Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις

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Παρασκευή, 21 Ιουλίου 2017

Untargeted Antifungal Treatment Strategies for Invasive Candidiasis in Non-neutropenic Critically Ill Patients: Current Evidence and Insights

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this study was to provide an overview and insights on important new concepts on untargeted antifungal treatment strategies, namely prophylaxis pre-emptive and empiric treatments for the management of invasive candidiasis (IC) in non-neutropenic critically ill patients.

Recent Findings

Recently, clinical practice guidelines provided recommendation for the management of IC. However, results from recent trials and systematic reviews questioned the effect of untargeted antifungal treatment strategies, especially in terms of survival benefits in non-neutropenic patients, even with septic shock.

Summary

Widespread use of untargeted antifungal treatment strategies seems not to be justified anymore. Future research should evaluate comprehensive diagnostic-therapeutic approaches, including the implementation of de-escalation. In the meanwhile, clinicians should take into account all available sources of information including clinical evaluation, risk factor assessment, scores, and surrogate biomarkers to tailor antifungal treatment before definitive microbiological diagnosis.



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Genetics, Molecular, and Proteomics Advances in Filamentous Fungi

Abstract

Filamentous fungi play a dynamic role in health and the environment. In addition, their unique and complex hyphal structures are involved in their morphogenesis, integrity, synthesis, and degradation, according to environmental and physiological conditions and resource availability. However, in biotechnology, it has a great value in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients. The beginning of nomenclature of overall fungi started in early 1990 after which the categorization, interior and exterior mechanism, function, molecular and genetics study took pace. This mini-review has emphasized some of the important aspects of filamentous fungi, their pattern of life cycle, history, and development of different strategic methods applied to exploit this unique organism. New trends and concepts that have been applied to overcome obstacle because of their basic structure related to genomics and systems biology has been presented. Furthermore, the future aspects and challenges that need to be deciphered to get a bigger and better picture of filamentous fungi have been discussed.



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The Retinol-Binding Protein Receptor STRA6 Regulates Diurnal Insulin Responses [Gene Regulation]

It has long been appreciated that insulin action is closely tied to circadian rhythms. However, mechanisms that dictate diurnal insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues are not well understood. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been implicated as a driver of insulin resistance in rodents and humans, and has become an attractive drug target in type 2 diabetes. RBP4 is synthesized primarily in the liver where it binds retinol and transports it to tissues throughout the body. The retinol-RBP4 complex (holo-RBP) can be recognized by a cell surface receptor known as stimulated by retinoic acid 6 (STRA6) which transports retinol into cells. Coupled to retinol transport, holo-RBP can activate STRA6-driven janus kinase (JAK) signaling and downstream induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) target genes. Here we examined diurnal rhythmicity of the RBP4-STRA6 signaling axis, and investigated whether STRA6 is necessary for diurnal variations in insulin sensitivity. We show that adipose tissue STRA6 undergoes circadian patterning driven in part by the nuclear transcription factor Rev-erbα. Furthermore, STRA6 is necessary for diurnal rhythmicity of insulin action and JAK/STAT signaling in adipose tissue. These findings establish that holo-RBP and its receptor STRA6 are potent regulators of diurnal insulin responses, and suggest that the holo-RBP/STRA6 signaling axis may represent a novel therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes.

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Lineage tracing of epithelial cells in developing teeth reveals two strategies for building signaling centers [Developmental Biology]

An important event in organogenesis is the formation of signaling centers, which are clusters of growth-factor secreting cells. In the case of tooth development, sequentially formed signaling centers known as the initiation knot (IK) and the enamel knot (EK) regulate morphogenesis. However, despite the importance of signaling centers, their origin, as well as the fate of the cells composing them, remain open questions. Here, using lineage tracing of distinct epithelial populations, we found that the EK of the mouse incisor is derived de novo from a group of SRY-box 2 (Sox2)-expressing cells in the posterior half of the tooth germ. Specifically, EK progenitors are located in the posterior ventral basal layer, as demonstrated by DiI labeling of cells. Lineage tracing the formed EK with ShhCreER, which encodes an inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the Sonic hedgehog promoter, at subsequent developmental stages showed that, once formed, some EK cells in the incisor give rise to differentiated cells, whereas in the molar, EK cells give rise to the buccal secondary EK. This work thus establishes the developmental origin as well as the fate of the EK and reveals two strategies for the emergence of serially formed signaling centers: one through de novo establishment and the other by incorporation of progeny from previously formed signaling centers.

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Prostate Cancer in the Elderly Male: Diagnostic and Management Considerations

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Along with an aging US population comes the growing need for clinical guidelines inclusive of and specific to this unique group. Prostate cancer (PCa) is increasingly recognized as a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. This review seeks to address the unmet need for standardized PCa screening and management protocols for geriatric men and to synthesize recommendations based on recent literature.

Recent Findings

Guidelines regarding PCa screening in elderly men are still being optimized, with many organizations moving toward inclusion of pre-screening global health assessment. Physician compliance with screening and treatment of PCa in geriatric patients is suboptimal, despite advanced age being a predictor of advanced disease. Elderly patients may experience treatment-related side effects which differ from their younger counterparts.

Summary

Providers treating older men are encouraged to utilize comprehensive health assessments which account for comorbidities, functional status, and global well-being, along with shared decision-making, in determining diagnostic and therapeutic pathways.



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Effects of Voice Therapy on Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Systematic Literature Review

The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the effects of voice therapy on individuals diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) or hyperfunctional dysphonia. This is a systematic literature review on the databases Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Lilacs using a search strategy related to the theme of the study. The selection included clinical trials that assessed the effects of speech therapy intervention on patients diagnosed with MTD or hyperfunctional dysphonia published over the last 10 years in Portuguese, English, or Spanish.

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Associations of Sex Hormones and Anthropometry with the Speaking Voice Profile in the Adult General Population

There is evidence that sexual hormone concentrations and anthropometric factors influence the human voice. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent body mass index (BMI), body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone are associated with the sound pressure level and the fundamental frequency of the speaking voice in a cross-sectional approach among adults in the general population.

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Comparison of Two Multiparameter Acoustic Indices of Dysphonia Severity: The Acoustic Voice Quality Index and Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia

The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) and the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) are two multiparameter acoustic indices designed to objectively estimate dysphonia severity and track treatment outcomes. This study compared the performance of these two indices using a common corpus of dysphonic speakers.

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High Post-treatment α-Fetoprotein Levels and Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index Predict Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis C Virus Decompensated Cirrhotic Patients with Sustained Virological Response After Antiviral Therapy

Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Expression of calcium-binding proteins S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 in otitis media

Calgranulins (calcium-binding proteins S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12) are predominant cytoplasmic proteins of neutrophils and produced by various cells, playing multiple functions in innate immunity and the inflammatory process. Although up-regulated expression of S100A8 and S100A9 genes were observed in an animal model of otitis media (OM), their expressions have not been studied in human middle ear epithelial cells in response to the OM pathogen or in patients with recurrent or chronic OM (recurrent OM/RecOM or chronic OM with effusion/COME).

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Homozygous mutations in PJVK and MYO15A genes associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in Moroccan families

Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss is a heterogeneous disorder and the most prevalent human genetic sensorineural defect. In this study, we investigated the geneticcause of sensorineural hearing loss in Moroccan patients and presented the importance of whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify candidate genes in two Moroccan families with profound deafness.

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Vowel intelligibility in children with cochlear implants: An acoustic and articulatory study

In child cochlear implant (CI) users, early implantation generally results in highly intelligible speech. However, for some children developing a high level of speech intelligibility may be problematic. Studies of speech production in CI users have principally been based on perceptual judgment and acoustic measures. Articulatory measures, such as those collected using ultrasound provide the opportunity to more precisely evaluate what makes child CI users more intelligible. This study investigates speech production and intelligibility in children with CI using acoustic and articulatory measures.

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The association between the parenting stress of the mother and the incidence of allergic rhinitis in their children

The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and the social burden related to the management of allergic rhinitis have persistently increased. There are many studies investigating the association between the allergic diseases of children and the stress of their parent. However, the relationship between parenting stress and the incidence of allergic rhinitis among children requires further investigation. We aimed to investigate the significance of parenting stress for mothers with children treated for allergic rhinitis.

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Telemedicine Use Decreases Rural Emergency Department Length of Stay for Transferred North Dakota Trauma Patients

Telemedicine and e-Health , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Usability, Acceptability, and Impact of a Pediatric Teledermatology Mobile Health Application

Telemedicine and e-Health , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Electronic Visits for Minor Acute Illnesses: Analysis of Patient Demographics, Prescription Rates, and Follow-Up Care Within an Asynchronous Text-Based Online Visit

Telemedicine and e-Health , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Promising approaches for treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses

Viral respiratory infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of virus species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses (IFV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the rhinoviruses (RV) being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission or even just the symptoms.

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Effect of home exposure to Staphylococcus aureus on asthma in adolescents

This is the first study to find that environmental Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins in a national population of inner-city adolescents with asthma are common and have the potential to drive asthma symptoms.

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Genetic and epigenetic regulation of YKL-40 in childhood

Circulating YKL-40 and variation in its encoding gene CHI3L1 have been associated with asthma. We found that methylation levels at CHI3L1 CpG sites partly mediated CHI3L1 genetic effects on circulating YKL-40, although they were not associated with childhood asthma.

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Comparison of Poly(l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) and Poly(trimethylene carbonate) Membranes for Urethral Regeneration: An In vitro and In vivo Study

Tissue Engineering Part A , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Induced Redifferentiation of Human Chondrocytes from Articular Cartilage Lesion in Alginate Bead Culture After Monolayer Dedifferentiation: An Alternative Cell Source for Cell-Based Therapies?

Tissue Engineering Part A , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Silence Surrounding Hepatitis C Status in Risk Relationships Among Rural People Who Use Drugs

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has reached epidemic proportions in rural Central Appalachia in recent years. We sought to identify demographic, behavioral, and interpersonal characteristics associated with HCV serostatus disclosure among high risk people who use drugs (PWUD) in Appalachian Kentucky. HCV antibody-positive participants (n = 243), drawn from the fifth follow-up assessment of a longitudinal study of rural PWUD, completed interviewer-administered questionnaires eliciting demographic and interpersonal characteristics, risk behaviors, and information about HCV disclosure. We assessed correlates of HCV disclosure using gender-stratified multivariate logistic regression. Participants reported having disclosed their HCV-positive status to a current sex partner (44.0%), family member (35.8%), close friend (9.5%), or past sex partner (6.6%). Of those reporting current (n = 72) or past (n = 215) injection drug use (IDU), only 2.8% disclosed to current and 0.9% disclosed to past IDU partners, respectively. Female participants were more likely than male participants to disclose to current sex partners and family member(s). In multivariate analyses, adjusting for time since testing HCV positive, older age and lifetime history of drug treatment were associated with decreased odds of HCV disclosure among females, while only lifetime history of drug treatment was associated with decreased odds of HCV disclosure among males. In summary, the almost complete absence of disclosure to current or former injection drug use partners was concerning. However, most participants (69.1%) reported disclosing their HCV status to at least one of their social referents, suggesting that family members, partners, and friends of people living with HCV could play a critical role in encouraging uptake of treatment. Although further research is warranted, it is clear that interventions are needed to encourage HCV disclosure among those most at risk of transmitting HCV.



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A Toddler Parenting Intervention in Primary Care for Caregivers With Depression Symptoms

Abstract

Caregiver depression impacts parenting behaviors and has deleterious effects on child behavior. Evidence-based interventions to address parenting have not been adapted for use with depressed caregivers in pediatric primary care settings. Our study examined the feasibility and explored outcomes of an evidence-based parenting program implemented in primary care and adapted for caregivers with depressive symptoms caring for toddlers. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a wait-list control. Participants were caregivers who screened positive for depressive symptoms in pediatric settings with a toddler. Our study was implemented from July 2011 to June 2012. We adapted the Incredible Years Parents, Babies and Toddlers program with the addition of depression psychoeducation (12 weekly sessions), and assessed caregivers at baseline and immediately post-intervention. We assessed participation rates, depressive symptoms, parenting discipline practices, social support, and parenting stress. Our results revealed that 32 caregivers participating in the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in self-reported parenting discipline practices compared to the 29 wait-list control group caregivers. We found no differences between groups in depressive symptoms, social support, or parenting stress. Our study demonstrated that the average attendance was poor (mean attendance = 3.7 sessions). We adapted an evidence-based parenting intervention for caregivers with depressive symptoms and toddlers in primary care; however, participation was challenging. Alternative intervention strategies are needed to reach and retain low-income caregivers with depression symptoms as they face multiple barriers to participation in groups within center-based services.

Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT01464619.



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Mapping of Wnt-Frizzled interactions by multiplex CRISPR targeting of receptor gene families [Research]

Signaling pathway modules are often encoded by several closely related paralogous genes that can have redundant roles and are therefore difficult to analyze by loss-of-function analysis. A typical example is the Wnt signaling pathway, which in mammals is mediated by 19 Wnt ligands that can bind to 10 Frizzled (FZD) receptors. Although significant progress in understanding Wnt-FZD receptor interactions has been made in recent years, tools to generate systematic interaction maps have been largely lacking. Here we generated cell lines with multiplex mutant alleles of FZD1, FZD2, and FZD7 and demonstrate that these cells are unresponsive to canonical Wnt ligands. Subsequently, we performed genetic rescue experiments with combinations of FZDs and canonical Wnts to create a functional ligand–receptor interaction map. These experiments showed that whereas several Wnt ligands, such as Wnt3a, induce signaling through a broad spectrum of FZD receptors, others, such as Wnt8a, act through a restricted set of FZD genes. Together, our results map functional interactions of FZDs and 10 Wnt ligands and demonstrate how multiplex targeting by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 can be used to systematically elucidate the functions of multigene families.—Voloshanenko, O., Gmach, P., Winter, J., Kranz, D., Boutros, M. Mapping of Wnt-Frizzled interactions by multiplex CRISPR targeting of receptor gene families.



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Role of bone morphogenetic proteins in sprouting angiogenesis: differential BMP receptor-dependent signaling pathways balance stalk vs. tip cell competence [Research]

Before the onset of sprouting angiogenesis, the endothelium is prepatterned for the positioning of tip and stalk cells. Both cell identities are not static, as endothelial cells (ECs) constantly compete for the tip cell position in a dynamic fashion. Here, we show that both bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and BMP6 are proangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo and that the BMP type I receptors, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)3 and ALK2, play crucial and distinct roles in this process. BMP2 activates the expression of tip cell–associated genes, such as DLL4 (delta-like ligand 4) and KDR (kinase insert domain receptor), and p38-heat shock protein 27 (HSP27)–dependent cell migration, thereby generating tip cell competence. Whereas BMP6 also triggers collective cell migration via the p38-HSP27 signaling axis, BMP6 induces in addition SMAD1/5 signaling, thereby promoting the expression of stalk cell–associated genes, such as HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1) and FLT1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 1). Specifically, ALK3 is required for sprouting from HUVEC spheroids, whereas ALK2 represses sprout formation. We demonstrate that expression levels and respective complex formation of BMP type I receptors in ECs determine stalk vs. tip cell identity, thus contributing to endothelial plasticity during sprouting angiogenesis. As antiangiogenic monotherapies that target the VEGF or ALK1 pathways have not fulfilled efficacy objectives in clinical trials, the selective targeting of the ALK2/3 pathways may be an attractive new approach.—Benn, A., Hiepen, C., Osterland, M., Schütte, C., Zwijsen, A., Knaus, P. Role of bone morphogenetic proteins in sprouting angiogenesis: differential BMP receptor-dependent signaling pathways balance stalk vs. tip cell competence.



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Thromboembolism in ALK-rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

We read with interest the article by Zer and colleagues, assessing rates of thromboembolism (TE) among patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearranged (ALK+) Non Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).1

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Atomic White-Out: Enabling Atomic Circuitry through Mechanically Induced Bonding of Single Hydrogen Atoms to a Silicon Surface

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b04238
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Influence of Relativistic Effects on Assembled Structures of V-Shaped Bispyridine Molecules on M(111) Surfaces Where M = Cu, Ag, Au

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b04559
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Assemblies of Self-Replicating Peptide Macrocycles

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b02211
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Thermomechanical Response of Self-Assembled Nanoparticle Membranes

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b02676
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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Vaccini: Gallera, a settembre tavolo per campagna informativa - La Sicilia

La Sicilia
Vaccini: Gallera, a settembre tavolo per campagna informativa
La Sicilia
Per questo "il vaccino anti-Hpv assume un ruolo fondamentale nella prevenzione di questo e di tutta una serie di tumori (della vulva e della vagina, anale, del pene, testa-collo), anche nei maschi, che registrano nella maggior parte dei casi tassi di ...

and more »


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Scuola laser contro tumori testa-collo - Sardegna - ANSA.it - ANSA.it

ANSA.it
Scuola laser contro tumori testa-collo - Sardegna - ANSA.it
ANSA.it
(ANSA) - CAGLIARI, 14 LUG - Al Policlinico Duilio Casula si tiene in questi giorni un corso internazionale diretto dal professor Roberto Puxeddu, direttore di ...

and more »


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Evolutionary relationships of wing venation and wing size and shape in Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Abstract

We explored evolutionary changes in wing venation and wing size and shape in Aphidiinae, one of the well-known groups of parasitic wasps from the family Braconidae. Forewings of 53 species from 12 genera were examined, for which a molecular phylogeny was constructed on the basis of the mitochondrial barcoding gene COI. By covering all types of wing venation within the subfamily Aphidiinae and by using landmark-based geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested whether evolutionary changes in wing shape correlate to the changes in wing venation and if both changes relate to wing size. The relationship between wing morphology and host specificity has been also investigated. We found that six types of wing venation, with different degree of vein reduction, could be recognized. Wing venation type is largely genus specific, except in the case of maximal reduction of wing venation which could be found across examined Aphidiinae taxa. The reconstruction of evolutionary changes in wing venation indicates that evolutionary changes in wing shape are related to the changes in wing size, indicating that miniaturization play a role in evolution of wing morphology while host specialization does not affect the wing shape within the subfamily Aphidiinae.



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Surface Charge Dependent Separation of Modified and Hybrid Ferritin in Native PAGE: Impact of Lysine 104

Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics
Author(s): Biswamaitree Subhadarshanee, Abhinav Mohanty, Manas Kumar Jagdev, Dileep Vasudevan, Rabindra K. Behera
Preparation of modified and hybrid ferritin provides a great opportunity to understand the mechanisms of iron loading/unloading, protein self-assembly, size constrained nanomaterial synthesis and targeted drug delivery. However, the large size (M.W. = 490kDa) has been limiting the separation of different modified and/or hybrid ferritin nanocages from each other in their intact assembled form and further characterization. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) separates proteins on the basis of both charge and mass, while maintaining their overall native structure and activity. Altering surface charge distribution by substitution of amino acid residues located at the external surface of ferritin (K104E & D40A) affected the migration rate in native PAGE while internal modification had little effect. Crystal structures confirmed that ferritin nanocages made up of subunits with single amino acid substitutions retain the overall structure of ferritin nanocage. Taking advantage of K104E migration behavior, formation of hybrid ferritins with subunits of wild type (WT) and K104E were confirmed and separated in native PAGE. Cage integrity and iron loading ability (ferritin activity) were also tested. The migration pattern of hybrid ferritins in native PAGE depends on the subunit ratio (WT: K104E) in the ferritin cage. Our work shows that native PAGE can be exploited in nanobiotechnology, by analyzing modifications of large proteins like ferritin.SignificanceNative PAGE, a simple, straight-forward technique, can be used to analyze small modification (by altering external surface charge) in large proteins like ferritin, without disintegrating its self-assembled nanocage structure. In doing so, native PAGE can complement the information obtained from mass spectrometry. The confirmation and separation of modified and hybrid ferritin protein nanocages in native PAGE, opens up various prospects of bio-conjugation, which can be useful in targeted drug delivery, nanobiotechnology and in understanding nature's idea of synthesizing hybrid ferritins in different human tissues.

Graphical abstract

image


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The COOLER Code: A Novel Analytical Approach to Calculate Subcellular Energy Deposition by Internal Electron Emitters

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 204-220, August 2017.


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Different Sequences of Fractionated Low-Dose Proton and Single Iron-Radiation-Induced Divergent Biological Responses in the Heart

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 191-203, August 2017.


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Cellular Therapies for Treatment of Radiation Injury after a Mass Casualty Incident

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 242-245, August 2017.


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Cellular Therapies for Treatment of Radiation Injury: Report from a NIH/NIAID and IRSN Workshop

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page e54-e75, August 2017.


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Subtype-Specific Radiation Response and Therapeutic Effect of FAS Death Receptor Modulation in Human Breast Cancer

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 169-180, August 2017.


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Delayed Growth Suppression and Radioresistance Induced by Long-Term Continuous Gamma Irradiation

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 181-190, August 2017.


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Rapid Prediction of Hematologic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Radiation Injury Patients Using Peripheral Blood Cell Counts

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 156-168, August 2017.


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Radiation Exposure Enhances Hepatocyte Proliferation in Neonatal Mice but not in Adult Mice

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 235-241, August 2017.


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Intrinsic LINE-1 Hypomethylation and Decreased Brca1 Expression are Associated with DNA Repair Delay in Irradiated Thyroid Cells

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 144-155, August 2017.


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The Exploitation of Low-Energy Electrons in Cancer Treatment

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 123-143, August 2017.


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Cellular Response to Exponentially Increasing and Decreasing Dose Rates: Implications for Treatment Planning in Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

Radiation Research, Volume 188, Issue 2, Page 221-234, August 2017.


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Bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenite and arsenate in Dunaliella salina under different phosphate regimes

Abstract

Dunaliella salina is a potential candidate for the phycoremediation of saline water contaminated with arsenic (As) due to its strong tolerance of salt and this toxic metalloid. However, the efficiency of As removal by this microalga varies under different phosphate regimes and the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to optimize As remediation using D. salina. Here, we investigated the dynamic processes of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) uptake, transformation, and excretion by D. salina under phosphate-deficient (−P) and phosphate-enriched (+P) conditions through short-term and long-term uptake experiments. In the short-term uptake experiment, the absorption of As(III) or As(V) by D. salina was significantly suppressed by an increased phosphate supply. The V max values for As(III) and As(V) decreased by 2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, under +P conditions, although the Michaelis constants (K m ) were similar irrespective of the phosphate supply. Long-term uptake experiments also revealed enhanced As(III)/As(V) absorption and efflux rates and As(V) reduction by D. salina under −P conditions. This study quantified the kinetic processes of As metabolism in D. salina. More importantly, the results imply that the optimal As remediation by this microalga may be achieved by regulating the phosphate level in the culture.



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Concentrations and inhalation risk assessment of short-chain polychlorinated paraffins in the urban air of Dalian, China

Abstract

The concentrations of short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the urban air of Dalian, China, were monitored from March to October 2010 and from September to October 2016 with active high-volume sampler. The total concentration of SCCPs (particulate phase + gas phase) ranged from 15.12 to 66.44 ng m−3, with an average of 30.26 ng m−3 in 2010, and 65.30 to 91.00 ng m−3, with an average of 78.15 ng m−3 in 2016. Hexa-chlorinated dodecane and hexa-chlorinated undecane are the predominant components in the gas phase, while octa-chlorinated undecane and hepta-chlorinated tridecane are dominant in the particulate phase. In 2010, 82.57–97.16% of the total SCCPs were found in the gas phase, except that in winter, where 63.11% of the total SCCPs were in the particulate phase; the air concentrations of SCCPs in gas phase were summer > autumn > spring > winter, which was positively correlated with the change of the average ambient temperature, while it was the contrary in particulate phase. In autumn, the gas phase and the total air concentration of SCCPs in 2016 were 2.57 times more than that in 2010, while the congener group patterns of SCCPs were similar. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis between the concentrations of SCCPs with meteorological parameters was conducted. The gas-particle distribution was examined through the relationship of the logarithm of the gas-particle partition coefficient with that of the subcooled vapor pressure and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient of SCCPs. Results indicated that the absorption mechanisms contributed more to the partitioning process. The exposure risk of SCCPs was evaluated, which illustrated that the estimated exposure of SCCPs via the outdoor environment in Dalian did not exceed the health concern threshold of the European risk assessment.



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Zero-valent iron particles for PCB degradation and an evaluation of their effects on bacteria, plants, and soil organisms

Abstract

Two types of nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI-B prepared by borohydride reduction and nZVI-T produced by thermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles in H2) and a micro-scale ZVI (mZVI) were compared for PCB degradation efficiency in water and soil. In addition, the ecotoxicity of nZVI-B and nZVI-T particles in treated water and soil was evaluated on bacteria, plants, earthworms, and ostracods. All types of nZVI and mZVI were highly efficient in degradation of PCBs in water, but had little degradation effect on PCBs in soil. Although nZVI-B had a significant negative impact on the organisms tested, treatment with nZVI-T showed no negative effect, probably due to surface passivation through controlled oxidation of the nanoparticles.



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Hurthle thyroid cancer requires tissue sample for diagnosis - News ... - Sarasota Herald-Tribune

Hurthle thyroid cancer requires tissue sample for diagnosis - News ...
Sarasota Herald-Tribune
Dear Dr. Roach: Recently, I underwent a needle biopsy of a thyroid nodule. The cytology report reads ''suspicious for Hurthle cell neoplasm (Bethesda Category ...

and more »


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Biological effects of citalopram in a suspended sediment-water system on Daphnia magna

Abstract

Suspended sediment (SPS) plays an important role in the aquatic ecosystems. Selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used antidepressants and are frequently detected in aquatic environments. However, the biological effects of SSRIs in the presence of SPS are not well understood. To fill this gap, an SPS-water system was constructed to investigate the effects of citalopram (CIT) on Daphnia magna in the presence of SPS with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 g l−1) and organic carbon contents (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%). A dialysis bag was applied in the exposure system to control the same dissolved concentration of CIT and prevent SPS from entering into the bag. The dissolved CIT concentration obviously decreased in the SPS-water system during the exposure period. The presence of SPS significantly increased the immobilization of D. magna, and the immobilization rates were positively correlated with the SPS concentration and negatively correlated with the organic carbon content in SPS. For a single exposure, CIT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in D. magna, while SPS itself did not change the SOD and AChE activities. In the SPS-water system, SOD activity was significantly suppressed, indicating that the SPS-CIT combination could result in oxidative damage. However, SPS did not enhance the neurotoxicity of D. magna that was induced by CIT. These results suggest that SPS exerts a vital role on the biological effects of CIT and the contaminants sorbed on SPS should be taken into consideration.



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Finding a life after losing your voice: Throat cancer survivors speak out - The Nelson Mail

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The Nelson Mail
Finding a life after losing your voice: Throat cancer survivors speak out
The Nelson Mail
When he did see an ear, nose, and throat specialist, however, cancer was found at the base of his tongue, caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). "[People should] spend as much time thinking about cancer as they do thinking about winning the Lotto ...



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5 Essential Oils for Relieving Your Allergy Symptoms - Reader's Digest

01-lavendar-Five-Essential-Oils-for-Alle

5 Essential Oils for Relieving Your Allergy Symptoms
Reader's Digest
The minty scent can also unstuff your sinuses and may even relieve a scratchy sore throat. "This is a great one ... While lumps and bumps are among the most common breast cancer symptoms, there are other potential signs that you need to see a doctor, stat.



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Primary liver transplantation and liver retransplantation: comparison of health-related quality of life and mental status – a cross-sectional study

Liver Retransplantation (Re-LT) procedures are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Up to date, there is no knowledge on the health-related quality of life and the mental status of the...

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Breast Mass Found in 48-Year-Old Patient

A 48-year-old woman presents with a mass in her right breast, and a biopsy is obtained. What is your diagnosis? (Source: CancerNetwork)

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CML Patients Approach Normal Life Expectancy With Imatinib Treatment

Treatment with imatinib results in good overall survival in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, approaching a normal life expectancy, according to the CML-IV study. (Source: CancerNetwork)

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RT @ecancer : Want to earn 2 EACCME credits? Complete our updated module for the management of #prostatecancer in older patients: https://t.…

RT @ecancer : Want to earn 2 EACCME credits? Complete our updated module for the management of #prostatecancer in older patients: https://t.…

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RT @ecancer : Learn more about the ZUMA1 trial of CD19 CAR T cells for aggressive NHL with @YiLinMDPhD here: https://t.co/NeFiOdR83y https:/…

RT @ecancer : Learn more about the ZUMA1 trial of CD19 CAR T cells for aggressive NHL with @YiLinMDPhD here: https://t.co/NeFiOdR83y https:/…

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RT @ecancer : Cover the initial investigation and management of an unwell infant. Start our Core Surgical Training course now! https://t.co/…

RT @ecancer : Cover the initial investigation and management of an unwell infant. Start our Core Surgical Training course now! https://t.co/…

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RT @ecancer : What are the risks and benefits associated with transplant #surgery? https://t.co/1BUJCT3Xux https://t.co/pUSyBJaiHN

RT @ecancer : What are the risks and benefits associated with transplant #surgery? https://t.co/1BUJCT3Xux https://t.co/pUSyBJaiHN

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RT @ecancer : Interesting meeting on Molecular Analysis for Personalised therapy: https://t.co/EPRumkY6LC https://t.co/saPFcSAiX6

RT @ecancer : Interesting meeting on Molecular Analysis for Personalised therapy: https://t.co/EPRumkY6LC https://t.co/saPFcSAiX6

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microRNA-143 acts as a suppressor of hemangioma growth by targeting Bcl-2

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Publication date: 10 September 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 628
Author(s): Chongqing Huang, JingYong Huang, Pengyan Ma, Guanfeng Yu
Infantile hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor affecting infants, which is associated with clonal expansion of endothelial cells. The aim of this study is to determine the role of microRNA (miR)-143 in the growth and survival of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs). We examined the expression of miR-143 in patients with proliferating-phase (n=10) and involuting-phase (n=8) hemangiomas. The effects of ectopic expression of miR-143 on the viability, proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis of HemECs were explored. We also identified the target gene(s) that was involved in the activity of miR-143. It was found that proliferating hemangiomas had significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of miR-143 than involuting counterparts. Reexpression of miR-143 significantly reduced the viability and proliferation of HemECs, while knockdown of miR-143 led to an increase in the proliferation of HemECs. Moreover, overexpression of miR-143 arrested HemECs at the G0/G1 phase and promoted caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. At the molecular level, miR-143 overexpression significantly promoted the expression of p21 and p53 and reduced the expression of cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, and Bcl-2. Silencing of Bcl-2 phenocopied the effect of miR-143 overexpression on the proliferation and apoptosis of HemECs. Furthermore, co-expression of Bcl-2 reversed the growth-suppressive effect of miR-143 on HemECs. Taken together, miR-143 acts as a suppressor in the growth of HemECs, at least partially, through downregulation of Bcl-2. Reexpression of miR-143 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of proliferating hemangiomas.



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Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2A6 are associated with a risk of cigarette smoking and predispose to smoking at younger ages

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Publication date: 10 September 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 628
Author(s): Gloria Pérez-Rubio, Luis Alberto López-Flores, Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas, Valeri Noé-Díaz, Leonor García-Gómez, Enrique Ambrocio-Ortiz, Candelaria Sánchez-Romero, Rafael De Jesús Hernández-Zenteno, Raúl Humberto Sansores, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia
Nicotine is the main component of cigarettes that causes addiction, which is considered a complex disease, and genetic factors have been proposed to be involved in the development of addiction. The CYP2A6 gene encodes the main enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism. Depending on the study population, different genetic variants of CYP2A6 associated with cigarette smoking have been described. Therefore, we evaluated the possible association between SNPs in CYP2A6 with cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction-related variables in Mexican mestizo smokers. We performed a genetic association study comparing light smokers (LS, n=349), heavy smokers (HS, n=351) and never-smokers (NS, n=394). SNPs rs1137115, rs4105144, rs1801272 and rs28399433 were genotyped in the CYP2A6 gene. We found that the A allele of rs1137115 (OR=1.41) in exon 1 of CYP2A6 and the T allele of rs4105144 (OR=1.32) in the 5′ UTR of the gene are associated with the risk of cigarette smoking (p<0.05); rs1137115 affects the level of alternative splicing, resulting in a CYP2A6 isoform with low enzymatic activity, whereas rs4105144 is likely to be in a binding site for the transcription factor for glucocorticoids receptor (GR) and regulates the expression of CYP2A6. In addition, having a greater number of risk alleles (rs1137115 (A), rs4105144 (T) and rs28399433 (G)) is associated with a younger age at onset. The present study shows that in Mexican mestizos, the analyzed SNPs confer greater risk in terms of consumption and age of onset.



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Correlation between RNA-Seq and microarrays results using TCGA data

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Publication date: 10 September 2017
Source:Gene, Volume 628
Author(s): Li Chen, Fenghao Sun, Xiaodong Yang, Yulin Jin, Mengkun Shi, Lin Wang, Yu Shi, Cheng Zhan, Qun Wang
RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and microarray are two of the most commonly used high-throughput technologies for transcriptome profiling; however, they both have their own inherent strengths and limitations. This research aims to analyze the correlation between microarrays and RNA-Seq detection of transcripts in the same tissue sample to explore the reproducibility between the techniques. Using data of RNA-Seq v2 and three different microarrays provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas, 11,120 genes of 111 lung squamous cell carcinoma samples were simultaneously detected by the four methods. Then we analyzed the Pearson correlation between microarrays and RNA-Seq. Finally, in the six comparison results, 9984 (89.8%) genes, irrespective of which two methods were used, simultaneously showed the existence of correlation, whereas only 83 (0.1%) genes proved to have no significant correlation in either comparison. In addition, the comparisons between 3266 (29.3%) genes showed high correlation (R≥0.8) in all six comparisons, only for 1643 (14.8%) genes correlation were not as high in either comparison. Meanwhile, transcripts with extreme high or low expression levels were more highly discrepant across the methods. In conclusion, we found that, for most transcripts, the results obtained by RNA-Seq and microarrays were highly reproducible.



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Hand rejuvenation with fat grafting: A 12-year single-surgeon experience

Abstract

Background

Fat grafting has been successfully used for reconstructive and esthetic surgery of the breast, face, and other body parts. In this article, we present our protocol for hand fat grafting and over a decade of clinical experience.

Methods

Fat tissue is obtained from the flanks, peri-umbilical region, or internal side of the thigh or knee. No centrifuge machine is used to prevent fat damage. After decantation, fat is injected into the dorsum of the hand using a cannula from the wrist and not from the fingers. Fat is distributed gently above the dorsal deep fascia to avoid perforation of the vessels.

Results

The proposed technique was applied to 65 patients. The amount of fat injected ranged from 10 to 30 cm3. No allergic reactions were noticed. Each patient’s progress was followed-up for a minimum of 12 months. Over this period, contour changes and the effects of the procedure(s) on the skin were analyzed. Fifty-six patients (84%) were satisfied with the results during the observation period, 7 patients (12%) were somewhat satisfied and needed one more fat grafting procedure to achieve complete satisfaction, and 2 patients (4%) were dissatisfied with the results. Three cases of temporary swelling of the hands resolved naturally. No long-term complications were seen.

Conclusions

This study covers over a decade of practical experience in applying fat grafts to hands. The procedure is effective in reshaping and rejuvenating the hand as it shows long-lasting results after 1-year follow-up.



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VACCINI, IN LOMBARDIA A SETTEMBRE TAVOLO PER CAMPAGNA INFORMATIVA - ROMA on line

VACCINI, IN LOMBARDIA A SETTEMBRE TAVOLO PER CAMPAGNA INFORMATIVA
ROMA on line
Per questo "il vaccino anti-Hpv assume un ruolo fondamentale nella prevenzione di questo e di tutta una serie di tumori (della vulva e della vagina, anale, del pene, testa-collo), anche nei maschi, che registrano nella maggior parte dei casi tassi di ...

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Fossils We Want To Find

synapsid-cladogram-Tet-Zoo-600-px-tiny-S

There’s a list of fossils I’d really like you to go out and find. Good luck.

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Colistin Resistance in KPC-2- and SHV-5-Producing < b > < i > Klebsiella pneumoniae < /i > < /b > Clinical Isolates in Bulgaria

Conclusions: Although colistin use in Bulgaria only started moderately during 2014, the findings of the current study notify the appearance of colistin resistance among carbapenemase-producingKlebsiella species in another European region.Chemotherapy 2017;62:339-342 (Source: Chemotherapy)

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Finding a life after losing your voice: Throat cancer survivors speak out - The Nelson Mail

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Finding a life after losing your voice: Throat cancer survivors speak out
The Nelson Mail
But Burns sees the damage the virus can do – in some cases causing oro-pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers which require invasive surgery and ongoing radiation. "[Which] hopefully cures the cancer, but there are ongoing side effects from the treatment ...



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Proteogenomic analysis and discovery of immune antigens in Mycobacterium vaccae [Research]

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in developing countries. Neonatal BCG vaccination occurs in various regions, but the level of protection varies in different populations. Recently, Mycobacterium vaccae is found to be an immunomodulating therapeutic agent that could confer a significant level of protection against TB. It is the only vaccine in a phase III trial from WHO to assess its efficacy and safety in preventing TB disease in people with latent TB infection. However, the mechanism of immunotherapy of M. vaccae remains poorly understood. In this study, the full genome of M. vaccae was obtained by next-generation sequencing technology, and a proteogenomic approach was successfully applied to further perform genome annotation using high resolution and high accuracy MS data. A total of 3,387 proteins (22,508 unique peptides) were identified, and 581 proteins annotated as hypothetical proteins in the genome database were confirmed. Furthermore, thirty-eight novel protein products not annotated at the genome level were detected and validated. Additionally, the translational start sites of 445 proteins were confirmed, and 98 proteins were validated through extension of their translational start sites based on N-terminus-derived peptides. The physicochemical characteristics of the identified proteins were determined. Thirty-five immunogenic proteins of M. vaccae were identified by immunoproteomic analysis, and twenty of them were selected to be expressed and validated by Western blot for immunoreactivity to serum from patients infected with M. tuberculosis. The results revealed that eight of them showed strong specific reactive signals on the immunoblots. Furthermore,cellular immune response was further examined and one protein displayed a higher cellular immune level in pulmonary TB patients. Twelve identified immunogenic proteins have orthologous in H37Rv and BCG. This is the first study to obtain the full genome and annotation of M. vaccae using a proteogenomic approach, and some immunogenic proteins that were validated by immunoproteomic analysis could contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of M. vaccae immunotherapy.



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Long-term intensive gymnastic training induced changes in intra- and inter-network functional connectivity: an independent component analysis

Abstract

Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). R-fMRI data were acquired from 13 WCGs and 14 non-athlete controls. Group-independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to decompose the R-fMRI data into spatial independent components and associated time courses. An automatic component identification method was used to identify components of interest associated with resting-state networks (RSNs). We identified nine RSNs, the basal ganglia network (BG), sensorimotor network (SMN), cerebellum (CB), anterior and posterior default mode networks (aDMN/pDMN), left and right fronto-parietal networks (lFPN/rFPN), primary visual network (PVN), and extrastriate visual network (EVN). Statistical analyses revealed that the intra-network functional connectivity was significantly decreased within the BG, aDMN, lFPN, and rFPN, but increased within the EVN in the WCGs compared to the controls. In addition, the WCGs showed uniformly decreased inter-network functional connectivity between SMN and BG, CB, and PVN, BG and PVN, and pDMN and rFPN compared to the controls. We interpret this generally weaker intra- and inter-network functional connectivity in WCGs during the resting state as a result of greater efficiency in the WCGs’ brain associated with long-term motor skill training.



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Occlusion-Fit V-Line Guide and Gooseneck Saw for Safe and Accurate Mandibuloplasty in Asians

Abstract

Background

A slender or slim face with narrow facial features is considered esthetically appealing in Asian people. Plastic surgery to obtain an oval face, called a ‘V-line,’ is popular among young people.

Materials and Methods

A total of 20 Korean patients were included in this study. The patients underwent mandibular anguloplasty with three-dimensional computer-aided design and manufacturing surgical guides that were accurately fitted to the upper and lower teeth, allowing for precise replication of a virtual surgery during a real surgical procedure.

Results

There were no significant complications, including severe bleeding, facial nerve injury, or airway obstruction. All patients were satisfied with the esthetic and functional results, except for one who was neutral toward the result. The mean satisfaction score was 4.75, which was between ‘satisfied’ and ‘very satisfied.’

Conclusion

The V-line guide and gooseneck saw allowed for safe and fast resection of bone in the mandibular angle area. This technique provides consistent results during surgery as well as minimizing surgical complications.

Level of Evidence IV

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://ift.tt/18t7xNj.



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Discussion: Objective Outcome Measurement After Upper Blepharoplasty: An Analysis of Different Operative Techniques



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Discussion: Surgical Management of Gynecomastia—Subcutaneous Mastectomy and Liposuction



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Editor’s Invited Commentary: Re: “Defining Weight Stability for Post-Bariatric Body Contouring Procedures”



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Comment to “No-Drain Single Incision Liposuction Pull-Through Technique for Gynecomastia”



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NHS to stop funding homeopathy and some drugs in targeted savings drive

The NHS is to stop funding homeopathy and a host of drugs that patients can buy over the counter as part of a major efficiency savings drive.A public consultation1 launched on 21 July proposes...
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Number of new HIV infections is rising in Russia

The number of new HIV infections in eastern Europe and central Asia rose by 60% between 2010 and 2016, finds a report published by UNAIDS this week.1There were around 190 000 new infections in the...
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Electrostatic-Interaction-Assisted Construction of 3D Networks of Manganese Dioxide Nanosheets for Flexible High-Performance Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors

TOC Graphic

ACS Nano
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b02344
ancac3?d=yIl2AUoC8zA


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