Δευτέρα, 12 Δεκεμβρίου 2016

A General Look at Women Taking Shelters: What are they living through? What can we do?

2016-12-12T16-39-13Z
Source: Journal of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research
Gamer Günay, Esra Alataş, Süheyla Doğan Bulut, Sibel Örsel.
Violence is an important social issue to which the women are exposed the most. Women shelters are one of the responsive services for the women experiencing violence. In this research, we planned to make situational detection on sociodemographic characteristics and the properties related to the violence they experienced and origin families for the women taking shelters and search for feasible additional social support and protective precautions in light of the analysis. By interviewing 46 cases living in Ankara Women Shelter face to face, a socidemographic form, SCID-1, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) were applied. The average age of cases is 31.46±8.36 years. By CTQ-28, it is detected emotional in %75, physical in % 65.4 and sexual abuse in % 51, other than that %69.2 physical and % 55.8 emotional neglect story. There were behaviour of violence in mothers of %28.8, fathers of %36.5 and siblings of %15.4 of the cases. Duration of marriageis 10.52±9.96 years, marriage age is 18.48±4.29 years and the average duration of getting exposed to violence in their marriage is 11.44±8.27 years. It is declared that the cases were exposed to % 96.2 physical, % 84.6 emotional, %92.3 verbal, % 25 sexual and %78.8 economicalviolence, %65.4 of them experienced violence also in pregnancy and for %35.3 pregnancy was effected from the violence. In %54.2 of the cases there were detected suicide attempt history and the most (% 65.4) major depression primary diagnosis. It can be said with our current findings that the women taking shelters has been facing violence since their childhood, couldnt get enough economical and social support from their families and experienced several mental illnesses with their trauma. Individual strengthening, supporting, providing the psychiatrist applications and pharmacotheraphy treatments in necessary conditions, appyling group and individual theraphies will provide women to be strengthened psychologically until they leave the shelters. On the other hand, providing educational-professional development and labor facilities will enable women to survive after they leave the shelter. Keywords: womens shelter, violence, women


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Effect of fucoxanthin on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in animal models

2016-12-12T10-17-34Z
Source: Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine
LEELA KRISHNA VATSAVAI, ESWAR KUMAR KILARI.
Objective: Type 2 diabetes may occur in patients suffering from obesity. Gliclazide is the most commonly used drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and fucoxanthin is widely used for the management of obesity. As these two drugs intersect at a point, it is essential to investigate the effect of oral administration of fucoxanthin on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in animal models to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this combination. Methods: Influence of fucoxanthin on the activity of gliclazide was determined by conducting single and multiple dose interaction studies in rats (normal and diabetic) and rabbits. Blood samples collected at pre-determined time intervals were used for the estimation of glucose and insulin levels by using automated clinical chemistry analyzer and radio immune assay methods, respectively. The insulin resistance and β-cell function were determined by homeostasis model assessment. Additionally, serum gliclazide levels in rabbits were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Administration of gliclazide resulted in peak reduced blood glucose levels at 2 h and 8 h in rats and at 3 h in rabbits. This activity of gliclazide was not altered by single dose treatment with fucoxanthin. However, multiple dose interaction study of fucoxanthin with gliclazide resulted in significantly greater reduction in blood glucose levels ranging from 22.27 to 45.81% in normal rats, 28.45 to 44.68% in diabetic rats and 15.01 to 40.72% in rabbits. This observation was coupled with significantly increased insulin level, β-cell function and insulin resistance index in animal models. The pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in rabbits was significantly altered by repeated dose treatments of fucoxanthin and the percent increase in serum gliclazide concentration was found to be 13.93 % when compared to gliclazide control. Conclusion: From this study it is concluded that the interaction of fucoxanthin with gliclazide upon multiple dose treatments is pharmacokinetic in nature. This combination when prescribed/taken for clinical use in obese patients requires dose adjustments and periodic monitoring of blood glucose levels.


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Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: A pathologist perspective

2016-12-12T08-33-36Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Hema Pant.
Background: Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the gallbladder characterized by the infiltration of plasma cells, lipid-laden histiocytes, and the proliferation of fibroblasts in the gallbladder wall. Its importance lies in the fact that imaging studies and intraoperative appearance may be confused with tumors of the gallbladder. It is the name generally used to describe the lesion which results when lipids from the bile in the lumen of the gallbladder enter the wall of the organ and induce a granulomatous inflammation. The present study was undertaken to analyze histological features of XGC along with clinical features and ultrasonographic findings. Objectives: Correlation of XGC with clinico-radiological findings and to look for various morphological changes microscopically. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 1018 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy between July 2014 and June 2016 at our hospital. Totally, 33 cases of XGC were identified among these cholecystectomies. The clinical features and radiological findings of these patients have been analyzed and compared with histologic findings. Results: The clinical symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea, and jaundice in 81.8%, 60.6%, and 12.12% of the patients. Preoperative ultrasonography for 33 patients revealed gallstone (90.90%) bile sludge (9.09%) and thickened wall in 30.30% of patients. Conclusions: XGC is difficult to diagnose pre- or intra-operatively and remains a challenge in medical practice. The definitive diagnosis depends on the histopathologic examination.


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Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infection among hemodialysis patients in a tertiary health care center of Western Rajasthan

2016-12-12T08-33-36Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Narendra Rawat, Navgeet Mathur, Kiran Rawat, Medha Mathur, Nitesh Chauhan, Rahul Kakkar, Rajat Tinna.
Background: Infections such as viral hepatitis (both B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have major role in morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It is important to know the prevalence of these infections in HD patients to encounter medical challenges. Not much work has been carried out in this regard in Western Rajasthan. Objectives: To find out the prevalence and age, sex, religion-wise distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infections in HD patients in a tertiary care institute of Western Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months in HD unit at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur. All patients (n = 1314) were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) and HIV antibody. Prevalence and age-, sex-, religion-wise distribution of these infections were observed. Results: A total of 1314 patients (967 males and 347 females) were screened for the presence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections. It was found that 92 (7.0%) patients were positive only for HBsAg, 483 (36.75%) only for anti-HCV, 12 (0.9%) for HIV antibody and 4 (0.3%) had dual HBV and HCV infection. Conclusion: There is a considerable burden of these infections in HD patient. Effort should be made to minimized infections to improve morbidly and mortality profile.


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Seminal plasma caspase 3, cytochrome c and total antioxidant capacity in oligospermic males and association with sperm indices

2016-12-12T08-16-11Z
Source: Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine
Abiodun Mathias Emokpae, Happy Ngozi Chima, Muhammed Ahmed.
Objective: To determine the levels of cytochrome c, caspase 3 and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in oligospermic male subjects in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Materials and methods:The study participants were 56 oligospermic male subjects attending fertility clinic and 30 control subjects who were males of proven fertility with normal semen parameters. Semen samples were collected by masturbation after a minimum of 3 days sexual abstinence into sterile containers, were allowed to liquefy at room temperature and manual semen analysis was performed according to WHO standard. Seminal plasma cytochrome c, caspase 3 and total antioxidant capacity were assayed by sandwiched ELISA technique using reagents supplied by Elabscience and Wkea Medical supplies corporation, China respectively. The differences in the mean levels of measured parameters were compared using Students t test and caspase 3 was correlated with sperm indices. Results: The mean values of cytochrome C and caspase 3 were significantly higher (p


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