Παρασκευή, 20 Απριλίου 2018

Genistein sensitizes glioblastoma cells to carbon ions via inhibiting DNA-PKcs phosphorylation and subsequently repressing NHEJ and delaying HR repair pathways

Previously, we found genistein could sensitize cancer cells to low linear energy transfer (LET) X-rays via inhibiting DNA-PKcs activities. Especially, high-LET heavy ion produces more DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) than low-LET radiation. Thus, the study was designed to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms of genistein on sensitizing cancer cells to heavy ions.

Young Age Is Associated With Increased Rates of Residual & Recurrent Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Young Age Is Associated With Increased Rates of Residual & Recurrent Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2018 Apr 19;:

Authors: Hampson S, Stephens D, Wasserman JD

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare in young children. There are conflicting data as to whether disease in this age group differs from that in adolescents and specifically, if it is more aggressive. Current practice guidelines do not differentiate treatment between these groups, but speculate that differences may exist. We sought to compare clinical features, treatment and outcomes between children (<12 years) and adolescents (12-18 years) with thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancy over a 20 year period.
DESIGN: Retrospective case series at a single tertiary-care hospital.
PATIENTS: 177 children 0-18 years of age at the time of diagnosis of a thyroid nodule and/or malignancy between 1992-2012.
RESULTS: There was a significantly higher female to male ratio in patients 12-18 years with benign and malignant nodules compared to those under 12. There was no difference across age groups with respect to cytology or histology, size, surgical approach or nodal status. Younger patients had a higher lymph node ratio. Younger patients received a higher cumulative dose of radioactive iodine (97.6 mCi/m2 ) versus older patients (75.9 mCi/m2 ), and had higher rates of pulmonary metastatic disease, although the differences did not achieve significance. Finally, children were less likely than adolescents to achieve a state of undetectable disease and fewer of the younger children remained disease-free.

PMID: 29672887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nitrogen-Rich Porous Polymers for Carbon Dioxide and Iodine Sequestration for Environmental Remediation.

Nitrogen-Rich Porous Polymers for Carbon Dioxide and Iodine Sequestration for Environmental Remediation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018 Apr 19;:

Abstract
The use of fossil fuels for energy production is accompanied by carbon dioxide release into the environment causing catastrophic climate changes. Meanwhile, replacing fossil fuels with carbon-free nuclear energy has the potential to release radioactive iodine during nuclear waste processing and in case of a nuclear accident. Therefore, developing efficient adsorbents for carbon dioxide and iodine capture is of great importance. Two nitrogen-rich porous polymers (NRPPs) derived from 4-bis-(2,4-diamino-1,3,5,-triazine)-benzene building block were prepared and tested for use in CO2 and I2 capture. Copolymerization of 1,4-bis-(2,4-diamino-1,3,5,-triazine)-benzene with terephthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-tris(4-formylphenyl)benzene in DMSO at 180 oC afforded highly porous NRPP-1 (SABET = 1579 m2 g-1) and NRPP-2 (SABET = 1028 m2 g-1), respectively. The combination of high nitrogen content, π-electron conjugated structure, and microporosity makes NRPPs very effective in CO2 uptake and I2 capture. NRPPs exhibit high CO2 uptakes (NRPP-1, 6.1 mmol g-1) and (NRPP-2, 7.06 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 1.0 bar. The 7.06 mmol g-1 CO2 uptake by NRPP-2 is the second highest value reported to date for porous organic polymers. According to vapor iodine uptake studies, the polymers display high capacity and rapid reversible uptake-release for I2 (NRPP-1, 192 wt. %) and (NRPP-2: 222 wt. %). Our studies show that the green nature (metal-free) of NRPPs and their effective capture of CO2 and I2 make this class of porous materials promising for environmental remediation.

PMID: 29671571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

PEGylated crushed gold shell-radiolabeled core nanoballs for in vivo tumor imaging with dual positron emission tomography and Cerenkov luminescent imaging.

PEGylated crushed gold shell-radiolabeled core nanoballs for in vivo tumor imaging with dual positron emission tomography and Cerenkov luminescent imaging.

J Nanobiotechnology. 2018 Apr 18;16(1):41

Authors: Lee SB, Kumar D, Li Y, Lee IK, Cho SJ, Kim SK, Lee SW, Jeong SY, Lee J, Jeon YH

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Radioactive isotope-labeled gold nanomaterials have potential biomedical applications. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of PEGylated crushed gold shell-radioactive iodide-124-labeled gold core nanoballs (PEG-124I-Au@AuCBs) for in vivo tumor imaging applications through combined positron emission tomography and Cerenkov luminescent imaging (PET/CLI).
RESULTS: PEG-124I-Au@AuCBs showed high stability and sensitivity in various pH solutions, serum, and in vivo conditions and were not toxic to tested cells. Combined PET/CLI clearly revealed tumor lesions at 1 h after injection of particles, and both signals remained visible in tumor lesions at 24 h, consistent with the biodistribution results.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the data provided strong evidence for the application of PEG-124I-Au@AuCBs as promising imaging agents in nuclear medicine imaging of various biological systems, particularly in cancer diagnosis.

PMID: 29669544 [PubMed - in process]

Topographic anatomical landmarks for pulley system of the thumb.

Topographic anatomical landmarks for pulley system of the thumb.

Surg Radiol Anat. 2018 Apr 18;:

Authors: Gnanasekaran D, Veeramani R, Karuppusamy A

Abstract
PURPOSE: Knowledge of anatomical landmark to pulley system of the thumb is essential in successful treatment of trigger thumb release either by percutaneous or by minimally invasive technique. Though surgical release of trigger thumb is done commonly, there is paucity of data in the literature regarding its surface landmarks. The purpose of this study is to identify palmar surface anatomical landmarks to the pulley system of the thumb.
METHODS: Dissection was performed on 55 fresh frozen adult cadaveric thumbs. The palmar thumb creases were given names as the proximal-proximal crease (PPC) present at the metacarpophalangeal joint, the distal-proximal crease (DPC) over the middle of the proximal phalanx and the distal crease (DC) at interphalangeal joint. The distance between the proximal edges of each pulley to the three thumb creases and longitudinal length of A1, A2, oblique and Av pulley was measured using digital vernier caliper and was expressed in mean and standard deviation.
RESULTS: The proximal edge of A1 pulley was 1.98 ± 1.61 mm proximal to the PPC. The mean longitudinal length of the A1 pulley was measured to be 5.06 ± 0.87 mm, so the distal edge of the A1 pulley was calculated to lie 3.08 mm distal to PPC. The proximal edge of Av and oblique pulley was situated 7.78 ± 2.5 and 15.72 ± 3.22 mm distal to PPC, respectively. The proximal edge of A2 pulley was very nearer and 2.88 ± 1.79 mm proximal to DC.
CONCLUSION: The knowledge of anatomical skin surface landmarks is helpful in the percutaneous release or minimally invasive procedure. The PPC serves as a definite landmark for A1, Av and oblique pulley whereas it is the DC for A2 pulley.

PMID: 29671018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Purpose

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation with mono- or bipolar electrodes is a common procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a low rate of recurrence for small size tumors. For larger lesions and/or non-round/ellipsoid shapes RF ablation has some limitations and generally does not achieve comparable success rates to microwave ablation or high-intensity focused ultrasound therapies.

Materials and methods

To shape RF ablations for matching a tumor size and geometry, we have developed an electronic channel switch box for two bipolar needles that generates multiple selectable ablation patterns. The setup can be used with commercially available mono- or bipolar RF generators. The switch box provides ten selectable ablation procedures to generate different ablation patterns without a relocation of a needle. Five patterns were exemplary generated in ex vivo tissue of porcine liver and chicken breast and visually characterized.

Results

Different ablation patterns, e.g., in a L- or U-shape, were achieved. In chicken breast a maximum ablation with a diameter of $$4.3\, \hbox {cm}$$ was obtained and in porcine liver $$2.8\, \hbox {cm}$$ with electrodes of $$0.9\, \hbox {cm}$$ length.

Conclusion

The resulting ablations with the electronic switch box and two bipolar needles show the potential ability to manage RF therapies of complex and large tumor geometries. Next steps would be to validate the actual tissue ablation volumes in further ex vivo and preclinical studies and against simulation results.

Purpose

Self-expandable stents have enabled endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms (ordinarily viewed as technically prohibitive), with favorable outcomes. However, the impact of stent type on occlusive stability has not been adequately investigated. In small-sized unruptured saccular aneurysms, we generated estimates of stent-assisted coil embolization outcomes during follow-up monitoring. Stent type and other risk factors linked to recanalization were analyzed.

Methods

A cohort of 286 patients harboring 312 small-sized unruptured aneurysms (< 10 mm) was subjected to mid-term and extended follow-up monitoring after stent-assisted coiling. Three types of stents (Enterprise, 192; Neuroform, 27; LVIS, 93) were deployed in this population; all medical records and radiologic data of which were reviewed. Mid-term recanalization rates and related risk factors were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis.

Results

A total of 49 aneurysms (15.7%) displayed recanalization at 6 months postembolization, with 34 and 15 instances of minor and major recanalization, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that wide-necked aneurysms (> 4 mm) (HR = 2.362; p = 0.017), incomplete occlusion at time of coiling (HR = 2.949; p = 0.002), and stent type (p = 0.048) were significant factors in mid-term recanalization, whereas hypertension (p = 0.095) and packing density ≤ 30% (p = 0.213) fell short of statistical significance. Compared with Enterprise (HR = 2.828) or Neuroform (HR = 4.206) stents, outcomes proved more favorable with use of LVIS.

Conclusions

Above findings demonstrate that in addition to occlusive status at time of coil embolization and neck size, stent type may affect follow-up outcomes of stent-assisted coil embolization in small-sized aneurysms. LVIS (vs Enterprise or Neuroform stents) performed best during follow-up monitoring in terms of limiting recanalization.

Purpose

Self-expandable stents have enabled endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms (ordinarily viewed as technically prohibitive), with favorable outcomes. However, the impact of stent type on occlusive stability has not been adequately investigated. In small-sized unruptured saccular aneurysms, we generated estimates of stent-assisted coil embolization outcomes during follow-up monitoring. Stent type and other risk factors linked to recanalization were analyzed.

Methods

A cohort of 286 patients harboring 312 small-sized unruptured aneurysms (< 10 mm) was subjected to mid-term and extended follow-up monitoring after stent-assisted coiling. Three types of stents (Enterprise, 192; Neuroform, 27; LVIS, 93) were deployed in this population; all medical records and radiologic data of which were reviewed. Mid-term recanalization rates and related risk factors were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis.

Results

A total of 49 aneurysms (15.7%) displayed recanalization at 6 months postembolization, with 34 and 15 instances of minor and major recanalization, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that wide-necked aneurysms (> 4 mm) (HR = 2.362; p = 0.017), incomplete occlusion at time of coiling (HR = 2.949; p = 0.002), and stent type (p = 0.048) were significant factors in mid-term recanalization, whereas hypertension (p = 0.095) and packing density ≤ 30% (p = 0.213) fell short of statistical significance. Compared with Enterprise (HR = 2.828) or Neuroform (HR = 4.206) stents, outcomes proved more favorable with use of LVIS.

Conclusions

Above findings demonstrate that in addition to occlusive status at time of coil embolization and neck size, stent type may affect follow-up outcomes of stent-assisted coil embolization in small-sized aneurysms. LVIS (vs Enterprise or Neuroform stents) performed best during follow-up monitoring in terms of limiting recanalization.