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Κυριακή, 21 Φεβρουαρίου 2016

17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 predicts survival of patients with colorectal cancer and affects mitochondrial DNA content

Publication date: 28 April 2016
Source:Cancer Letters, Volume 374, Issue 1
Author(s): Albert Amberger, Andrea J. Deutschmann, Pia Traunfellner, Patrizia Moser, René G. Feichtinger, Barbara Kofler, Johannes Zschocke
Mitochondrial energy production is reduced in tumor cells, and altered mitochondrial respiration contributes to tumor progression. Synthesis of proteins coded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) requires the correct processing of long polycistronic precursor RNA molecules. Mitochondrial RNase P, composed of three different proteins (MRPP1, HSD10, and MRPP3), is necessary for correct RNA processing. Here we analyzed the role of RNase P proteins in colorectal cancer. High HSD10 expression was found in 28%; high MRPP1 expression in 40% of colorectal cancers, respectively. Expression of both proteins was not significantly associated with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis revealed that loss of HSD10 expression is associated with poor prognosis. Cox regression demonstrated that patients with high HSD10 tumors are at lower risk. High HSD10 expression was significantly associated with high mtDNA content in tumor tissue. A causal effect of HSD10 overexpression or knock down with increased or reduced mtDNA levels, respectively, was confirmed in tumor cell lines. Our data suggest that HSD10 plays a role in alterations of energy metabolism by regulating mtDNA content in colorectal carcinomas, and HSD10 protein analysis may be of prognostic value.



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Tumori infantili, Scoperto Gene Vgll2: Adesso è possibile diagnosi precoce nei bimbi - ControCopertina


ControCopertina

Tumori infantili, Scoperto Gene Vgll2: Adesso è possibile diagnosi precoce nei bimbi
ControCopertina
Il rabdomiosarcoma è un tumore molto aggressivo e può nascere in qualsiasi parte del corpo, ma più frequentemente a livello di testa-collo (inclusa l'orbita), apparato genito-urinario (vescica-prostata, vagina, area paratesticolare), arti e altre sedi ...

and more »


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De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Olea europaea L. to Identify Genes Involved in the Development of the Pollen Tube

In olive (Olea europaea L.), the processes controlling self-incompatibility are still unclear and the molecular basis underlying this process are still not fully characterized. In order to determine compatibility relationships, using next-generation sequencing techniques and a de novo transcriptome assembly strategy, we show that pollen tubes from different olive plants, grown in vitro in a medium containing its own pistil and in combination pollen/pistil from self-sterile and self-fertile cultivars, have a distinct gene expression profile and many of the differentially expressed sequences between the samples fall within gene families involved in the development of the pollen tube, such as lipase, carboxylesterase, pectinesterase, pectin methylesterase, and callose synthase. Moreover, different genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, and growth are overrepresented. The analysis also allowed us to identify members in actin and actin depolymerization factor and fibrin gene family and member of the Ca2+ binding gene family related to the development and polarization of pollen apical tip. The whole transcriptomic analysis, through the identification of the differentially expressed transcripts set and an extended functional annotation analysis, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the olive.

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Evidence for Use of Alliaria petiolata in North America by the European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae

Pieris rapae L., an invasive crop pest, may have recently begun using Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), a European invasive biennial. We investigated how P. rapae uses forest habitats for nectar and oviposition and examined larval performance on A. petiolata in the field and laboratory. Being known primarily to occupy open habitats, we found that P. rapae regularly uses forest edge habitats, most surveyed A. petiolata plants had P. rapae damage, and P. rapae successfully used both stages of A. petiolata for larval development.

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Describing Urban Evolution with the Fractal Parameters Based on Area-Perimeter Allometry

The area-perimeter allometric scaling is an important approach for researching fractal cities, and the basic ideas and models have been researched for a long time. However, the fractal parameters based on this scaling relation have not been efficiently utilized in urban studies. This paper is devoted to developing a description method of urban evolution using the fractal parameter sets based on the area-perimeter measure relation. The novelty of this methodology is as follows: first, the form dimension and boundary dimension are integrated to characterize the urban structure and texture; second, the global and local parameters are combined to characterize an urban system and individual cities; third, an entire analytical process based on the area-perimeter scaling is illustrated. Two discoveries are made in this work: first, a dynamic proportionality factor can be employed to estimate the local boundary dimension; second, the average values of the local fractal parameters are approximately equal to the corresponding global fractal parameters of cities. By illustrating how to carry out the area-perimeter scaling analysis of Chinese cities in Yangtze River Delta in the case of remote sensing images with low resolution, we propose a possible new approach to exploring fractal systems of cities.

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Numerical Simulation of Bubble Coalescence and Break-Up in Multinozzle Jet Ejector

Designing the jet ejector optimally is a challenging task and has a great impact on industrial applications. Three different sets of nozzles (namely, 1, 3, and 5) inside the jet ejector are compared in this study by using numerical simulations. More precisely, dynamics of bubble coalescence and breakup in the multinozzle jet ejectors are studied by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The population balance approach is used for the gas phase such that different bubble size groups are included in CFD and the number densities of each of them are predicted in CFD simulations. Here, commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent 14.0 is used. The realizable - turbulence model is used in CFD code in three-dimensional computational domains. It is clear that Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models have their limitations, but on the other hand, turbulence modeling is not the key issue in this study and we can assume that the RANS models can predict turbulence of the carrying phase accurately enough. In order to validate our numerical predictions, results of one, three, and five nozzles are compared to laboratory experiments data for Cl2-NaOH system. Predicted gas volume fractions, bubble size distributions, and resulting number densities of the different bubble size groups as well as the interfacial area concentrations are in good agreement with experimental results.

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Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Smads Signaling Pathway in Intrauterine Adhesion

The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in intrauterine adhesion (IUA) patients and experimental rabbit models. 60 IUA patients, 30 control participants, and 18 female rabbits were enrolled in this study. We found that the plasma concentrations and protein expressions of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients and experimental rabbits compared to those in controls (). Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3 were significantly elevated, while Smad7 level was markedly decreased in the patients and experimental rabbits compared with controls (). This altered ratio recommended that IUA was positively correlated to the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in blood and uterine tissue. Moreover, we used the specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) in experimental rabbit. SIS3 obviously reduced the mRNA and protein expression of smad3 and TGF-β1, while it increased Smad7 expression in the treatment groups as compared with IUA rabbits (). Our study suggested that TGF-β1/Smad3/smad7 is a major pathway which plays an important role in the regulation of the IUA and specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) may provide a new therapeutic strategy for IUA.

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Design and Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Coumarin Derivatives as PDE Inhibitors

Coumarins appended to benzimidazole through pyrazole are designed and synthesized using microwave irradiation. These compounds were analyzed for phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition indirectly by motility pattern in human spermatozoa. Some of the synthesized compounds, namely, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5g, 5h, and 5k, have exhibited potent inhibitory activity on PDE.

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Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells for Solid Tumors: Challenges and Prospects

Recent studies have highlighted the successes of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T- (CART-) cell-based therapy for B-cell malignancies, and early phase clinical trials have been launched in recent years. The few published clinical studies of CART cells in solid tumors have addressed safety and feasibility, but the clinical outcome data are limited. Although antitumor effects were confirmed in vitro and in animal models, CART-cell-based therapy still faces several challenges when directed towards solid tumors, and it has been difficult to achieve the desired outcomes in clinical practice. Many studies have struggled to improve the clinical responses to and benefits of CART-cell treatment of solid tumors. In this review, the status quo of CART cells and their clinical applications for solid tumors will be summarized first. Importantly, we will suggest improvements that could increase the therapeutic effectiveness of CART cells for solid tumors and their future clinical applications. These interventions will make treatment with CART cells an effective and routine therapy for solid tumors.

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Insula Volume and Salience Network Are Associated with Memory Decline in Parkinson Disease: Complementary Analyses of Voxel-Based Morphometry versus Volume of Interest

Objective. We investigated structural brain change in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and examined its relationship with memory impairment. Methods. Twenty-three PD-MCI patients were enrolled and underwent cognitive evaluation and 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess brain-behavior correlations and examine the relationship between insula and memory score. VOI methods replicated results obtained from VBM. Results. VBM uncovered the notion that memory scores were positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) density in the insular cortex and a significant positive correlation between overall cognitive performance and concentration of GM within the lateral temporal cortex. In VOI analyses, our results suggested a positive correlation between the insula and composite free-recall verbal memory (, ) and the delayed free-recall verbal memory subdomain (, ). Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the insula and caudate (, ) and putamen volume (, ). Conclusions. In patients with PD-MCI, atrophic changes in the insula may be related to memory deficits, and the brain-behavior correlation may be associated with atrophic change in the striatum within the salience network.

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Altered Resting-State Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Real-Time fMRI Emotion Self-Regulation Training

Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising tool for enhancing emotion regulation capability of subjects and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders. The amygdala is composed of structurally and functionally distinct nuclei, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA), both of which are involved in emotion processing, generation, and regulation. However, the effect of rtfMRI-nf on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of BLA and CMA remains to be elucidated. In our study, participants were provided with ongoing information on their emotion states by using real-time multivariate voxel pattern analysis. Results showed that participants presented significantly increased rsFC of BLA and CMA with prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and some others related to emotion after rtfMRI-nf training. The findings provide important evidence for the emotion regulation effectiveness of rtfMRI-nf training and indicate its usefulness as a tool for the self-regulation of emotion.

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Reversibility of β-Cell-Specific Transcript Factors Expression by Long-Term Caloric Restriction in db/db Mouse

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by β-cell dedifferentiation, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to explore the mechanisms of β-cell dedifferentiation with and without long-term control of calorie intake. We used a diabetes mouse model (db/db) to analyze the changes in the expression levels of β-cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and functional factors with long-term caloric restriction (CR). Our results showed that chronic euglycemia was maintained in the db/db mice with long-term CR intervention, and β-cell dedifferentiation was significantly reduced. The expression of Glut2, Pdx1, and Nkx6.1 was reversed, while MafA expression was significantly increased with long-term CR. GLP-1 pathway was reactivated with long-term CR. Our work showed that the course of β-cell dedifferentiation can intervene by long-term control of calorie intake. Key β-cell-specific TFs and functional factors play important roles in maintaining β-cell differentiation. Targeting these factors could optimize T2D therapies.

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Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration: From Cell-Based Therapies to Decellularised Engineered Extracellular Matrices

Currently, autologous bone grafting represents the clinical gold standard in orthopaedic surgery. In certain cases, however, alternative techniques are required. The clinical utility of stem and stromal cells has been demonstrated for the repair and regeneration of craniomaxillofacial and long bone defects although clinical adoption of bone tissue engineering protocols has been very limited. Initial tissue engineering studies focused on the bone marrow as a source of cells for bone regeneration, and while a number of promising results continue to emerge, limitations to this technique have prompted the exploration of alternative cell sources, including adipose and muscle tissue. In this review paper we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of cell sources with a focus on adipose tissue and the bone marrow. Additionally, we highlight the relatively recent paradigm of developmental engineering, which promotes the recapitulation of naturally occurring developmental processes to allow the implant to optimally respond to endogenous cues. Finally we examine efforts to apply lessons from studies into different cell sources and developmental approaches to stimulate bone growth by use of decellularised hypertrophic cartilage templates.

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Foregut Duplication Cyst of the Stomach: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Duplication cyst of the stomach is a rare congenital malformation, typically diagnosed in the first year of life. In most adult cases the cyst remains asymptomatic, but patients may present with abdominal symptoms including epigastric discomfort or pain. We present a case of a 65-year-old male with an asymptomatic gastric tumor diagnosed incidentally during initial workup of his esophageal adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography revealed a low density soft tissue tumor near the gastroesophageal junction. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a cystic lesion as a hypoechoic round mass with well-defined borders. Following complete laparoscopic resection, microscopic review revealed a cyst lined with respiratory pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and layers of smooth muscle with an outermost thin fibrous capsule consistent with a foregut duplication cyst.

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Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa), a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph

The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148) polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]). Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX) both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed 97%γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa); once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX.

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Postinfluenza Vaccination Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Three Elderly Patients

The etiologies of secondary idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) include infection, autoimmune disease, and immunodeficiency. We report the cases of three elderly patients who developed ITP after receiving influenza vaccinations. The platelet count of an 81-year-old woman fell to 27,000/μL after she received an influenza vaccination. A 75-year-old woman developed thrombocytopenia (5,000 platelets/μL) after receiving an influenza vaccination. An 87-year-old woman whose laboratory test values included a platelet count of 2,000/μL experienced genital bleeding after receiving an influenza vaccination. After Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication or corticosteroid treatment, all of the patients’ platelet counts increased. Influenza vaccination is an underlying etiology of ITP in elderly patients. HP eradication or corticosteroid treatment is effective for these patients. Clinicians should be aware of the association between ITP and influenza vaccinations.

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Diplopia as the Complication of Cataract Surgery

The authors present systematic review of aetiology and treatment of diplopia related to cataract surgery. The problem is set in the modern perspective of changing cataract surgery. Actual incidence is discussed as well as various modalities of therapeutic options. The authors provide the guidance for the contemporary cataract surgeon, when to expect potential problem in ocular motility after cataract surgery.

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Influence of Processing Conditions on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of PP/Silica-Lignin Composites

Functional silica-lignin dual fillers were obtained via mechanical grinding of the components (Syloid 244 silica and kraft lignin). Of particular importance here is the fact that lignin is a natural polymer and particularly that it is a waste by-product of paper production, whose recycling is highly desirable. The product underwent comprehensive dispersive-morphological and thermal analysis. SiO2-lignin hybrid fillers were also used in polypropylene-based composites, extruded via corotating a twin screw machine with different screw speeds. The thermogravimetric data obtained for the extrudates confirmed that the application of the lignin into PP produces a significant char residue. Addition of silica to lignin via this new hybrid formulation has a positive effect on the thermal stability of PP/silica-lignin composites, which can be seen even when observing the temperature for the maximum rate of weight reduction. Tensile test results show that the addition of silica by means of dual filler incorporation improves the mechanical parameters in comparison with pure PP and PP/lignin composite.

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Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate). Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence) and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

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Improved Chiral Separation of (R,S)-Goitrin by SFC: An Application in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Like chemical drugs, research and development of herbal medicine also have a need to resolve enantiomers. To help illustrating the antiviral bioactivity of Isatidis Radix, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used for analytical and preparative separation of (R,S)-goitrin, which was reported as the active ingredient of the herbal. Improved resolution was achieved on Chiralpak IC column, using acetonitrile as the organic modifier, representing a tenfold increase in speed, compared to the previous normal phase HPLC (NPLC) method. The newly developed chromatographic method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Scale-up purification of (R)-goitrin and (S)-goitrin was performed on a preparative column with >90% total recovery. The absolute stereochemical assignment of the purified isomers was determined through optical rotation study. This attempt explored SFC’s application in chiral research of traditional Chinese medicine.

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quality of care; +23 new citations

23 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

quality of care

These pubmed results were generated on 2016/02/21

PubMed comprises more than 24 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.



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Japansk studie: – Passiv røyking gir mer karies

Barn som er eksponert for tobakksrøyk, har dobbelt så høy risiko for å få karies enn dem som ikke er utsatt for røyk, ifølge en ny studie fra Japan.

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NALDB: nucleic acid ligand database for small molecules targeting nucleic acid.

NALDB: nucleic acid ligand database for small molecules targeting nucleic acid.

Database (Oxford). 2016;2016

Authors: Kumar Mishra S, Kumar A

Abstract
Nucleic acid ligand database (NALDB) is a unique database that provides detailed information about the experimental data of small molecules that were reported to target several types of nucleic acid structures. NALDB is the first ligand database that contains ligand information for all type of nucleic acid. NALDB contains more than 3500 ligand entries with detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information such as target name, target sequence, ligand 2D/3D structure, SMILES, molecular formula, molecular weight, net-formal charge, AlogP, number of rings, number of hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, potential energy along with their Ki, Kd, IC50 values. All these details at single platform would be helpful for the development and betterment of novel ligands targeting nucleic acids that could serve as a potential target in different diseases including cancers and neurological disorders. With maximum 255 conformers for each ligand entry, our database is a multi-conformer database and can facilitate the virtual screening process. NALDB provides powerful web-based search tools that make database searching efficient and simplified using option for text as well as for structure query. NALDB also provides multi-dimensional advanced search tool which can screen the database molecules on the basis of molecular properties of ligand provided by database users. A 3D structure visualization tool has also been included for 3D structure representation of ligands. NALDB offers an inclusive pharmacological information and the structurally flexible set of small molecules with their three-dimensional conformers that can accelerate the virtual screening and other modeling processes and eventually complement the nucleic acid-based drug discovery research. NALDB can be routinely updated and freely available on http://ift.tt/24jDLq3 URL: http://ift.tt/1PPiZqH.

PMID: 26896846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Trajectory and predictors of quality of life in first episode psychotic mania.

Trajectory and predictors of quality of life in first episode psychotic mania.

J Affect Disord. 2016 Feb 9;195:148-155

Authors: Oldis M, Murray G, Macneil CA, Hasty MK, Daglas R, Berk M, Conus P, Cotton SM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the trajectory of quality of life (QoL) following a first episode of psychotic mania in bipolar disorder (BD). This 18-month longitudinal study investigated the trajectory of QoL, and the influence of premorbid adjustment and symptoms on 18-month QoL in a cohort of young people experiencing a first episode of psychotic mania.
METHODS: As part of an overarching clinical trial, at baseline, sixty participants presenting with a first episode of psychotic mania (BD Type 1 - DSM-IV) completed symptomatic and functional assessments in addition to the Premorbid Adjustment Scale - General Subscale. Symptom measures were repeated at 18-month follow up. QoL was rated using the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) at designated time points.
RESULTS: Mean QLS scores at initial measurement (8 weeks) were 61% of the maximum possible score, increasing significantly to 70% at 12 months, and 71.2% at 18-month follow-up. Premorbid adjustment and 18-month depressive symptoms were significantly associated with QoL at 18-month follow-up.
LIMITATIONS: Study limitations include the small sample size, inclusion of participants with psychotic mania only, use of measures originally designed for use with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and lack of premorbid or baseline measurement of QoL.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that QoL can be maintained early in BD, and reinforce the importance of assertively treating depressive symptoms throughout the course of this disorder. The emergence of a link between premorbid adjustment and poorer QoL in this cohort highlights the importance of assessing facets of adjustment when planning psychological interventions.

PMID: 26896807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Peroxisomes in parasitic protists.

Peroxisomes in parasitic protists.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2016 Feb 16;

Authors: Gabaldón T, Ginger ML, Michels PA

Abstract
Representatives of all major lineages of eukaryotes contain peroxisomes with similar morphology and mode of biogenesis, indicating a monophyletic origin of the organelles within the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Peroxisomes originated from the endoplasmic reticulum, but despite a common origin and shared morphological features, peroxisomes from different organisms show a remarkable diversity of enzyme content and the metabolic processes present can vary dependent on nutritional or developmental conditions. A common characteristic and probable evolutionary driver for the origin of the organelle is an involvement in lipid metabolism, notably H2O2-dependent fatty-acid oxidation. Subsequent evolution of the organelle in different lineages involved multiple acquisitions of metabolic processes - often involving retargeting enzymes from other cell compartments - and losses. Information about peroxisomes in protists is still scarce, but available evidence, including new bioinformatics data reported here, indicate striking diversity among free-living and parasitic protists from different phylogenetic supergroups. Peroxisomes in only some protists show major involvement in H2O2-dependent metabolism, as in peroxisomes of mammalian, plant and fungal cells. Compartmentalization of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes inside peroxisomes is characteristic of kinetoplastids and diplonemids, where the organelles are hence called glycosomes, whereas several other excavate parasites (Giardia, Trichomonas) have lost peroxisomes. Among alveolates and amoebozoans patterns of peroxisome loss are more complicated. Often, a link is apparent between the niches occupied by the parasitic protists, nutrient availability, and the absence of the organelles or their presence with a specific enzymatic content. In trypanosomatids, essentiality of peroxisomes may be considered for use in anti-parasite drug discovery.

PMID: 26896770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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C2C12 myotubes inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene.

C2C12 myotubes inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of glucocorticoid receptor gene.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Feb 16;

Authors: Chu W, Wei W, Yu S, Han H, Shi X, Sun W, Gao Y, Zhang L, Chen J

Abstract
Obesity is a well-established risk factor to health for its relationship with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Myocyte-adipocyte crosstalk model plays a significant role in studying the interaction of muscle and adipose development. Previous related studies mainly focus on the effects of adipocytes on the myocytes activity, however, the influence of myotubes on the preadipocytes development remains unclear. The present study was carried out to settle this issue. Firstly, the co-culture experiment showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were arrested, and the apoptosis was induced, by differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Next, the sensitivity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to glucocorticoids (GCs), which was well known as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis factor, was decreased after co-cultured with C2C12 myotubes. What's more, our results showed that C2C12 myotubes suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, indicating the potential mechanism of GCs sensitivity reduction. Taken together, we conclude that C2C12 myotubes inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation by reducing the expression of GR. These data suggest that decreasing GR by administration of myokines may be a promising therapy for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

PMID: 26896766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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p11 mediates the BDNF-protective effects in dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in B27-deprived primary hippocampal cells.

p11 mediates the BDNF-protective effects in dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in B27-deprived primary hippocampal cells.

J Affect Disord. 2016 Feb 9;196:1-10

Authors: Park SW, Nhu LH, Cho HY, Seo MK, Lee CH, Ly NN, Choi CM, Lee BJ, Kim GM, Seol W, Lee JG, Kim YH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: p11 (S100A10) is a key regulator of depression-like behaviors and antidepressant drug response in rodent models. Recent studies suggest that p11 mediates the behavioral antidepressant action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rodents. BDNF improves neural plasticity, which is linked to the cellular actions of antidepressant drugs. In the present study, we investigated whether p11 regulated BDNF action on neural plasticity in vitro.
METHODS: We generated primary hippocampal cultures. p11 expression, total dendritic length, and spine density were investigated under toxic conditions induced by B27 deprivation, which causes hippocampal cell death.
RESULTS: B27 deprivation significantly decreased p11 expression. Treatment with BDNF significantly prevented the B27 deprivation-induced decrease in p11 levels in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas these concentrations had no effect on control cultures. B27 deprivation significantly reduced the total length of hippocampal dendrites and spine density. BDNF increased the total dendritic length and spine density in conditions with or without B27. Furthermore, p11 knockdown through small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection blocked these effects. The overexpression of p11 in B27-deprived cells increased the total dendritic length and spine density, and treatment with BDNF potentiated these effects.
LIMITATION: This study should be confirmed in animal models of depression.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data suggest that BDNF-induced improvement in neural plasticity may depend on the regulation of p11 in hippocampal cells with B27 deprivation. These results provide evidence to strengthen the theoretical basis of a role for p11 in BDNF-induced antidepressant action.

PMID: 26896741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues.

Effect of biochar amendment on the control of soil sulfonamides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and gene enrichment in lettuce tissues.

J Hazard Mater. 2015 Nov 4;309:219-227

Authors: Ye M, Sun M, Feng Y, Wan J, Xie S, Tian D, Zhao Y, Wu J, Hu F, Li H, Jiang X

Abstract
Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs.

PMID: 26896719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Controlled superficial assembly of DNA-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposite spheres for surface-mediated gene delivery.

Controlled superficial assembly of DNA-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposite spheres for surface-mediated gene delivery.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016 Feb 10;141:519-527

Authors: Oyane A, Araki H, Nakamura M, Shimizu Y, Shubhra QT, Ito A, Tsurushima H

Abstract
Surface-mediated gene delivery systems have many potential applications in tissue engineering. We recently fabricated an assembly consisting of DNA-amorphous calcium phosphate (DNA-ACP) nanocomposite spheres on a polymer substrate via coprecipitation in a labile supersaturated calcium phosphate (CaP) solution and demonstrated the assembly's high gene delivery efficacy. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of the coprecipitation process in solution and revealed that the negatively charged DNA molecules were immobilized in the ACP spheres during the initial stage of coprecipitation and functioned as both sphere-dispersing and size-regulating agents. As a result, the DNA-ACP nanocomposites grew into size-regulated submicrospheres in solution and assembled onto the substrate via gravity sedimentation. The assembled nanocomposite spheres were chemically anchored to the substrate surface through an intermediate layer of CaP-based nanoparticles that was formed heterogeneously at the substrate surface. The coprecipitation conditions, i.e., coprecipitation time and Ca and P concentrations in solution, greatly affected the state of assembly of the nanocomposite spheres, thereby influencing the gene expression level of the cells cultured on the substrate. Increasing the number density and decreasing the size of the nanocomposite spheres did not always increase the assembly's gene delivery efficacy (per surface area of the substrate) due to adverse effects on cellular viability. As demonstrated herein, controlling the coprecipitation conditions is important for designing a cell-stimulating and biocompatible scaffold surface consisting of an assembly of DNA-ACP nanocomposite spheres.

PMID: 26896659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Osteogenic effect of controlled released rhBMP-2 in 3D printed porous hydroxyapatite scaffold.

Osteogenic effect of controlled released rhBMP-2 in 3D printed porous hydroxyapatite scaffold.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016 Feb 6;141:491-498

Authors: Wang H, Wu G, Zhang J, Zhou K, Yin B, Su X, Qiu G, Yang G, Zhang X, Zhou G, Wu Z

Abstract
Recently, 3D printing as effective technology has been highlighted in the biomedical field. Previously, a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold with the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity has been developed by this method. However, its osteoinductivity is limited. The main purpose of this study was to improve it by the introduction of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). This scaffold was developed by coating rhBMP-2-delivery microspheres with collagen. These synthesized scaffolds were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), a delivery test in vitro, cell culture, and the experiments in vivo by a Micro-computed tomography (μCT) scan and histological evaluation of VanGieson staining. SEM results indicated the surface of scaffolds were more fit for the adhesion of hMSCs to coat collagen/rhBMP-2 microspheres. Biphasic release of rhBMP-2 could continue for more than 21 days, and keep its osteoinductivity to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. In addition, the experiments in vivo showed that the scaffold had a good bone regeneration capacity. These findings demonstrate that the HA/Collagen/Chitosan Microspheres system can simultaneously achieve localized long-term controlled release of rhBMP-2 and bone regeneration, which provides a promising route for improving the treatment of bone defects.

PMID: 26896655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ indocyanine green nanobead with magnetic field-targeting enhanced MR imaging and photothermal therapy in vivo.

Magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ indocyanine green nanobead with magnetic field-targeting enhanced MR imaging and photothermal therapy in vivo.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016 Feb 11;141:467-475

Authors: Wu M, Wang Q, Zhang D, Liao N, Wu L, Huang A, Liu X

Abstract
Multifunctional nanomaterials with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided tumor photothermal ablation ability have been extensively applied in biomedical research as one of the most exciting and challenging strategies for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of these nanomaterials still suffer from low accumulation in tumor tissues and insufficient photothermal ablation of tumors so far. Here, we report a novel approach to overcome these limitations using a core-shell magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ICG nanobead compositing of magnetite nanocluster core with coating of poly(dopamine), then further conjugating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and adsorbing indocyanine green (ICG) on the surface. The adsorbed ICG in the nanobead displays a higher photostability and photothermal conversion ability than free ICG, as well as additional photothermal effect rather than magnetite nanocluster and poly(dopamine), which endow the nanobead with enhanced photothermal killing efficiency against cancer cells under near-infrared (NIR) laser irritation. Furthermore, it is proved that these nanobeads have excellent biocompatibility, T2-weighted MR imaging and magnetic field targeting ability. By applying an external magnetic field (MF) focused on the targeted tumor, a magnetic targeting mediated enhanced accumulation is observed at tumor site as proved by a darker T2-weighted MR image. Utilizing the magnetic targeting strategy, enhanced photothermal tumor ablation was achieved under laser irradiation in vivo, which is reflected by the degree of tumor tissue damage and tumor growth delay. Therefore, this nanobead integrates the abilities of magnetic field-targeting, MR imaging and photothermal cancer therapy, and might be a promising theranostic platform for tumor treatment.

PMID: 26896652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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ELISA index of serum fucosylated haptoglobin for diagnosis of HCC using the normal and reverse AAL ELISA.

ELISA index of serum fucosylated haptoglobin for diagnosis of HCC using the normal and reverse AAL ELISA.

Discov Med. 2016 Jan;21(113):15-23

Authors: Shang S, Qin X, Li W, Zhang S, Liu Y

Abstract
Aberrant glycosylation of target glycoprotein is a frequent and significant event involved in many cancers, for example, increased fucosylated haptoglobin (Hp) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The normal and reverse Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) ELISA were used to measure fucosylated Hp in 98 HCC patients and 98 healthy controls. Simultaneously, protein ELISA was used to measure its protein expression. ELISA Index (OD value of fucosylated Hp/OD value of protein Hp) was developed to reflect Hp fucosylation level on its protein level (Fuc-Hp). Normal ELISA Index exhibited an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.727 with sensitivity of 61.22%, specificity of 81.63%, and accuracy of 71.43% in distinguishing HCC from healthy controls. AUC of reverse ELISA Index was 0.836 with 68.36% of sensitivity, 95.92% of specificity, and 82.14% of accuracy. Thus, AAL ELISA, especially the reverse AAL ELISA, is a promising technology to evaluate diagnostic potential of serum glycoprotein. Fuc-Hp could serve as a useful glycobiomarker for the diagnosis and prediction of HCC.

PMID: 26896598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Biomaterials for enhancing anti-cancer immunity.

Biomaterials for enhancing anti-cancer immunity.

Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2016 Feb 17;40:1-8

Authors: Koshy ST, Mooney DJ

Abstract
Cancer immunotherapy is becoming a standard approach to treat many cancers. However, shortcomings of current methods limit therapeutic benefit in many patients. Rationally designed biomaterial strategies to deliver immune modulatory drugs can potentially show improved safety profiles, while providing multifunctional and spatiotemporally controlled signals to immune cells to improve their anti-cancer activity. This brief review describes biomaterials-based strategies that enhance immune cell function at various tissue sites to improve anti-cancer immunity. Continued collaboration between bioengineers, immunologists, industry, and clinicians is required for biomaterial-based immunotherapy strategies to continue moving to the clinic.

PMID: 26896596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Mucin-type core 1 glycans regulate the localization of neuromuscular junctions and establishment of muscle cell architecture in Drosophila.

Mucin-type core 1 glycans regulate the localization of neuromuscular junctions and establishment of muscle cell architecture in Drosophila.

Dev Biol. 2016 Feb 16;

Authors: Itoh K, Akimoto Y, Fuwa TJ, Sato C, Komatsu A, Nishihara S

Abstract
T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), a core 1 mucin-type O-glycan structure, is synthesized by Drosophila core 1 β1,3-galactosyltrasferase 1 (dC1GalT1) and is expressed in various tissues. We previously reported that dC1GalT1 synthesizes T antigen expressed in hemocytes, lymph glands, and the central nervous system (CNS) and that dC1GalT1 mutant larvae display decreased numbers of circulating hemocytes and excessive differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in lymph glands. dC1GalT1 mutant larvae have also been shown to have morphological defects in the CNS. However, the functions of T antigen in other tissues remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that glycans contributed to the localization of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) boutons. In dC1GalT1 mutant larvae, NMJs were ectopically formed in the cleft between muscles 6 and 7 and connected with these two muscles. dC1GalT1 synthesized T antigen, which was expressed at NMJs. In addition, we determined the function of mucin-type O-glycans in muscle cells. In dC1GalT1 mutant muscles, myofibers and basement membranes were disorganized. Moreover, ultrastructural defects in NMJs and accumulation of large endosome-like structures within both NMJ boutons and muscle cells were observed in dC1GalT1 mutants. Taken together, these results demonstrated that mucin-type O-glycans synthesized by dC1GalT1 were involved in the localization of NMJ boutons, synaptogenesis of NMJs, establishment of muscle cell architecture, and endocytosis.

PMID: 26896591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Coverage analysis in a targeted amplicon-based next-generation sequencing panel for myeloid neoplasms.

Coverage analysis in a targeted amplicon-based next-generation sequencing panel for myeloid neoplasms.

J Clin Pathol. 2016 Feb 19;

Authors: Yan B, Hu Y, Ng C, Ban KH, Tan TW, Huan PT, Lee PL, Chiu L, Seah E, Ng CH, Koay ES, Chng WJ

Abstract
AIMS: PCR amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels are increasingly used for clinical diagnostic assays. Amplification bias is a well-known limitation of PCR amplicon-based approaches. We sought to characterise lower-performance amplicons in an off-the-shelf NGS panel (TruSight Myeloid Sequencing Panel) for myeloid neoplasms and attempted to patch the low read depth for one of the affected genes, CEBPA.
METHODS: We performed targeted NGS of 158 acute myeloid leukaemia samples and analysed the amplicon read depths across 568 amplicons to identify lower-performance amplicons. We also correlated the amplicon read depths with the template GC content. Finally, we attempted to patch the low read depth for CEBPA using a parallel library preparation (Nextera XT) workflow.
RESULTS: We identified 16 lower-performance amplicons affecting nine genes, including CEBPA. There was a slight negative correlation between the amplicon read depths and template GC content. Addition of the separate CEBPA library generated a minimum read depth per base across the CEBPA gene ranging from 268x to 758x across eight samples.
CONCLUSIONS: The identification of lower-performance amplicons will be informative to laboratories intending to use this panel. We have also demonstrated proof-of-concept that different libraries (TruSight Myeloid and Nextera XT) can be combined and sequenced on the same flow cell to generate additional reads for CEBPA.

PMID: 26896490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Floating on Air: Fulfillment and Self-in-Context for Distressed Japanese Women.

Floating on Air: Fulfillment and Self-in-Context for Distressed Japanese Women.

West J Nurs Res. 2016 Feb 19;

Authors: Saint Arnault D, Shimabukuro S

Abstract
This research was part of a larger mixed-methods study examining culture, distress, and help seeking. We surveyed 209 Japanese women living in the United States recruited from clinic and community-based sites, and carried out semi-structured ethnographic interviews with a highly distressed subsample of 25 Japanese. Analytic Ethnography revealed that women described themselves as a "self-in-context," negotiating situations using protective resources or experiencing risk exposure. Women experienced quality of life (QOL) when they were successful. However, a related goal of achieving Ikigai (or purpose in life) was differentiated from QOL, and was defined as an ongoing process of searching for balance between achieving social and individual fulfillment. Our resulting hypothetical model suggested that symptom level would be related to risk and protective factors (tested for the full sample) and to specific risk and protective phenomenon (tested in the distressed subsample). The t tests in the full sample found that women who were above threshold for depressive symptoms (n = 26) had higher social stressor and lower social support means. Women who were above the threshold for physical symptoms (n = 99) had higher social stressor means. Analysis of the interviewed subsample found that low self-validation and excessive responsibilities were related to high physical symptoms. We conclude that perceived lack of balance between culturally defined, and potentially opposing, markers of success can create a stressful dilemma for first-generation immigrant Japanese women, requiring new skills to achieve balance. Perceptions of health, as well as illness, are part of complex culturally based interpretations that have implications for intervention for immigrant Japanese women living in the United States.

PMID: 26896391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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An in vitro method for determining the bioaccessibility of pharmaceuticals in wildlife.

An in vitro method for determining the bioaccessibility of pharmaceuticals in wildlife.

Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016 Feb 19;

Authors: Bean TG, Arnold KE, Lane J, Pietravalle S, Boxall AB

Abstract
Wildlife can be exposed to human pharmaceuticals via prey that have accumulated the compounds from wastewater, surface water, sediment and soil. One factor affecting internal absorption of pharmaceuticals is bioaccessibility, the proportion of the compound that enters solution in the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, the bioaccessibility of most pharmaceuticals in prey remains unknown for most wildlife species. Here, we evaluate the potential of a two-compartment in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to compare the bioaccessibility of the antidepressant fluoxetine from invertebrate prey for birds and mammals. Samples of gizzard (or stomach) and intestinal phase digestive juices were obtained from the in vitro models along with the residual solid material. HPLC analysis revealed that the bioaccessibility of fluoxetine in the avian in vitro models (75.9% and 78.6%) was statistically significantly lower than in the mammalian models (88.2-89.6%) as a percentage of what was recovered; however there were no statistically or biologically significant inter-species difference in terms of the amount recovered per gram of 'food' inserted at the start of the simulation. Nevertheless, this in vitro model provides a useful method of comparing the bioaccessibility of pharmaceuticals in different prey for species with different gastrointestinal conditions. There may be merit for ecological risk assessments in further developing this in vitro approach to improve estimates of internal exposure for organics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 26896322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Antibody-based fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine.

Antibody-based fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine.

J Biosci Bioeng. 2016 Feb 16;

Authors: Huynh Nhat KP, Watanabe T, Yoshikoshi K, Hohsaka T

Abstract
Fluorescent indicators for protein phosphorylation are very important in not only fundamental biology but also biomedical applications. In this study, we developed novel fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators for detection of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) derivatives. A single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) against phosphotyrosine was fluorescent-labeled by incorporation of tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-linked nonnatural amino acid at the N- or C-terminus. The TAMRA-labeled scFv showed fluorescence enhancement upon addition of pTyr-containing peptides based on antigen-dependent fluorescence quenching effect on TAMRA. The TAMRA-labeled scFv was further fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to generate a double-labeled scFv for pTyr. In the absence of antigen, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurred from EGFP to TAMRA but TAMRA was quenched. The antigen-binding removed the quenching of TAMRA while FRET occurred without altering its efficiency. As a result of the FRET and antigen-dependent fluorescence quenching effect, the double-labeled scFv exhibited fluorescence ratio enhancement upon the antigen-binding. The fluorescent and fluorescent ratiometric indicators obtained in this study will become a novel tool for analysis of protein phosphorylation. Moreover, this strategy utilizes antibody derivatives, and therefore, can be easily applied to other antigen-antibody pairs to generate fluorescent ratiometric indicators for various target molecules.

PMID: 26896314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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The Future of Pediatric Obesity.

The Future of Pediatric Obesity.

Prim Care. 2016 Mar;43(1):1-17

Authors: Hutchinson J, Emerick J, Saxena H

Abstract
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment.

PMID: 26896196 [PubMed - in process]



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The potential for tumor suppressor gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

The potential for tumor suppressor gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

Discov Med. 2016 Jan;21(113):41-47

Authors: Birkeland AC, Ludwig ML, Spector ME, Brenner JC

Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Importantly, genomic sequencing of head and neck cancers has identified frequent mutations in tumor suppressor genes. While targeted therapeutics increasingly are being investigated in head and neck cancer, the majority of these agents are against overactive/overexpressed oncogenes. Therapy to restore lost tumor suppressor gene function remains a key and under-addressed niche in trials for head and neck cancer. Recent advances in gene editing have captured the interest of both the scientific community and the public. As our technology for gene editing and gene expression modulation improves, addressing lost tumor suppressor gene function in head and neck cancers is becoming a reality. This review will summarize new techniques, challenges to implementation, future directions, and ethical ramifications of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

PMID: 26896601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016 Mar;3(1):145-53

Authors: White BM, Bonilha HS, Ellis C

Abstract
Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

PMID: 26896114 [PubMed - in process]



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Oncologic outcomes of robotic thyroidectomy: 5-year experience with propensity score matching.

Oncologic outcomes of robotic thyroidectomy: 5-year experience with propensity score matching.

Surg Endosc. 2016 Feb 19;

Authors: Tae K, Song CM, Ji YB, Sung ES, Jeong JH, Kim DS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The oncologic outcome of robotic thyroidectomy is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence rate after robotic thyroidectomy in comparison with conventional thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
METHODS: We analyzed 896 patients with PTC who either underwent robotic (212 patients using a gasless unilateral axillary or an axillo-breast approach) or conventional cervical thyroidectomy (684 patients) with/without central neck dissection between October 2008 and February 2014. We excluded patients who underwent concomitant lateral neck dissection or completion thyroidectomy, and cases with T4 tumor, tumor lager than 4 cm, other types of thyroid cancer, recurrent cancer, and distant metastasis. A propensity score matching analysis was done with ten covariates including age, gender, body mass index, tumor size, multifocality, bilaterality, extrathyroidal extension, type of thyroidectomy, extent of central neck dissection, and RAI ablation to reduce selection bias.
RESULTS: In baseline data, the male ratio and the mean age were lower in the robotic group. Stage, multifocality, and bilaterality were higher in the conventional group. The rate of total thyroidectomy was higher in the conventional group. The two matched groups of each 185 patients were produced and well balanced by propensity score matching. In the comparison of propensity score matched groups, operative time was longer in the robotic group (P < 0.001), and postoperative complications did not differ between the two groups, except for transient hypoparathyroidism and formation of seroma. The recurrence rate did not differ between the two groups after a mean follow-up of 43.6 months (0.5 and 1.1 % in the robotic and conventional groups, respectively, P = 0.375).
CONCLUSION: The oncologic outcome of robotic thyroidectomy in 5-year experience is comparable to that of conventional thyroidectomy in selected patients with PTC.

PMID: 26895921 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Erratum to: Detection of bacteria in middle ear effusions based on the presence of allergy: does allergy augment bacterial infection in the middle ear?

Erratum to: Detection of bacteria in middle ear effusions based on the presence of allergy: does allergy augment bacterial infection in the middle ear?

J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;45(1):15

Authors: Kim WJ, Kim BG, Chang KH, Oh JH

PMID: 26895812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Parotidectomy for Parotid Cancer.

Parotidectomy for Parotid Cancer.

Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2016 Feb 17;

Authors: Cracchiolo JR, Shaha AR

Abstract
Parotidectomy for parotid cancer includes management of primary salivary cancer, metastatic cancer to lymph nodes, and direct extension from surrounding structures or cutaneous malignancies. Preoperative evaluation should provide surgeons with enough information to plan a sound operation and adequately counsel patients. Facial nerve sacrifice is sometimes required; but in preoperative functioning nerves, function should be preserved. Although nerve involvement predicts poor outcome, survival of around 50% has been reported for primary parotid malignancy. Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a high-grade aggressive histology whereby local control for palliation with extended parotidectomy can be achieved; however, overall survival remains poor.

PMID: 26895698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Obstructive sleep apnoea and the need for its introduction into dental curricula.

Obstructive sleep apnoea and the need for its introduction into dental curricula.

Eur J Dent Educ. 2016 Feb 20;

Authors: Güneri P, İlhan B, Çal E, Epstein JB, Klasser GD

Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a major health problem which causes blood oxygen desaturation that may initiate a cascade of events via inflammatory cytokines and adrenocorticotrophic hormone that may have impact upon quality of life and lead to potential life-threatening events. Even though OSA affects an increasing number of individuals, the role of dental practitioners in recognition, screening and management has not developed accordingly. The goal of this article was to provide updated information to dental practitioners on pathophysiology, consequences and treatment options of OSA with a focused discussion on oral appliance (OA) therapy, as this topic is not routinely included in current dental curricula of many dental schools. Additionally, we present a template dental curriculum for predoctoral and/or postdoctoral students in education regarding sleep disordered breathing.

PMID: 26895614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Rat-atouille: A Mixed Method Study to Characterize Rodent Hunting and Consumption in the Context of Lassa Fever.

Rat-atouille: A Mixed Method Study to Characterize Rodent Hunting and Consumption in the Context of Lassa Fever.

Ecohealth. 2016 Feb 19;

Authors: Bonwitt J, Kelly AH, Ansumana R, Agbla S, Sahr F, Saez AM, Borchert M, Kock R, Fichet-Calvet E

Abstract
Lassa fever is a zoonotic hemorrhagic illness predominant in areas across Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and southern Mali. The reservoir of Lassa virus is the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), a highly commensal species in West Africa. Primary transmission to humans occurs through direct or indirect contact with rodent body fluids such as urine, feces, saliva, or blood. Our research draws together qualitative and quantitative methods to provide a fuller and more nuanced perspective on these varied points of human-animal contact. In this article, we focus on the hunting, preparation, and consumption of rodents as possible routes of exposure in Bo, Sierra Leone. We found that the consumption of rodents, including the reservoir species, is widespread and does not neatly tally against generational or gender lines. Further, we found that the reasons for rodent consumption are multifactorial, including taste preferences, food security, and opportunistic behavior. We argue that on certain topics, such as rodent consumption, establishing trust with communities, and using qualitative research methods, is key to investigate sensitive issues and situate them in their wider context. To conclude, we recommend ways to refine sensitization campaigns to account for these socio-cultural contexts.

PMID: 26895631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Isabò: «Con Marco un amore senza età, voleva sposarmi» - Il Secolo XIX


Il Secolo XIX

Isabò: «Con Marco un amore senza età, voleva sposarmi»
Il Secolo XIX
La testa bassa e una valanga di ricci che le coprono il volto senza un filo di trucco. Indossa leggings neri e un maglione grigio scuro. Al collo un monile: il muso di una scimmietta, un regalo di Marco, il più caro. Non se ne separerà. Dimostra solo i ...

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Tumori, Scoperto Gene Vgll2: Possibile diagnosi precoce nei bimbi - Contattolab


Contattolab

Tumori, Scoperto Gene Vgll2: Possibile diagnosi precoce nei bimbi
Contattolab
Il rabdomiosarcoma è un tumore molto aggressivo e può nascere in qualsiasi parte del corpo, ma più frequentemente a livello di testa-collo (inclusa l'orbita), apparato genito-urinario (vescica-prostata, vagina, area paratesticolare), arti e altre sedi ...

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The mitochondrial permeability transition pore in AD 2016: An update

Publication date: Available online 21 February 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research
Author(s): Lucia Biasutto, Michele Azzolini, Ildikò Szabò, Mario Zoratti
Over the past 30 years the mitochondrial Permeability Transition - the permeabilization of the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane due to the opening of a wide pore - has progressed from being considered a curious artifact induced in isolated mitochondria by Ca2+ and phosphate to a key cell-death-inducing process in several major pathologies. Its relevance is by now universally acknowledged and a pharmacology targeting the phenomenon is being developed. The molecular nature of the pore remains to this day uncertain, but progress has recently been made with the identification of the FOF1 ATP synthase as the probable proteic substrate. Researchers sharing this conviction are however divided into two camps: these believing that only the ATP synthase dimers or oligomers can form the pore, presumably in the contact region between monomers, and those who consider that the ring-forming c subunits in the FO sector actually constitute the walls of the pore. The latest development is the emergence of a new candidate: Spastic Paraplegia 7 (SPG7), a mitochondrial AAA-type membrane protease which forms a 6-stave barrel. This review summarizes recent developments of research on the pathophysiological relevance and on the molecular nature of the mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore.



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Microcalorimetry in the BioSciences—Principles and applications

Publication date: Available online 6 February 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): Fadi Bou-Abdallah




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