online.Multicultural Relations



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The new issue is now available.THE SHINSHU MEDICAL JOURNAL

Vol.64 No.6

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The new issue is now available.Kokusai Hoken Iryo (Journal of International Health)

Vol.31 No.4

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The new issue is now available.Journal of the Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics

Vol.16 No.4

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The new issue is now available.The Japanese Journal of Real Estate Sciences

Vol.28 No.2

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Readmissions After Sepsis Compared With Other Medical Conditions

This study uses data from a US readmissions database to assess whether sepsis hospitalizations account for a higher proportion of unplanned 30-day readmissions than hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia.

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CV Sciences Inc (OTCMKTS:CVSI) Gets Back Into Gear - The Oracle Dispatch


The Oracle Dispatch

CV Sciences Inc (OTCMKTS:CVSI) Gets Back Into Gear
The Oracle Dispatch
“Mr. Gwynn attributed his long struggle with salivary gland cancer directly to his many years of chewing tobacco. Curt Schilling, former Boston Red Sox pitcher revealed his diagnosis of oral cancer which he stated was 'without a doubt, unquestionably ...



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Dear Anti-Trump Protestors, Please Renounce Violence

Protesters who smashed windows and punched police on Inauguration Day are mirroring the violence they supposedly abhor.

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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01/20/17 PHD comic: 'Women's March'

Piled Higher & Deeper by Jorge Cham
www.phdcomics.com
Click on the title below to read the comic
title: "Women's March" - originally published 1/20/2017

For the latest news in PHD Comics, CLICK HERE!



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Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
Source:Clinical Biochemistry
Author(s): Lise Pedersen, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Mads Hollergaard, Mads Nybo
BackgroundDried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS.MethodsElements were extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect.ResultsThe established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Se in DBS and venous whole blood. Hematocrit influenced the DBS element measurement, especially for K, Fe and Zn.ConclusionTrace elements can be measured with high accuracy and low imprecision in DBS, but contribution of signal from the filter paper influences measurement of some elements present at low concentrations. Simultaneous measurement of K and Fe in DBS extracts may be used to estimate sample hematocrit.



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Editorial Board

Publication date: 30 March 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 606





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CHARTA Shows Survival Benefit of Four-Drug Regimen for Advanced CRC

This video examines results of the CHARTA trial, which tested first-line FOLFOX plus bevacizumab with or without irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. (Source: CancerNetwork)

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IgG1-iS18 impedes the adhesive and invasive potential of early and late stage malignant melanoma cells

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
Source:Experimental Cell Research
Author(s): Carmelle Munien, Thalia M. Rebelo, Eloise Ferreira, Stefan F.T. Weiss
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a non-integrin laminin receptor which is overexpressed in tumorigenic cells and supports progression of cancer via promoting metastasis, angiogenesis and telomerase activity and impediment of apoptosis. The present study investigates the role of LRP/LR on the metastatic potential of early (A375) and late (A375SM) stage malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry revealed that both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells display high levels of LRP/LR on their cell surface. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that late stage malignant melanoma cells display significantly higher total and cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to early stage malignant melanoma cells and the poorly invasive breast cancer (MCF- 7) control cell line. Targeting LRP/LR using the LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 resulted in a significant reduction of the adhesive potential to laminin-1 and the invasive potential through the ‘ECM-simulating’ MatrigelTM of both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient confirmed that increased LRP levels correlate with the increased invasive and adhesion potential in early and late stage melanoma cells. Thus, blocking LRP/LR using the IgG1-iS18 antibody may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for early and late stage malignant melanoma treatment.

Graphical abstract

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Adenosine induced ventricular fibrillation in a structurally normal heart: a case report

Adenosine is the first-line pharmacotherapy for termination of supraventricular tachycardia through its action on the atrioventricular node. However, pro-arrhythmic effects of adenosine are also recognised, mo...

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Effects of albendazole, artesunate, praziquantel and miltefosine, on Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae and mature metacercariae

Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Author(s): Phornphitcha Pechdee, Monticha Chaiyasaeng, Chanisala Sereewong, Jukkrid Chaiyos, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Sutee Wongmaneeprateep, Smarn Tesana
ObjectiveTo explore larvicidal effects of anthelmintic drugs on Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) for alternative approach to interrupting its cycle for developing a field-based control program.MethodsThe larvicidal activities of albendazole (Al), artesunate (Ar), praziquantel (Pzq) and miltefosine (Mf) on O. viverrini cercariae and mature metacercariae were investigated. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) of these drugs were determined. Mature metacercariae previously exposed to various concentrations of the drugs were administered to hamsters. Worms were harvested 30 d post infection and worm recovery rates calculated. Al, Ar, Pzq and Mf produced morphological degeneration and induced shedding tails of cercariae after 24 h exposure.ResultsThe LC50 and LC95 of Al, Ar, Pzq and Mf on cercariae were 0.720 and 1.139, 0.350 and 0.861, 0.017 and 0.693, and 0.530 and 1.134 ppm, respectively. LC50 and LC95 of Ar on mature metacercariae were 303.643 and 446.237 ppm and of Mf were 289.711 and 631.781 ppm, respectively but no lethal effect in Pzq- and Al-treated groups (up to 1 ppt). No worms were found in hamsters administered Pzq-treated metacercariae. The adult worms from Al-treated metacercariae were significantly bigger in size compared to the control group (P<0.05). Fecundity and body width were greater in adults from Mf-treated metacercariae compared to the control group (P<0.05).ConclusionsThe larvicidal effects of these drugs were high efficacy to O. viverrini cercariae but lesser efficacy to metacercariae. It should be further studied with the eventual aim of developing a field-based control program.



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Phylogenetic analysis reveals cryptic species diversity within minute intestinal fluke, Stellantchasmus falcatus Onji and Nishio, 1916 (Trematoda, Heterophyidae)

Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Author(s): Chalobol Wongsawad, Nattawadee Nantarat, Pheravut Wongsawad
ObjectiveTo examine the taxonomic boundaries in the Stellantchasmus populations in different hosts and reveal the cryptic speciation of the Stellantchasmus in Thailand based on both morphological and molecular approaches.MethodsStellantchasmus falcatus (S. falcatus) s.l. was collected from different hosts throughout Thailand. The worms were examined and measured. The nuclear ITS2 gene and the mitochondrial COI gene were used to investigate the S. falcatus s.l. from Dermogenus pusillus and Liza subviridis.ResultsStellantchasmus was one of food-borne trematode that widely distribute throughout Thailand. The comparison of S. falcatus s.l. from Dermogenus pusillus and Liza subviridis indicated a genetic divergence of nuDNA with 3.6% and mtDNA with 19.3%, respectively. Morphological characteristics were fairly different in the ratio of body size, length of prepharynx, and ratio of organ size.ConclusionsOur results provide initial evidence that S. falcatus s.l. from different hosts tend to be a different species based on both molecular and morphological characters. Cryptic species complexes are generally found among parasites that tend to have large populations and/or rapid evolution. The degree of genetic diversity existing would suggest the practice of targeted regimes to design and minimize these lections of anthelmintic resistance in the future.



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Research suggests common blood cancer could be prevented before it develops - Science Daily


Research suggests common blood cancer could be prevented before it develops
Science Daily
They discovered that changes in the bone marrow needed for the cancer to grow have already taken hold in the preceding condition, raising the possibility that early medical intervention could prevent this incurable type of cancer from taking root.

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Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results. After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, ). Furthermore, compared to DSS group, the DSS + DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, ) and exhibited significantly higher expression levels of IL-10 (). The 2% DSS + DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, ). Conclusion. Our results indicate that DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC.

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Update on the Medical Management of Gastrointestinal Behçet’s Disease

Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology mainly defined by recurrent oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and chronic relapsing bilateral uveitis, all of which represent the “stigmata” of disease. However, many other organs including the vascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems can be affected. The gastrointestinal involvement in Behçet’s disease (GIBD), along with the neurological and vascular ones, represents the most feared clinical manifestation of BD and shares many symptoms with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Consequently, the differential diagnosis is often a daunting task, albeit the presence of typical endoscopic and pathologic findings may be a valuable aid to the exact diagnosis. To date, there are no standardized medical treatments for GIBD; therefore therapy should be tailored to the single patient and based on the severity of the clinical features and their complications. This work provides a digest of all current experience and evidence about pharmacological agents suggested by the medical literature as having a potential role for managing the dreadful features of GIBD.

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