Purpose of Review
The aim of this paper is to discuss strategies for prevention and management of hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure, including the role of novel therapies.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) antagonists, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) decrease mortality and morbidity in heart failure but increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially when used in combination. Prevention of hyperkalemia and its associated complications requires careful patient selection, counseling regarding dietary potassium intake, awareness of drug interactions, and regular laboratory surveillance. Recent data suggests that the risk of hyperkalemia may be further moderated through the use of combined angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors, novel MRAs, and novel potassium binding agents.
Clinicians should be mindful of the risk of hyperkalemia when prescribing RAAS inhibitors to patients with heart failure. In patients at highest risk, such as those with diabetes, the elderly, and advanced chronic kidney disease, more intensive laboratory surveillance of potassium and creatinine may be required. Novel therapies hold promise for reducing the risk of hyperkalemia and enhancing the tolerability of RAAS antagonists.