Τρίτη, 2 Ιανουαρίου 2018

Geographic Information System mapping of gross alpha/beta activity concentrations in ground water samples from Karnataka, India: a preliminary study

Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
Source:Groundwater for Sustainable Development
Author(s): Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavalu, Divya Lakshminarayanan, Jessen George, S.B. Magesh, K.M. Anilkumar, G.M. Brammanandhan, A. Chandrasekara, M. Ravikumar
The activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples were determined for 178 bore wells of Karnataka state of India. The aim of this study was to develop a first insight regarding the radiological quality of ground water samples from Karnataka state. Sampling and measurements were carried out from 2013–2014. So far there has been no detailed study in the radioactivity measurements in drinking water of Karnataka state. TDS, pH and gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements have been performed according to standards. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in the bore water samples of Karnataka state have been found to lie between 0.69 to 15.26mBq/l with a mean of 5.66 ± 0.50mBq/l and 14.6 to 108.5mBq/l with a mean of 57.76mBq/l respectively. In general, the gross beta activity was higher than the alpha activity concentration. From the value of gross alpha and gross beta, it is clear that the water samples are investigated are acceptable for consumption, complying with the WHO recommendations for drinking water.The data obtained can provide information for to make decisions about potential future drinking water regulations.

Graphical abstract

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Endovascular Stroke Treatment on Single-Plane vs. Bi-Plane Angiography Suites

Abstract

Introduction

Endovascular stroke therapy is mostly available in comprehensive stroke centers with state of the art bi-plane angiography suites. The aim of the present study was to analyze if it is justifiable to treat patients with alternative x‑ray machines in the case of capacity constraints, or if it is mandatory to refer patients in such cases. Secondly, we wanted to draw conclusions for the feasibility of different logistic approaches in stroke treatment, such as a "helistroke" concept.

Methods

This was a retrospective dual center analysis of all patients treated on a single-plane angiography suite between 2009 and 2017. A propensity scored matching analysis at a 1:3 ratio was performed with patients treated on a bi-plane angiography suite to receive homogeneous groups.

Results

A total of 42 patients were treated on a single-plane angiography suite and were compared to 126 patients treated on a bi-plane angiography suite. No significant differences in technical parameters, procedure times, recanalization success and complications could be detected. Also, there was no difference in the clinical outcome between the two groups. The only significant difference was the higher amount of radiation dose used on the bi-plane angiography machines to achieve the final results (205,660 mGy × cm2 vs. 114,565 mGy × cm2; p < 0.001).

Discussion

In an era of an ever-changing stroke infrastructure and an increasing demand in thrombectomy procedures, it is feasible and safe for experienced neurointerventionalists to perform endovascular stroke procedures on single-plane angiography units.



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Comparison of Unenhanced T1-Weighted Signal Intensities Within the Dentate Nucleus and the Globus Pallidus After Serial Applications of Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Versus Gadobutrol in a Pediatric Population

imageObjective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) within the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in a pediatric population after serial applications of the linear gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine and the more stable macrocyclic agent gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained. Two similar pediatric patient cohorts who underwent at least 3 serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with sole application of gadopentetate dimeglumine or gadobutrol were analyzed. All MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system acquiring unenhanced T1-weighted spin echo sequences, which were evaluated on the baseline MRI and after the contrast medium administrations. For analysis of SI changes in the DN, the ratios of the DN to the pons (P) and to the middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) were assessed. The GP was compared with the thalamus (TH) by dividing the SIs between GP and TH (GP-to-TH ratio). Results Twenty-eight patients (13 boys, 15 girls; mean age, 8.4 ± 6.8 years) who received at least 3 applications of gadopentetate dimeglumine and 25 patients (13 boys, 12 girls; mean age, 9.7 ± 5.4 years) with 3 or more gadobutrol injections were included. After 3 administrations of gadopentetate dimeglumine, the T1-weighted SI ratios significantly increased: mean difference value of 0.036 ± 0.031 (DN-to-P; P

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A Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety Study of Gadoterate Meglumine in Pediatric Subjects Aged Younger Than 2 Years

imageObjectives The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric patients younger than 2 years; the secondary objectives were to document its efficacy and safety. Material and Methods This was a Phase IV open-label, prospective study conducted in 9 centers (4 countries). Forty-five patients younger than 2 years with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate and scheduled to undergo routine gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of any organ were included and received a single intravenous injection of gadoterate meglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). To perform the population pharmacokinetics analysis, 3 blood samples per subject were drawn during 3 time windows at time points allocated by randomization. Results Gadoterate meglumine concentrations were best fitted using a 2-compartmental model with linear elimination from central compartment. The median total clearance adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.06 L/h per kg and increased with estimated glomerular filtration rate according to a power model. The median volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.047 L/kg. Estimated median terminal half-life (t1/2β) was 1.35 h, and the median systemic exposure (area under the curve) was 1591 μmol h/L. Efficacy was assessed by comparing precontrast +postcontrast images to precontrast images in a subset of 28 subjects who underwent an MRI examination of brain, spine, and associated tissues. A total of 28 lesions were identified and analyzed in 15 subjects with precontrast images versus 30 lesions in 16 subjects with precontrast + postcontrast images. Lesion visualization was improved with a mean (SD) increase in scores at subject level of 0.7 (1.0) for lesion border delineation, 0.9 (1.6) for internal morphology, and 3.1 (3.2) for contrast enhancement. Twenty-six adverse events occurred postinjection in 13 subjects (28.9%), including 3 serious reported in 1 subject (2.2%). One subject (2.2%) experienced 1 rash of moderate intensity considered as related to gadoterate meglumine. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine after a single intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg was appropriately described in newborns and infants younger than 2 years, for whom no dose adjustment is required. The improved efficacy of gadoterate meglumine for contrast-enhanced MRI examination of brain, spine, and associated tissues, as well as its good safety profile, was also demonstrated in this population.

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Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Advanced Calcium Subtraction Improves Luminal Visualization and Diagnostic Confidence in Dual-Energy Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

imageObjectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype dual-energy computed tomography calcium subtraction algorithm and its impact on luminal visualization in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine patients (62% male; mean age, 64 ± 7 years) who had undergone dual-energy coronary computed tomography angiography were retrospectively included in this institutional review board–approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant study. Linearly blended (M_0.6) and calcium-subtracted images were reconstructed. Two independent observers assessed luminal visualization of the coronary arteries in a segment-based analysis, subjective image quality, and diagnostic confidence using 5-point Likert scales. Contrast-to-noise ratios for both data sets were calculated. Wilcoxon testing and Cohen's κ were used for statistical comparisons. Results Calcium-subtracted image series showed improved lumen visualization of the coronary arteries (P = 0.008), with excellent interreader agreement (mean score, 3.3; κ = 0.82), compared with M_0.6 series (mean score, 2.9; κ = 0.77). The calcium subtraction algorithm improved diagnostic confidence compared with the M_0.6 reconstructions (mean scores, 4.0 and 3.1, respectively; all P ≤ 0.002). The image quality analysis showed no significant differences between calcium-subtracted and M_0.6 data sets (subjectively: mean scores, 4.1 and 4.2, respectively, P = 0.442; objectively: mean contrast-to-noise ratio, 37.0 and 38.2, respectively, P = 0.733). Conclusions A prototype algorithm for calcium subtraction improves coronary lumen visualization and diagnostic confidence in patients with heavy coronary calcifications without differences in conventional subjective and objective measures of image quality.

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Non contrast, Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling and Accelerated 3-Dimensional Radial Acquisition Intracranial 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography for the Detection and Classification of Intracranial Arteriovenous Shunts

imageObjectives The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with 3-dimensional (3D) radial acquisition for the detection of intracranial arteriovenous (AV) shunts. Materials and Methods A total of 32 patients who underwent PCASL-MRA, clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/MRA exam, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients presented with AV shunts. Among these were 8 patients with AV malformations (AVM) and 4 patients with AV fistulas (AVF). The clinical MRI/MRA included 3D time-of-flight MRA in all cases and time-resolved, contrast-enhanced MRA in 9 cases (6 cases with AV shunting). Research MRI and clinical MRI were independently evaluated by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to patient history. A third radiologist evaluated DSA imaging. A diagnostic confidence score was used for the presence of abnormalities associated with AV shunting (1–5). The AVMs were characterized using the Spetzler-Martin scale, whereas AVFs were characterized using the Borden classification. κ Statistics were applied to assess intermodality agreement. Results Compared with clinical MRA, noncontrast PCASL-MRA with 3D radial acquisition yielded excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of intracranial AV shunts (reader 1: 100%/100%, clinical MRA: 91.7%, 94.4%; reader 2: 91.7%/100%, clinical MRA: 91.7%/100%). Diagnostic confidence was 4.8/4.66 with PCASL-MRA and 4.25/4.66 with clinical MRA. For AVM characterization with PCASL-MRA, intermodality agreement with DSA showed κ values of 0.43 and 0.6 for readers 1 and 2, respectively. For AVF characterization, intermodality agreement showed κ values of 0.56 for both readers. Conclusion Noncontrast PCASL-MRA with 3D radial acquisition is a potential tool for the detection and characterization of intracranial AV shunts with a sensitivity and specificity equivalent or higher than routine clinical MRA.

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Unenhanced Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Visualization of Brain Edema

imagePurpose The aim of this study was to determine whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging is superior to conventional noncontrast computed tomography (CT) imaging for the detection of acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study of 40 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a major, acute care, teaching center with signs and symptoms of acute stroke. Only those patients who presented to the ED within 4 hours of symptom onset were included in this study. All 40 patients received a noncontrast DECT of the head at the time of presentation. Each patient also received standard noncontrast CT of the head 24 hours after their initial presentation to the ED. "Brain edema" images were then reconstructed using 3-material decomposition with parameters adjusted to suppress gray/white matter contrast while preserving edema and increasing its conspicuity. The initial unenhanced, mixed images, brain edema, and 24-hour follow-up true noncontrast (TNC) images were reviewed and assigned Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Of the 40 patients, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with an acute infarction. Brain edema reconstructions were better able to predict end infarction volume, with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores similar to the 24-hour follow-up TNC CT (7.75 vs 7.7; P > 0.05), whereas the mixed images routinely underestimated the extent of infarction (8.975 vs 7.7; P

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Quantitative Proton Spectroscopy of the Testes at 3 T: Toward a Noninvasive Biomarker of Spermatogenesis

imageObjectives The aim of this study was to compare testicular metabolite concentrations between fertile control subjects and infertile men. Materials and Methods Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed in the testes with and without water suppression at 3 T in 9 fertile control subjects and 9 infertile patients (8 with azoospermia and 1 with oligospermia). In controls only, the T1 and T2 values of water and metabolites were also measured. Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated using the unsuppressed water signal as a reference and correcting for the relative T1 and T2 weighting of the water and metabolite signals. Results Testicular T1 values of water, total choline, and total creatine were 2028 ± 125 milliseconds, 1164 ± 105 milliseconds, and 1421 ± 314 milliseconds, respectively (mean ± standard deviation). T2 values were 154 ± 11 milliseconds, 342 ± 53 milliseconds, and 285 ± 167 milliseconds, respectively. Total choline concentration was lower in patients (mean, 1.5 mmol/L; range, 0.9–2.1 mmol/L) than controls (mean, 4.4 mmol/L; range, 3.2–5.7 mmol/L; P = 4 × 10−5). Total creatine concentration was likewise reduced in patients (mean, 1.1 mmol/L; range, undetectable −2.7 mmol/L) compared with controls (mean, 3.6 mmol/L; range, 2.5–4.7 mmol/L; P = 1.6 × 10−4). The myo-inositol signal normalized to the water reference was also lower in patients than controls (P = 4 × 10−5). Conclusions Testicular metabolite concentrations, measured by proton spectroscopy at 3 T, may be valuable as noninvasive biomarkers of spermatogenesis.

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The Effect of Perinatal Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Adult Mice Behavior

imageObjectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on the behavior of adulthood offspring. Materials and Methods Pregnant Balb/C mice (n = 5 per group) were intravenously injected with gadoterate meglumine (Magnescope, macrocyclic GBCA), gadodiamide (Omniscan, linear GBCA), or vehicle from pregnancy day 15 to 19, corresponding to embryonic day 15 to 19 of the fetus, at 2 mmol/kg body weight per day. Brain samples from dams and pups were collected on postpartum day 28. The total Gd concentration was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (dams, n = 3; gadoterate meglumine-treated pups group, n = 9; and gadodiamide-treated pups group, n = 10). Behavioral testing of offspring was started on postpartum day 70 (control group, n = 22; gadoterate meglumine-treated group, n = 23; and gadodiamide-treated group, n = 20). Results Higher levels of Gd retention were observed in dams and pups in the gadodiamide-treated group. Perinatal exposure to GBCAs caused anxiety-like behavior, disrupted motor coordination, impaired memory function, stimulated tactile sensitivity, and decreased muscle strength, particularly in the gadodiamide-treated group. Conclusions In the present study, we showed that Gd was transferred to pups and was retained in their brain during postnatal development. Gadolinium retention may lead to impaired brain development. These findings indicate that the use of GBCAs in pregnant women should be avoided because it may have adverse effects on the fetus, particularly on brain development.

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Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer Bone Disease: Correlation With Bone Biopsy Histological and Molecular Features

imageObjectives The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bone metastases with histological and molecular features of bone metastases. Materials and Methods Forty-three bone marrow biopsies from 33 metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients with multiparametric MRI and documented bone metastases were evaluated. A second cohort included 10 CRPC patients with no bone metastases. Associations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), normalized b900 diffusion-weighted imaging (nDWI) signal, and signal-weighted fat fraction (swFF) with bone marrow biopsy histological parameters were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were analyzed. Results Median ADC and nDWI signal was significantly higher, and median swFF was significantly lower, in bone metastases than nonmetastatic bone (P

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Contrast Media Research 2017 Durango, Colorado USA, October 22–25, 2017 Convener: Michael F. Tweedle, PhD Erratum

No abstract available

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Are Quality-Adjusted Life Years a Good Proxy Measure of Individual Capabilities?

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Are Quality-Adjusted Life Years a Good Proxy Measure of Individual Capabilities?

Pharmacoeconomics. 2017 Jun;35(6):637-646

Authors: Mitchell PM, Venkatapuram S, Richardson J, Iezzi A, Coast J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is a debate in the health economics literature concerning the most appropriate way of applying Amartya Sen's capability approach in economic evaluation studies. Some suggest that quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) alone are adequate while others argue that this approach is too narrow and that direct measures of capability wellbeing provide a more extensive application of Sen's paradigm.
OBJECTIVE: This paper empirically explores whether QALYs provide a good proxy for individual capabilities.
METHODS: Data is taken from a multinational cross-sectional survey of individuals with seven health conditions (asthma, arthritis, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, heart disease) and a healthy population. Each individual completed the ICECAP-A measure of capability wellbeing for adults and six health utility instruments that are used to generate QALYs, including EQ-5D and SF-6D. Primary analysis examines how well health utility instruments can explain variation in the ICECAP-A using ordinary least squares regression.
RESULTS: The findings show that all seven health conditions have a negative association on overall capability as measured by the ICECAP-A index. Inclusion of health utility instruments into separate regressions improves the predictive power of capability but on average, explains less than half of the variation in capability wellbeing. Individuals with arthritis appear to be less inhibited in terms of capability losses when accounting for health utility, yet those who have depression record significant reductions in capability relative to the healthy population even after accounting for the most commonly used health utility instruments.
CONCLUSION: The study therefore casts doubt on the ability of QALYs to act as a reliable proxy measure of individuals' capability.

PMID: 28238151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Appeal Court overturns first case based on ruling that patients have right to information on treatment options.

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Appeal Court overturns first case based on ruling that patients have right to information on treatment options.

BMJ. 2017 02 23;356:j992

Authors: Dyer C

PMID: 28232395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Friends and colleagues remember Hans Rosling.

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Friends and colleagues remember Hans Rosling.

BMJ. 2017 02 21;356:j891

Authors: Peterson SS, Liljestrand J, Claeson M, Nordenstedt H

PMID: 28223276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Ageing and mental health: changes in self-reported health due to physical illness and mental health status with consecutive cross-sectional analyses.

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Ageing and mental health: changes in self-reported health due to physical illness and mental health status with consecutive cross-sectional analyses.

BMJ Open. 2017 Jan 18;7(1):e013629

Authors: Lorem GF, Schirmer H, Wang CE, Emaus N

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: It is known that self-reported health (SRH) declines with increasing age and that comorbidity increases with age. We wished to examine how age transfers its effect to SRH through comorbid disease and mental illness and whether these processes remained stable from 1994 until 2008. The hypothesis is that ageing and/or the increased age-related burden of pathology explains the declining SRH.
SETTING: The Tromsø Study (TS) is a cohort study using a survey approach with repeated physical examinations. It was conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, from 1974 to 2008.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 21 199 women and 19 229 men participated.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: SRH is the outcome of interest. We calculated and compared the effect sizes of age, comorbidity and mental health symptoms using multimediator analysis based on OLS regression.
RESULTS: Ageing had a negative impact on SRH, but the total effect of age decreased from 1994 to 2007. We assessed the direct effect of age and then the proportion of indirect age-related effects through physical illness and mental health symptoms on the total effect. The direct effect of age represented 79.3% of the total effect in 1994 and decreased to 58.8% in 2007. Physical illness emerged as an increasingly important factor and increased its influence from 15.7% to 41.2% of the total effect. Age alone had a protective effect on mental health symptoms and this increased (2.5% to 17.3%), but we found a stronger association between mental health symptoms and physical disease in the later waves of the study (increasing from 3.7% to 14.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the effect on SRH of mental health symptoms caused by physical illness is an increasing public health problem. Treatment and care for specific medical conditions must therefore focus more strongly on how these conditions affect the patient's mental health and address these concerns accordingly.

PMID: 28100564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Efficacy of combined conservative therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with thumb base osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (COMBO).

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Efficacy of combined conservative therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with thumb base osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (COMBO).

BMJ Open. 2017 Jan 12;7(1):e014498

Authors: Deveza LA, Hunter DJ, Wajon A, Bennell KL, Vicenzino B, Hodges P, Eyles JP, Jongs R, Riordan EA, Duong V, Min Oo W, O'Connell R, Meneses SR

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Management of thumb base osteoarthritis (OA) using a combination of therapies is common in clinical practice; however, evidence for the efficacy of this approach is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a combination of conservative therapies for the treatment of thumb base OA compared with an education control group.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised, controlled, single-centre, two-arm superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio; with assessor and statistician blinded. Participants are blinded to the trial's hypothesis and to the interventions received by the opposite group. A total of 204 participants will be recruited from the community and randomised using a computer-generated schedule. The intervention group will receive education for joint protection and OA, a splint for the base of the thumb, hand exercises and topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel over 6 weeks. The control group will receive education for joint protection and OA alone. Main inclusion criteria are pain ≥40 mm (Visual Analogue Scale, 0-100) at the base of the thumb, impairment in hand function ≥6 (Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis, 0-30) and radiographic thumb base OA (Kellgren Lawrence grade ≥2). Participants currently receiving any of the intervention components will be excluded. Outcomes will be measured at 2, 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is change in pain and hand function from baseline to 6 weeks. Other outcomes include changes in grip and pinch strength, quality of life, presence of joint swelling and tenderness, duration of joint stiffness, patient's global assessment and use of rescue medication. Analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Adverse events will be monitored throughout the study.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is approved by the local ethics committee (HREC/15/HAWKE/479). Dissemination will occur through presentations at international conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12616000353493; Pre-results.

PMID: 28082368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery: a protocol for a mixed-methods prospective cohort study.

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Physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery: a protocol for a mixed-methods prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open. 2017 Jan 10;7(1):e014252

Authors: Nygaard IE, Clark E, Clark L, Egger MJ, Hitchcock R, Hsu Y, Norton P, Sanchez-Birkhead A, Shaw J, Sheng X, Varner M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), stress and urgency urinary incontinence, and faecal incontinence, are common and arise from loss of pelvic support. Although severe disease often does not occur until women become older, pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for PFDs, especially POP. We understand little about modifiable factors that impact pelvic floor function recovery after vaginal birth. This National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Program Project, 'Bridging physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery', uses mixed-methods research to study the influences of intra-abdominal pressure, physical activity, body habitus and muscle fitness on pelvic floor support and symptoms as well as the cultural context in which women experience those changes.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using quantitative methods, we will evaluate whether pelvic floor support and symptoms 1 year after the first vaginal delivery are affected by biologically plausible factors that may impact muscle, nerve and connective tissue healing during recovery (first 8 weeks postpartum) and strengthening (remainder of the first postpartum year). Using qualitative methods, we will examine cultural aspects of perceptions, explanations of changes in pelvic floor support, and actions taken by Mexican-American and Euro-American primipara, emphasising early changes after childbirth. We will summarise project results in a resource toolkit that will enhance opportunities for dialogue between women, their families and providers, and across lay and medical discourses. We anticipate enrolling up to 1530 nulliparous women into the prospective cohort study during the third trimester, following those who deliver vaginally 1 year postpartum. Participants will be drawn from this cohort to meet the project's aims.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare Institutional Review Boards approved this study. Data are stored in a secure password-protected database. Papers summarising the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

PMID: 28073797 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Effectiveness of Senior Dance on risk factors for falls in older adults (DanSE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

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Effectiveness of Senior Dance on risk factors for falls in older adults (DanSE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open. 2016 Dec 30;6(12):e013995

Authors: Franco MR, Sherrington C, Tiedemann A, Pereira LS, Perracini MR, Faria CR, Pinto RZ, Pastre CM

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Strong evidence shows that exercise is effective to improve fall risk factors among older people. However, older people's participation and adherence to exercise programmes is suboptimal. Type of exercise and apathy are reported to be barriers to exercise participation, suggesting that new effective interventions are needed. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to investigate the effect of Senior Dance plus brief education for falls prevention on balance among people aged 60 years or over, compared with a control group receiving only brief education.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blind randomised controlled trial will involve 82 community-dwelling older people aged 60 years or over who are cognitively intact. Participants allocated to the intervention group will attend a single educational class on strategies to prevent falls, and will participate in a 12-week, twice-weekly group-based programme of Senior Dance. The Senior Dance consists of different choreographies, which include rhythmic and simple movements with rhythmic folk songs. Participants allocated to the control group will attend the same educational class that intervention group participants will receive, and will be instructed not to take part in any regular exercise programme. The primary outcome will be single-leg stance with eyes closed. Secondary outcomes include: Short Physical Performance Battery, Falls Efficacy Scale, Trail Making Test and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Continuous outcomes will be reported using mean (SD) or median (IQR), depending on the distribution of the data. The linear regression approach to analysis of covariance will be used to compare the mean effect between groups. All patients will be included in the analyses following an intention-to-treat approach.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by the Human Ethics Committee of the São Paulo State University (CAAE 48665215.9.0000.5402). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at conferences.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02603523, Pre-results.

PMID: 28039296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Life after prostate cancer diagnosis: protocol for a UK-wide patient-reported outcomes study.

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Life after prostate cancer diagnosis: protocol for a UK-wide patient-reported outcomes study.

BMJ Open. 2016 Dec 07;6(12):e013555

Authors: Downing A, Wright P, Wagland R, Watson E, Kearney T, Mottram R, Allen M, Cairnduff V, McSorley O, Butcher H, Hounsome L, Donnelly C, Selby P, Kind P, Cross W, Catto JW, Huws D, Brewster DH, McNair E, Matheson L, Rivas C, Nayoan J, Horton M, Corner J, Verne J, Gavin A, Glaser AW

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer and its treatment may impact physically, psychologically and socially; affecting the health-related quality of life of men and their partners/spouses. The Life After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis (LAPCD) study is a UK-wide patient-reported outcomes study which will generate information to improve the health and well-being of men with prostate cancer.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Postal surveys will be sent to prostate cancer survivors (18-42 months postdiagnosis) in all 4 UK countries (n=∼70 000). Eligible men will be identified and/or verified through cancer registration systems. Men will be surveyed twice, 12 months apart, to explore changes in outcomes over time. Second, separate cohorts will be surveyed once and the design will include evaluation of the acceptability of online survey tools. A comprehensive patient-reported outcome measure has been developed using generic and specific instruments with proven psychometric properties and relevance in national and international studies. The outcome data will be linked with administrative health data (eg, treatment information from hospital data). To ensure detailed understanding of issues of importance, qualitative interviews will be undertaken with a sample of men who complete the survey across the UK (n=∼150) along with a small number of partners/spouses (n=∼30).
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received the following approvals: Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 Research Ethics Committee (15/NE/0036), Health Research Authority Confidentiality Advisory Group (15/CAG/0110), NHS Scotland Public Benefit and Privacy Panel (0516-0364), Office of Research Ethics Northern Ireland (16/NI/0073) and NHS R&D approval from Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Using traditional and innovative methods, the results will be made available to men and their partners/spouses, the funders, the NHS, social care, voluntary sector organisations and other researchers.

PMID: 27927667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Effect of prehabilitation in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma: study protocol of a multicentric, randomised, control trial-the PREHAB study.

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Effect of prehabilitation in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma: study protocol of a multicentric, randomised, control trial-the PREHAB study.

BMJ Open. 2016 Dec 07;6(12):e012876

Authors: Le Roy B, Pereira B, Bouteloup C, Costes F, Richard R, Selvy M, Pétorin C, Gagnière J, Futier E, Slim K, Meunier B, Mabrut JY, Mariette C, Pezet D

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative chemotherapy is the gold standard treatment of the resectable gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma. However, 70% of patients cannot receive the complete sequence because of a postoperative complication or a decrease in functional and nutritional reserves. Recently, a new concept appeared in digestive surgery: prehabilitation. This interventional process consists of patient preparation, between surgical consultation and surgery, and is based on 3 components: (1) physical management, (2) nutritional care and (3) psychological care. Prehabilitation should decrease postoperative complications and improve nutritional and physical status during the preoperative and postoperative periods. Therefore, it is becoming essential to evaluate the effect of prehabilitation, compared to conventional care, on the percentage of patients reaching the complete oncological treatment.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PREHAB trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of prehabilitation compared to conventional care, in patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer with perioperative chemotherapy. This trial is a prospective, randomised, controlled, open-blind and interventional study in 4 centres. Patients (n=60 per group) will be randomly assigned for management with either prehabilitation or conventional care. The primary outcome is the percentage of patients reaching the complete oncological treatment decided in a multidisciplinary tumour board. The secondary outcomes are the postoperative morbidity, disease-free survival, overall survival, feasibility of the protocol, length of stay, variation of the functional reserve after the preoperative chemotherapy (defined by the VO2peak, ventilatory threshold and 6-min walk test), preoperative and postoperative nutritional status, preoperative anxiety, quality of life, 30-day and 90-day mortality and cumulative dose of cytotoxic treatment received.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by an independent medical ethics committee (IRB00008526, CPP Sud-Est VI, Clermont-Ferrand, France) and by the competent French authority (ANSM, Saint Denis, France) and registered on Clinicaltrial.gov. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02780921.

PMID: 27927660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Aneurysmal SubArachnoid Hemorrhage-Red Blood Cell Transfusion And Outcome (SAHaRA): a pilot randomised controlled trial protocol.

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Aneurysmal SubArachnoid Hemorrhage-Red Blood Cell Transfusion And Outcome (SAHaRA): a pilot randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMJ Open. 2016 Dec 07;6(12):e012623

Authors: English SW, Fergusson D, Chassé M, Turgeon AF, Lauzier F, Griesdale D, Algird A, Kramer A, Tinmouth A, Lum C, Sinclair J, Marshall S, Dowlatshahi D, Boutin A, Pagliarello G, McIntyre LA, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Anaemia is common in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) and is a potential critical modifiable factor affecting secondary injury. Despite physiological evidence and management guidelines that support maintaining a higher haemoglobin level in patients with aSAH, current practice is one of a more restrictive approach to transfusion. The goal of this multicentre pilot trial is to determine the feasibility of successfully conducting a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion trial in adult patients with acute aSAH and anaemia (Hb ≤100 g/L), comparing a liberal transfusion strategy (Hb ≤100 g/L) with a restrictive strategy (Hb ≤80 g/L) on the combined rate of death and severe disability at 12 months.
METHODS: Design This is a multicentre open-label randomised controlled pilot trial at 5 academic tertiary care centres. Population We are targeting adult aSAH patients within 14 days of their initial bleed and with anaemia (Hb ≤110 g/L). Randomisation Central computer-generated randomisation, stratified by centre, will be undertaken from the host centre. Randomisation into 1 of the 2 treatment arms will occur when the haemoglobin levels of eligible patients fall to ≤100 g/L. Intervention Patients will be randomly assigned to either a liberal (threshold: Hb ≤100 g/L) or a restrictive transfusion strategy (threshold: Hb ≤80 g/L). Outcome Primary: Centre randomisation rate over the study period. Secondary: (1) transfusion threshold adherence; (2) study RBC transfusion protocol adherence; and (3) outcome assessment including vital status at hospital discharge, modified Rankin Score at 6 and 12 months and Functional Independence Measure and EuroQOL Quality of Life Scale scores at 12 months. Outcome measures will be reported in aggregate.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the host centre (OHSN-REB 20150433-01H). This study will determine the feasibility of conducting the large pragmatic RCT comparing 2 RBC transfusion strategies examining the effect of a liberal strategy on 12-month outcome following aSAH.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02483351; Pre-results.

PMID: 27927658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

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Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

J Med Ethics. 2017 Apr;43(4):253-256

Authors: Smalling R, Schuklenk U

Abstract
We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

PMID: 27799407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Treatment for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and comorbid depression: a systematic review.

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Treatment for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and comorbid depression: a systematic review.

BMJ Open. 2016 Oct 11;6(10):e012271

Authors: Loades ME, Sheils EA, Crawley E

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: At least 30% of young people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) also have symptoms of depression. This systematic review aimed to establish which treatment approaches for depression are effective and whether comorbid depression mediates outcome.
SETTING: A systematic review was undertaken. The search terms were entered into MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and the Cochrane library.
PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify relevant papers. Inclusion criteria were children age <18, with CFS/ME, defined using CDC, NICE or Oxford criteria, and having completed a valid assessment for depression.
RESULTS: 9 studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria, but none specifically tested treatments for paediatric CFS/ME with depression and none stratified outcome for those who were depressed compared with those who were not depressed. There is no consistent treatment approach for children with CFS/ME and comorbid depression, although cognitive-behavioural therapy for CFS/ME and a multicomponent inpatient programme for CFS/ME have shown some promise in reducing depressive symptoms. An antiviral medication in a small scale, retrospective, uncontrolled study suggested possible benefit.
CONCLUSIONS: It is not possible to determine what treatment approaches are effective for depression in paediatric CFS/ME, nor to determine the impact of depression on the outcome of CFS/ME treatment. Young people with significant depression tend to have been excluded from previous treatment studies.

PMID: 27729349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Cardiac Pacing and Defibrillation Devices: Cost and Effectiveness.

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Cardiac Pacing and Defibrillation Devices: Cost and Effectiveness.

Annu Rev Med. 2017 Jan 14;68:1-13

Authors: Groeneveld PW, Dixit S

Abstract
Implantable cardiac pacing and defibrillation devices are effective and commonly used therapies for patients with cardiac rhythm disorders. Because device implantation is not easily reversible, as well as the high healthcare costs inherent in device use, a clear understanding of the clinical benefits relative to costs is essential for both appropriate clinical use and rational policy making. Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have been among the best-investigated therapies in medicine; these devices have been the topic of numerous clinical and economic evaluations during the past 30 years. However, many important questions remain unclarified. We review the evidence supporting the clinical benefits of CIEDs, including effectiveness in extending survival as well as improving quality of life. We also summarize the economic studies that have investigated costs associated with these devices and their overall cost effectiveness, and we highlight important potential areas for future research.

PMID: 27686020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Anti-inflammatory effect of prophylactic macrolides on children with chronic lung disease: a protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial.

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Anti-inflammatory effect of prophylactic macrolides on children with chronic lung disease: a protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open. 2016 Sep 16;6(9):e012060

Authors: Mosquera RA, Gomez-Rubio AM, Harris T, Yadav A, McBeth K, Gonzales T, Jon C, Stark J, Avritscher E, Pedroza C, Smith K, Colasurdo G, Wootton S, Piedra P, Tyson JE, Samuels C

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that the high mortality rate of respiratory viral infections is a result of an overactive neutrophilic inflammatory response. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory properties, including the ability to downregulate the inflammatory cascade, attenuate excessive cytokine production in viral infections, and may reduce virus-related exacerbations. In this study, we will test the hypothesis that prophylactic macrolides will reduce the severity of respiratory viral illness in children with chronic lung disease by preventing the full activation of the inflammatory cascade.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial that will enrol 92 children to receive either azithromycin or placebo for a period of 3-6 months during two respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons (2015-2016 and 2016-2017). We expect a reduction of at least 20% in the total number of days of unscheduled face-to-face encounters in the treatment group as compared with placebo group. Standard frequentist and Bayesian analyses will be performed using an intent-to-treat approach.
DISCUSSION: We predict that the prophylactic use of azithromycin will reduce the morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections during the winter season in patients with chronic lung disease as evidenced by a reduction in the total number of days with unscheduled face-to-face provider encounters.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston on 9 October 2014. On completion, the results will be published.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02544984.

PMID: 27638496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Response to: 'Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies' by Schuklenk and Smalling.

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Response to: 'Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies' by Schuklenk and Smalling.

J Med Ethics. 2017 Apr;43(4):248-249

Authors: Glick SM, Jotkowitz A

Abstract
The recent essay by Schuklenk and Smalling opposing respect for physicians' conscientious objections to providing patients with medical services that are legally permitted in liberal democracies is based on several erroneous assumptions. Acting in this manner would have serious harmful effects on the ethos of medicine and of bioethics. A much more nuanced and balanced position is critical in order to respect physicians' conscience with minimal damage to patients' rights.

PMID: 27601600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Mutational signatures may single out breast cancer patients most likely to benefit from platinum-based chemo

The presence in advanced breast cancer of mutational signatures characteristic of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) was associated with improved clinical outcomes to treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy. it was published in Clinical Cancer...

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Corrigendum to "A mixed-effects model approach for the statistical analysis of vocal fold viscoelastic shear properties" [J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 75 (2017) 477-485].

Corrigendum to "A mixed-effects model approach for the statistical analysis of vocal fold viscoelastic shear properties" [J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 75 (2017) 477-485].

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017 Dec 29;79:114

Authors: Xu CC, Chan RW, Sun H, Zhan X

PMID: 29291464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Ectopic Thymic Cyst of the Subglottis: Considerations for Diagnosis and Management.

Ectopic Thymic Cyst of the Subglottis: Considerations for Diagnosis and Management.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2017 Dec 01;:3489417749609

Authors: Ahmad I, Kirby P, Liming B

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To share the diagnostic and management challenges created by an extremely rare airway lesion-the subglottic ectopic thymic cyst.
STUDY DESIGN: Case report and literature review.
METHODS: We review the presentation, management, and clinical course of an infant who presented with a subglottic mass that was histologically confirmed as a thymic cyst. A brief literature review supplements the case presentation Results: We present the third described case of an ectopic thymic cyst presenting as a subglottic mass. The differential diagnosis of subglottic masses in neonates consists primarily of subglottic hemangioma and mucous retention cysts. Otolaryngologists must be prepared for unexpected findings when dealing with critical airways. We compare the presentation and management of our patient with the 2 previously described cases. We propose an embryologic theory for the origin of these rare lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: An ectopic thymic cyst is a rare and unexpected cause of neonatal stridor. Management of pediatric airway lesions must allow for unexpected findings at the time of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The appropriate management of subglottic thymic cysts is poorly defined, but close surveillance for recurrence is mandatory.

PMID: 29291277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Maxillofacial injuries among trauma patients undergoing head computerized tomography; A Ugandan experience.

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Maxillofacial injuries among trauma patients undergoing head computerized tomography; A Ugandan experience.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):236-240

Authors: Krishnan UC, Byanyima RK, Faith A, Kamulegeya A

Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate epidemiological features of maxillofacial fractures within trauma patients who had head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan at the Mulago National referral hospital.
Methods: CT scan records of trauma patients who had head scans at the Department of Radiology over 1-year period were accessed. Data collected included sociodemographic factors, type and etiology of injury, and concomitant maxillofacial injuries.
Results: A total of 1330 trauma patients underwent head and neck CT scan in the 1-year study period. Out of these, 130 were excluded due to incomplete or unclear records and no evidence of injury. Of the remaining 1200, 32% (387) had maxillofacial fractures. The median age of the patients with maxillofacial fractures was 28 (range = 18-80) years and 18-27 age group was most common at 47.5%. Road traffic accidents constituted 49.1% of fractures. The single most affected isolated bone was the frontal bone (23%). The number of maxillofacial bones fractured was predicted by age group (df = 3 F = 5.358, P = 0.001), association with other fractures (df = 1 F = 5.317, P = 0.03).
Conclusions: Good matched case-control prospective studies are needed to enable us tease out the finer difference in the circumstances and pattern of injury if we are to design appropriate preventive measures.

PMID: 29291177 [PubMed]



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Otorhinolaryngological manifestations in head trauma: A prospective study of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, management, and outcomes.

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Otorhinolaryngological manifestations in head trauma: A prospective study of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, management, and outcomes.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):231-235

Authors: Adoga AA, Ozoilo KN, Iduh AA, Mugu JG

Abstract
Background: Otorhinolaryngological injuries following head trauma may be missed, overlooked, or forgotten in the acute phase resulting in worsened management outcomes. This study aims to report the epidemiology, clinical presentations, management, and outcomes of otorhinolaryngological injuries in head trauma with a view to creating awareness for early recognition and prompt treatment.
Patients and Methods: Head injured patients consecutively presenting over a 5-year period were prospectively studied for age, gender, otorhinolaryngological presentations, interventions, and outcome of interventions. Data obtained were statistically analyzed.
Results: There were 91 (1.3%) otorhinolaryngological presentations among 7109 head injured patients. Mean age of 34 years, standard deviation = ±15.6 with a male:female ratio of 2.4:1. Severe head injury (Glasgow coma scale <9) occurred in 46 (50.5%) patients. Patients aged 30-39 years were mostly affected (n = 30; 32.9%). Most injuries were from motor vehicular accidents (n = 61; 67%) and assaults (n = 23; 25.3%). The most common otorhinolaryngological presentations were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea (n = 26; 28.6%) and CSF otorrhea (n = 25; 27.5%). Conservative management was achieved in 59.3% of patients. Mean time of hospital presentation was 13.8 h. There was no statistical correlation between outcomes and each of etiology and time of presentation (P values 0.18 and 0.9, respectively). Seventy-five (82.4%) were discharged without neurological deficits. A case fatality rate of 6.6% was recorded.
Conclusion: Frontal skull base and temporal bone fractures with CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea are the most common injuries occurring mostly in young active males with favorable outcomes following conservative management.

PMID: 29291176 [PubMed]



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Dual radiosensitization and anti-STAT3 anti-proliferative strategy based on delivery of gold nanoparticle - oligonucleotide nanoconstructs to head and neck cancer cells.

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Dual radiosensitization and anti-STAT3 anti-proliferative strategy based on delivery of gold nanoparticle - oligonucleotide nanoconstructs to head and neck cancer cells.

Nanotheranostics. 2018;2(1):1-11

Authors: Zhang S, Gupta S, Fitzgerald TJ, Bogdanov AA

Abstract
Constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) factor is an important therapeutic target in head and neck cancer (HNC). Despite early promising results, a reliable systemic delivery system for STAT3- targeted oligonucleotide (ODN) drugs is still needed for future clinical translation of anti-STAT3 therapies. We engineered and tested a novel ODN duplex/gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based system carrying a therapeutic STAT3 decoy (STAT3d) payload. This strategy is two-pronged because of the additive STAT3 antagonism and radiosensitizing properties of AuNP. The specificity to head and neck cancer cell surface was imparted by using a nucleolin aptamer (NUAP) that was linked to AuNP for taking the advantage of an aberrant presentation of a nuclear protein nucleolin on the cell surface. STAT3d and nucleolin aptamer constructs were independently linked to AuNPs via Au-S bonds. The synthesized AuNP constructs (AuNP-NUAP-STAT3d) exhibited internalization in cells that was quantified by using radiolabeled STAT3d. AuNP-NUAP-STAT3d showed radiosensitizing effect in human HNC FaDu cell culture experiments that resulted in an increase of cell DNA damage as determined by measuring γ-H2AX phosphorylation levels by flow cytometry. The radiosensitization study also demonstrated that AuNP-NUAP-STAT3d as well as STAT3d alone resulted in the efficient inhibition of A431 cell proliferation. While FaDu cells did not show instant proliferation inhibition after incubating with AuNP-NUAP-STAT3d, the cell DNA damage in these cells showed nearly a 50% increase in AuNP-NUAP-STAT3d group after treating with radiation. Compared with anti-EGFR humanized antibody (Cetuximab), AuNP-NUAP-STAT3d system had an overall stronger radiosensitization effect in both A431 and FaDu cells.

PMID: 29291159 [PubMed]



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Viral E6/E7 oncogene and cellular hexokinase 2 expression in HPV-positive cancer cell lines.

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Viral E6/E7 oncogene and cellular hexokinase 2 expression in HPV-positive cancer cell lines.

Oncotarget. 2017 Dec 05;8(63):106342-106351

Authors: Hoppe-Seyler K, Honegger A, Bossler F, Sponagel J, Bulkescher J, Lohrey C, Hoppe-Seyler F

Abstract
Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major human carcinogens. Cancer cells typically exhibit metabolic alterations which support their malignant growth. These include an enhanced rate of aerobic glycolysis ('Warburg effect') which in cancer cells is often linked to an increased expression of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme Hexokinase 2 (HK2). Intriguingly, recent studies indicate that the HPV E6/E7 oncogenes cause the metabolic reprogramming in HPV-positive cancer cells by directly upregulating HK2 expression. Notably, however, these results were obtained upon ectopic overexpression of E6/E7. Here, we investigated whether HK2 levels are affected by the endogenous E6/E7 amounts present in HPV-positive cancer cell lines. RNA interference analyses reveal that the sustained E6/E7 expression is critical to maintain HK2 expression levels in HeLa cells. Mechanistically, this effect is linked to the E6/E7-dependent upregulation of HK2-stimulatory MYC expression and the E6/E7-induced downregulation of the HK2-inhibitory micro(mi)RNA miR-143-3p. Importantly, however, a stimulatory effect of E6/E7 on HK2 expression was observed only in HeLa among a panel of 8 different HPV-positive cervical and head and neck cancer cell lines. Thus, whereas these results support the notion that E6/E7 can increase HK2 expression, they argue against the concept that the viral oncogenes, at endogenous expression levels, commonly induce the metabolic switch of HPV-positive cancer cells towards aerobic glycolysis by directly or indirectly stimulating HK2 expression.

PMID: 29290953 [PubMed]



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Common Paediatric Elbow Injuries.

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Common Paediatric Elbow Injuries.

Open Orthop J. 2017;11:1380-1393

Authors: Hill CE, Cooke S

Abstract
Background: Paediatric elbow injuries account for a large proportion of childrens' fractures. Knowledge of common injuries is essential to understanding their assessment and correct management.
Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported.
Results: We have described the assessment and management of the five most common paediatric elbow injuries: supracondylar humeral fractures; lateral condyle fractures; medial epicondyle fractures; radial head and neck fractures; radial head subluxation.
Conclusion: Understanding of the ossification centres around the paediatric elbow is essential to correctly assessing and managing the common injuries that we have discussed in the review. Outcomes after these injuries are usually favourable with restoration of normal anatomy.

PMID: 29290878 [PubMed]



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KDM5B overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

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KDM5B overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

J Cancer. 2018;9(1):198-204

Authors: Huang D, Qiu Y, Li G, Liu C, She L, Zhang D, Chen X, Zhu G, Zhang X, Tian Y, Liu Y

Abstract
Purpose: Lysine demethylase (KDM) 5B, as a member of the histone lysine demethylase family, is overexpressed and functions abnormally in various human cancers. However, its expression in the squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) remains unclear. Methods: KDM5B expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological parameters in 103 archival SCCHN tissue samples and 24 adjacent noncancerous epithelial tissues. Results: We found that KDM5B expression was higher in SCCHN than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. This was closely associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor recurrence. In addition, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with high KDM5B expression had shorter disease-free and overall survival times than those with low KDM5B expression. Importantly, both univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that KDM5B level was an independent prognostic factor in SCCHN patients. Conclusions: These results indicate that KDM5B is a valuable biomarker that can be used to predict SCCHN patient outcome.

PMID: 29290786 [PubMed]



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Outcome predictors in elderly head and neck free flap reconstruction: A retrospective study and systematic review of the current evidence.

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Outcome predictors in elderly head and neck free flap reconstruction: A retrospective study and systematic review of the current evidence.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017 Dec 12;:

Authors: Goh CS, Kok YO, Yong CP, Tan EW, Goh LG, Chew KY, Teo CE, Goh TL

Abstract
Free flap tissue transfer has become the gold standard for reconstruction of composite head and neck defects. We sought to investigate the efficacy and morbidity of these procedures in the elderly. We retrospectively reviewed 245 head and neck free flap procedures (234 patients). Patients were stratified by age group (≥ or <65 years). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the following primary outcomes - free flap survival, postoperative medical and surgical complications and 30-day mortality. We found that free flap success and surgical complication rates were similar between the two age groups. Overall flap success and perioperative mortality rates were 94.3% and 2.1% respectively. Medical complications were significantly more common in the elderly group (p <0.001) and this correlated with comorbidity (OR = 2.81, p = 0.044) and advanced tumour stage (OR = 10.20, p= 0.029). Age was not independently associated with poor outcomes in our cohort. We then performed a systematic review of similar case-control studies worldwide and compared their findings with our results. We conclude that advanced age does not preclude free flap success in head and neck reconstruction. Rather, the presence of comorbidity appears to predict the development of medical complications postoperatively. Elderly patients with low comorbidity scores may be offered free flap reconstruction with less reservation.

PMID: 29290568 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility.

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Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility.

Curr Biol. 2017 Dec 20;:

Authors: Riecke L, Formisano E, Sorger B, Başkent D, Gaudrain E

Abstract
Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and acoustic speech signal, listening task, and speech intelligibility have been observed repeatedly. However, a methodological bottleneck has prevented so far clarifying whether speech-brain entrainment contributes functionally to (i.e., causes) speech intelligibility or is merely an epiphenomenon of it. To address this long-standing issue, we experimentally manipulated speech-brain entrainment without concomitant acoustic and task-related variations, using a brain stimulation approach that enables modulating listeners' neural activity with transcranial currents carrying speech-envelope information. Results from two experiments involving a cocktail-party-like scenario and a listening situation devoid of aural speech-amplitude envelope input reveal consistent effects on listeners' speech-recognition performance, demonstrating a causal role of speech-brain entrainment in speech intelligibility. Our findings imply that speech-brain entrainment is critical for auditory speech comprehension and suggest that transcranial stimulation with speech-envelope-shaped currents can be utilized to modulate speech comprehension in impaired listening conditions.

PMID: 29290557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Living in lower income zip codes is associated with more severe chronic rhinosinusitis.

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Living in lower income zip codes is associated with more severe chronic rhinosinusitis.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017 Dec 28;:

Authors: Codispoti CD, Tapke DE, LoSavio PS, Batra PS, Mahdavinia M

PMID: 29290514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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[Sarcomatoid carcinoma of larynx. A histological challenge?]

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[Sarcomatoid carcinoma of larynx. A histological challenge?]

Rev Esp Patol. 2018 Jan - Mar;51(1):30-33

Authors: Osorio-Velásquez A, Chiesa-Estomba CM, Betances-Reinoso FA, San Miguel-Fraile MP, Ortiz-Rey JA

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Sarcomatoid carcinoma can occur in any part of the body; in the head and neck it occurs most frequently in the major salivary glands, with only about 1% of cases found in the larynx. As it has both epithelial and mesenchymal components, there are many theories concerning its origin and it can prove a diagnostic challenge.
CASE REPORT: A 76 year old male smoker presented with dysphonia. Vocal cord injury was found on examination but no lymphadenopathy or metastases were present. Laryngeal microsurgery was performed with complete excision of the lesion. Histopathology showed it to be a carcinosarcoma which showed intense and diffuse positivity for vimentin and focal positivity for AE1-AE3, CK5 and p63. The patient underwent radiotherapy as complementary treatment.
DISCUSSION: Sarcomatoid carcinoma usually presents with obstructive symptoms such as dysphonia. Prognosis depends on the stage and the presence or not of metastases. Both epithelial markers EMA, cytokeratin (AE1-AE3), epithelial membrane antigen, Ki 67 and mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, desmin, S-100 may be positive in these tumours. Recommended treatment for T2-T1 stages is an excisional biopsy which can be followed by adjuvant radiotherapy; radiotherapy alone has also been successful. T3-T4 stages can be treated with local excision, partial laryngectomy or total laryngectomy with subsequent ganglion emptying and concomitant radio and chemotherapy.

PMID: 29290320 [PubMed - in process]



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Comparison of transcanal endoscopic tympanoplasty with sterile acellular dermal allograft to conventional endaural microscopic tympanoplasty with tragal perichondrium.

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Comparison of transcanal endoscopic tympanoplasty with sterile acellular dermal allograft to conventional endaural microscopic tympanoplasty with tragal perichondrium.

Am J Otolaryngol. 2017 Dec 07;:

Authors: Min J, Kim SH

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the outcome of endoscopic tympanoplasty with sterile acellular dermal allograft (ADA) and conventional endaural microscopic tympanoplasty with tragal perichondrium.
METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study of 53 patients (25 males and 28 females) with tympanic membrane perforation who underwent type I tympanoplasty in the department of otorhinolaryngology at a tertiary medical center from March 2011 to April 2017. The subjects were classified into two groups; transcanal endoscopic tympanoplasty with ADA (TET, n=26), conventional endaural microscopic tympanoplasty with autologous tragal perichondrium (EMT, n=27). Demographic data, perforation size of tympanic membrane at preoperative state, pure tone audiometric results preoperatively and 3months postoperatively, operation time, sequential postoperative pain scale, and postoperative graft failure rate were evaluated.
RESULTS: The perforation size of the tympanic membrane in TET and EMT group was 22.3±10.9% and 23.5±9.7%, respectively (P=0.143). Mean operation time of EMT (92.3±16.5min) was longer than that of the TET (65.3±20.5min) with a statistical significance (P=0.004). Graft success rate in the TET and EMT group were 92.3% and 96.3%, respectively; the values were not significantly different (P=0.610). Pre- and postoperative audiometric results including bone and air conduction thresholds and air-bone gap were not significantly different between the groups. In all groups, the postoperative air-bone gap was significantly improved compared to the preoperative air-bone gap. Pain in the immediate postoperative and day 1 after surgery were significantly less in the TET group.
CONCLUSION: With human cadaveric ADA, minimal invasive endoscopic tympanoplasty can be achieved with similar postoperative results and less pain.

PMID: 29290312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Altered fractionation radiotherapy combined with concurrent low-dose or high-dose cisplatin in head and neck cancer: A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis.

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Altered fractionation radiotherapy combined with concurrent low-dose or high-dose cisplatin in head and neck cancer: A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis.

Oral Oncol. 2018 Jan;76:52-60

Authors: Szturz P, Wouters K, Kiyota N, Tahara M, Prabhash K, Noronha V, Adelstein D, Vermorken JB

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Altered fractionation radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy represent commonly used intensification strategies in the management of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN). This meta-analysis compares compliance, safety, and efficacy between two single-agent cisplatin schedules given concurrently with altered fractionation radiotherapy.
METHODS: We systematically searched for prospective trials of patients with LA-SCCHN who received post-operative or definitive altered fractionation concurrent chemoradiotherapy. High-dose cisplatin once every three to four weeks (100 mg/m2, 2 doses) was compared with a weekly low-dose protocol (≤50 mg/m2, ≥4 doses). The primary outcome was overall survival. The secondary endpoints comprised treatment adherence, acute and late toxicities, and objective response rate.
RESULTS: Twelve studies with 1373 patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included. Compared to the weekly low-dose cisplatin regimen, the three- to four-weekly high-dose cisplatin regimen improved overall survival (p=.0185), was more compliant with respect to receiving all planned cycles of cisplatin (71% versus 95%, p=.0353), and demonstrated less complications in terms of severe (grade 3-4) acute mucositis and/or stomatitis (75% versus 40%, p=.0202) and constipation (8% versus 1%, p=.0066), toxic deaths (4%, versus 1%, p=.0168), 30-day mortality (8% versus 3%, p=.0154), and severe late subcutaneous fibrosis (21% versus 2%, p<.0001). Overall and complete response rates were similar between both chemotherapy schedules.
CONCLUSION: In chemoradiotherapy incorporating altered fractionation, two cycles of high-dose cisplatin with a three to four week interval are superior to weekly low-dose schedules. Further studies should identify those who might derive the greatest benefit from this intensified approach.

PMID: 29290286 [PubMed - in process]



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Pre-Radiation dental considerations and management for head and neck cancer patients.

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Pre-Radiation dental considerations and management for head and neck cancer patients.

Oral Oncol. 2018 Jan;76:42-51

Authors: Kufta K, Forman M, Swisher-McClure S, Sollecito TP, Panchal N

Abstract
Treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) is accompanied by a high rate of morbidity, and complications can have a lifelong, profound impact on both patients and caregivers. Radiation-related injury to the hard and soft tissue of the head and neck can significantly decrease patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study is to provide patent-specific guidelines for managing the oral health and related side effects of HNC patients treated with radiation therapy. Based on reviewed articles retrieved on the PubMed database, guidelines for management of the oral health of this patient population were organized into three separate categories: cancer, patient, and dentition. The location, type, and staging of the cancer, along with the radiation used to treat the cancer significantly impact dental treatment. Several unique patient characteristics such as motivation, presence of support system, socioeconomic status, nutrition, and race have all been found to affect outcomes. Dental disease and available supportive dental management was found to significantly impact treatment and quality of life in this patient population. By comprehensively assessing unique cancer, patient, and dental-related factors, this review provides individualized evidence-based guidelines on the proper management of this complex and vulnerable patient population.

PMID: 29290285 [PubMed - in process]



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Oral cancer-derived exosomal NAP1 enhances cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via the IRF-3 pathway.

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Oral cancer-derived exosomal NAP1 enhances cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via the IRF-3 pathway.

Oral Oncol. 2018 Jan;76:34-41

Authors: Wang Y, Qin X, Zhu X, Chen W, Zhang J, Chen W

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral cancer-derived exosomes (OCEXs) on natural killer (NK) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCEXs were isolated from the cell culture supernatant of oral cancer (OC) cells using ultrafiltration and affinity chromatography and were identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and immunoblotting. The effects of OCEXs on NK cells were analyzed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and several functional assays of NK cells. To explore the mechanism of their effects, antibody array, protein mass spectrometry and RNA interference were adopted.
RESULTS: The particles isolated from the OC cells were identified as exosomes with satisfactory morphology, concentration and purity. The OCEXs were internalized by NK cells and then promoted the biological functions of NK cells, including proliferation, release of perforin and granzyme M and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, OCEXs increased the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and its phosphorylation, which drove the expression of the type I interferon (IFN) gene and the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) genes, thereby promoting the functions of NK cells. In addition, NF-κB-activating kinase-associated protein 1 (NAP1), an upstream activator of IRF-3, was enriched in OCEXs, and treatment with OCEXs increased the expression of NAP1 in NK cells. Importantly, NAP1-depleted OCEXs obtained from OC cells had a dramatically weakened influence on NK cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized function of exosomal NAP1 derived from OC cells in enhancing the cytotoxicity of NK cells via the IRF-3 pathway.

PMID: 29290284 [PubMed - in process]



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Benzethonium chloride activates ER stress and reduces proliferation in HNSCC.

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Benzethonium chloride activates ER stress and reduces proliferation in HNSCC.

Oral Oncol. 2018 Jan;76:27-33

Authors: Rayess HM, Xi Y, Garshott DM, Brownell AL, Yoo GH, Callaghan MU, Fribley AM

PMID: 29290283 [PubMed - in process]



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Optimising volumetric arc radiotherapy for dental rehabilitation in oropharynx cancer - A retrospective dosimetry review and feasibility planning study.

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Optimising volumetric arc radiotherapy for dental rehabilitation in oropharynx cancer - A retrospective dosimetry review and feasibility planning study.

Oral Oncol. 2018 Jan;76:16-21

Authors: O'Cathail SM, Karir N, Shah K

Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the dosimetry to dentally relevant substructures within the mandible/maxilla, establish the predictors of increased mean anterior mandible dose and assess the feasibility of rationale optimisation of dose to the anterior mandible (AM) volume to aid reconstructive dental surgery planning, where the AM is a critical structure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cohort of radically treated oropharynx cancer patients we conducted a retrospective dosimetry analysis of mandible/maxilla volumes, created using a published atlas. Comparisons of mean AM dose and clinical parameters between groups were tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A multivariate linear regression model was created to assess independent predictors of increased mean AM dose. Patients with a mean AM dose over 37.5 Gy were included in feasibility planning study to test the hypothesis that it is possible to safely limit the dose whilst maintaining dose tolerances for other organs at risk.
RESULTS: 57 patients were included. Median AM mean dose was 32.2 Gy (IQR 27.7-38.7). T stage, N stage and inclusion of Level 1B were significantly associated with increased mean AM dose. Only T stage (p = .0132) and Level Ib inclusion (p = .018) remained significant in the linear regression model. 88% of plans, all of which included Level Ib, were successfully re-optimised without breaching accepted constraints.
CONCLUSIONS: Oropharynx cancer patients with advanced T stage and who require Level Ib treatment receive increased mean AM dose, potentially limiting surgical dental rehabilitation options. The majority of patients can be optimised safely with appropriate AM contouring.

PMID: 29290281 [PubMed - in process]



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Nanomedicine, an emerging therapeutic strategy for oral cancer therapy.

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Nanomedicine, an emerging therapeutic strategy for oral cancer therapy.

Oral Oncol. 2018 Jan;76:1-7

Authors: Marcazzan S, Varoni EM, Blanco E, Lodi G, Ferrari M

Abstract
Oral cavity and oropharyngeal carcinomas (oral cancer) represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite efforts in improving early diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate of advanced stage of the disease is less than 63%. The field of nanomedicine has offered promising diagnostic and therapeutic advances in cancer. Indeed, several platforms have been clinically approved for cancer therapy, while other promising systems are undergoing exploration in clinical trials. With its ability to deliver drugs, nucleic acids, and MRI contrast agents with high efficiency, nanomedicine platforms offer the potential to improve drug efficacy and tolerability. The aim of the present mini-review is to summarize the current preclinical status of nanotechnology systems for oral cancer therapy. The nanoplatforms for delivery of chemopreventive agents presented herein resulted in significantly higher anti-tumor activity than free forms of the drug, even against a chemo-resistant cell line. Impressive results have also been obtained using nanoparticles to deliver chemotherapeutics, resulting in reduced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Nanoparticles have also led to improvements in efficacy of photodynamic therapies through the development of targeted magnetic nanoparticles. Finally, gene therapy using nanoparticles demonstrated promising results specifically with regards to inhibition of gene expression. Of the few in vivo studies that have been reported, many of these used animal models with several limitations, which will be discussed herein. Lastly, we will discuss several future perspectives in oral cancer nanoparticle-based therapy and the development of appropriate animal models, distinguishing between oral cavity and oropharyngeal carcinoma.

PMID: 29290280 [PubMed - in process]



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Prevalence and trends of sensitisation to aeroallergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou, China: a 10-year retrospective study.

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Prevalence and trends of sensitisation to aeroallergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou, China: a 10-year retrospective study.

BMJ Open. 2016 May 17;6(5):e011085

Authors: Wang W, Huang X, Chen Z, Zheng R, Chen Y, Zhang G, Yang Q

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and trends of sensitisation to common aeroallergens among outpatients with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Guangzhou, China, over the past decade.
DESIGN: A retrospective study; linear-by-linear association and simple linear regression were used to determine the trends in the prevalence of aeroallergen sensitisation.
SETTING: One grade-A hospital in Guangzhou, the largest city in southern China.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5486 patients (2297 males and 2489 females) who visited the ear, nose and throat outpatient clinic, from January 2005 to December 2014, were enrolled. All patients who presented with nasal hyper-reactive symptoms and who completed serological allergy testing, measuring specific IgE (sIgE) in the serum, were included. Among them, 4085 participants (2269 males and 1816 females) were diagnosed as being patients with AR.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and trends of sensitisation to various types of aeroallergens were assessed.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of sIgE-mediated sensitisation to aeroallergens in these patients with AR were as follows: 84.4% for house dust mites (HDMs), 23.4% for pet allergens, 21.1% for cockroaches, 9.1% for mould allergens, 7.7% for tree pollen and 6.0% for weed pollen. When all patients with nasal hyper-reactivity were stratified by decade of age, increasing age was associated with a decrease in sIgE positivity by ∼5.13% (95% CI -7.28% to -2.98%, p<0.01). Within the past decade, the prevalence of sensitisation to pet allergens in patients with AR increased at an annual rate of 1.3% (95% CI 0.85% to 1.67%, p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that HDMs comprised the most common aeroallergen in Guangzhou. The prevalence of sensitisation to aeroallergens decreased with increasing age. During the past decade, the prevalence of sensitisation to pet allergens showed an upward trend, suggesting an urgent need for its prevention and treatment.

PMID: 27188812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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The OlympiAD trial: who won the gold?

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The OlympiAD trial: who won the gold?

Ecancermedicalscience. 2017;11:ed75

Authors: Gyawali B

Abstract
OlympiAD was a phase 3 randomized controlled trial of a PARP inhibitor olaparib for metastatic HER2 negative breast cancer patients harboring a BRCA mutation. Although the OlympiAD trial met its primary endpoint, there are concerns regarding whether olaparib truly improves meaningful outcomes for these patients. In this editorial, I examine these issues in detail. An exploration of these issues will provide important educational insights for oncologists and cancer policy makers. I conclude that although olaparib seems to have won the Gold with OlympiAD, the patients probably have not. We need to stop celebrating a gold-plated bronze as a true gold so that one day our patients can finally get the gold they deserve.

PMID: 29290761 [PubMed]



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Highlights from the Inaugural International Cancer Microbiome Consortium Meeting (ICMC), 5-6 September 2017, London, UK.

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Highlights from the Inaugural International Cancer Microbiome Consortium Meeting (ICMC), 5-6 September 2017, London, UK.

Ecancermedicalscience. 2017;11:791

Authors: Scott AJ, Merrifield CA, Alexander JL, Marchesi JR, Kinross JM

Abstract
The International Cancer Microbiome Consortium (ICMC) is a recently launched collaborative between academics and academic-clinicians that aims to promote microbiome research within the field of oncology, establish expert consensus and deliver education for academics and clinicians. The inaugural two-day meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine (RSM), London, UK, 5-6 September 2017. Microbiome and cancer experts from around the world first delivered a series of talks during an educational day and then sat for a day of roundtable discussion to debate key topics in microbiome-cancer research. Talks delivered during the educational day covered a broad range of microbiome-related topics. The potential role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer was discussed and debated in detail with experts highlighting the latest data in animal models and humans and addressing the question of causation versus association. The impact of the microbiota on other cancers-such as lung and urogenital tract-was also discussed. The microbiome represents a novel target for therapeutic manipulation in cancer and a number of talks explored how this might be realised through diet, faecal microbiota transplant and chemotherapeutics. On the second day, experts debated pre-agreed topics with the aim of producing a consensus statement with a focus on the current state of our knowledge and key gaps for further development. The panel debated the notion of a 'healthy' microbiome and, in turn, the concept of dysbiosis in cancer. The mechanisms of microbiota-induced carcinogenesis were discussed in detail and our current conceptual models were assessed. Experts also considered co-factors in microbiome-induced carcinogenesis to conclude that the tripartite 'interactome' between genetically vulnerable host, environment and the microbiome is central to our current understanding. To conclude, the roundtable discussed how the microbiome may be exploited for therapeutic benefit in cancer and the safety implications of performing such research in oncology patients.

PMID: 29290760 [PubMed]



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United against cancer: prevention to end-of-life care-highlights from the Uganda Cancer Institute-Palliative Care Association of Uganda Joint International Conference on Cancer and Palliative Care and the 7th Palliative Care Conference, 24-25 August 2017, Kampala, Uganda.

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United against cancer: prevention to end-of-life care-highlights from the Uganda Cancer Institute-Palliative Care Association of Uganda Joint International Conference on Cancer and Palliative Care and the 7th Palliative Care Conference, 24-25 August 2017, Kampala, Uganda.

Ecancermedicalscience. 2017;11:790

Authors: Downing J, Ddungu H, Kiyange F, Batuli M, Kafeero J, Kebirungi H, Kiwanuka R, Mugisha N, Mwebesa E, Mwesiga M, Namukwaya E, Niyonzima N, Phipps W, Orem J

Abstract
The Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) and the Palliative Care Association of Uganda (PCAU) jointly hosted an international conference on cancer and palliative care in August 2017 in Kampala, Uganda. At the heart of the conference rested a common commitment to see patient care improved across Uganda and the region. The theme - United Against Cancer: Prevention to End-of-Life Care - reflected this joint vision and the drive to remember that cancer care should include prevention, early diagnosis and screening, treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care. The conference brought together 451 delegates from 17 countries. The key themes of the conference included: the importance of the World Health Assembly Resolutions on Palliative Care (2014) and cancer care (2017); the need to develop a National Cancer Control Programme; strategies for effective cancer diagnosis and treatment in low- and middle-income countries; advocacy, human rights and access to essential medicines, including access to opioids and nurse prescribing; paediatric care; leadership and commitment; collaboration; resources (financial and human), the recognition that palliative care is not limited to cancer care and the importance of learning from each other. The conference also gave the opportunity to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the UCI, with a celebration dinner attended by the Minister of Health and the US Ambassador. Participants reported that the conference was a forum that updated them in all aspects of cancer and palliative care, which challenged their knowledge, and was enlightening in terms of current treatment options for individuals with cancer. The benefits of having a joint conference were recognised, allowing for further networking between cancer and palliative care organisations. This conference, highlighting many developments in cancer and palliative care, served as a unique opportunity to bring people together and unite them in developing cancer and palliative care.

PMID: 29290759 [PubMed]



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