Πέμπτη, 2 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Information for Readers



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoTYD7

Table of Contents



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lJrJt7

Editorial Board



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoTixz

Society Page



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lIe6do

Hemodynamic Changes Caused by Multiple Stenting in Vertebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysms: A Patient-Specific Computational Fluid Dynamics Study [INTERVENTIONAL]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The multiple stent placement technique has largely improved the long-term outcomes of intracranial fusiform aneurysms, but the hemodynamic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the hemodynamic changes caused by different stent-placement strategies in patient-specific models using the computational fluid dynamics technique, aiming to provide evidence for clinical decision-making.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Ten vertebral artery fusiform aneurysms were included, and their patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models were reconstructed. A fast virtual stent placement technique was used to simulate sequential multiple stent placements (from a single stent to triple stents) in the vertebral artery fusiform aneurysm models. Hemodynamic parameters, including wall shear stress, pressure, oscillatory shear index, relative residence time, and flow pattern, were calculated and compared among groups with different numbers of stents.

RESULTS:

Virtual stents were deployed in all 10 cases successfully, consistent with the real stent configuration. Wall shear stress decreased progressively by 7.2%, 20.6%, and 25.8% as the number of stents increased. Meanwhile, relative residence time and pressure increased on average by 11.3%, 15.4%, and 45.0% and by 15.7%, 21.5%, and 28.2%. The oscillatory shear index showed no stable variation trend. Flow patterns improved by weakening the intensity of the vortices and displacing the vortex center from the aneurysmal wall.

CONCLUSIONS:

Stent placement modifies hemodynamic patterns in vertebral artery fusiform aneurysms, which might favor thrombosis formation in the aneurysmal sac. This effect is amplified with the number of stents deployed. However, a potential risk of rupture or recanalization exists and should be considered when planning to use the multiple stent placement technique in vertebral artery fusiform aneurysms.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iozLCs

Gadolinium DTPA Enhancement Characteristics of the Rat Sciatic Nerve after Crush Injury at 4.7T [SPINE]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Traumatic peripheral nerve injury is common and results in loss of function and/or neuropathic pain. MR neurography is a well-established technique for evaluating peripheral nerve anatomy and pathology. However, the Gd-DTPA enhancement characteristics of acutely injured peripheral nerves have not been fully examined. This study was performed to determine whether acutely crushed rat sciatic nerves demonstrate Gd-DTPA enhancement and, if so, to evaluate whether enhancement is affected by crush severity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In 26 rats, the sciatic nerve was crushed with either surgical forceps (6- to 20-N compressive force) or a microvascular/microaneurysm clip (0.1–0.6 N). Animals were longitudinally imaged at 4.7T for up to 30 days after injury. T1WI, T2WI, and T1WI with Gd-DTPA were performed.

RESULTS:

Forceps crush injury caused robust enhancement between days 3 and 21, while clip crush injury resulted in minimal-to-no enhancement. Enhancement after forceps injury peaked at 7 days and was seen a few millimeters proximal to, in the region of, and several centimeters distal to the site of crush injury. Enhancement after forceps injury was statistically significant compared with clip injury between days 3 and 7 (P < .04).

CONCLUSIONS:

Gd-DTPA enhancement of peripheral nerves may only occur above a certain crush-severity threshold. This phenomenon may explain the intermittent observation of Gd-DTPA enhancement of peripheral nerves after traumatic injury. The observation of enhancement may be useful in judging the severity of injury after nerve trauma.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gXjmVr

Brain Structural Changes following HIV Infection: Meta-Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]

BACKGROUND:

Numerous studies have used structural neuroimaging to measure HIV effects on brain macroarchitecture. While many have reported changes in total brain volume, gray matter volume, white matter volume, CSF volume, and basal ganglia volume following HIV infection, quantitative inconsistencies observed across studies are large.

PURPOSE:

Our aim was to evaluate the consistency and temporal stability of serostatus effects on a range of structural neuroimaging measures.

DATA SOURCES:

PubMed, reference lists, and corresponding authors.

STUDY SELECTION:

The meta-analysis included 19 cross-sectional studies reporting HIV effects on cortical and subcortical volume from 1993 to 2016.

DATA ANALYSIS:

Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate individual study standardized mean differences and study heterogeneity. Meta-regression was used to examine the effects of the study publication year.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Meta-analysis revealed standardized mean differences related to the serostatus of –0.65 (P = .002) for total brain volume, –0.28 for gray matter volume (P = .008), –0.24 (P = .076) for white matter volume, and 0.56 (P = .001) for CSF volume. Basal ganglia volume differences related to serostatus were not significant. Nevertheless, estimates of between-study heterogeneity suggested that much of the observed variance was between studies. Publication year was associated with recent reductions in many neurostructural effects.

LIMITATIONS:

Many studies pooled participants with varying durations of treatment, disease, and comorbidities. Image-acquisition methods changed with time.

CONCLUSIONS:

While published studies of HIV effects on brain structure had substantial variations that are likely to result from changes in HIV treatment practice during the study period, quantitative neurostructural measures can reliably detect the effects of HIV infection during treatment, serving as reliable biomarkers.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iozKyo

The Anesthesiologist, Rather Than the Anesthesia, May Influence the Outcomes following Stroke Thrombectomy [LETTERS]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gXjlRn

Spatial Correlation of Pathology and Perfusion Changes within the Cortex and White Matter in Multiple Sclerosis [ADULT BRAIN]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The spatial correlation between WM and cortical GM disease in multiple sclerosis is controversial and has not been previously assessed with perfusion MR imaging. We sought to determine the nature of association between lobar WM, cortical GM, volume and perfusion.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Nineteen individuals with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 19 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 19 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Quantitative MR perfusion imaging was used to derive CBF, CBV, and MTT within cortical GM, WM, and T2-hyperintense lesions. A 2-step multivariate linear regression (corrected for age, disease duration, and Expanded Disability Status Scale) was used to assess correlations between perfusion and volume measures in global and lobar normal-appearing WM, cortical GM, and T2-hyperintense lesions. The Bonferroni adjustment was applied as appropriate.

RESULTS:

Global cortical GM and WM volume was significantly reduced for each group comparison, except cortical GM volume of those with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis versus controls. Global and lobar cortical GM CBF and CBV were reduced in secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis compared with other groups but not for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis versus controls. Global and lobar WM CBF and CBV were not significantly different across groups. The distribution of lobar cortical GM and WM volume reduction was disparate, except for the occipital lobes in patients with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis versus those with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Moderate associations were identified between lobar cortical GM and lobar normal-appearing WM volume in controls and in the left temporal lobe in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. No significant associations occurred between cortical GM and WM perfusion or volume. Strong correlations were observed between cortical-GM perfusion, normal appearing WM and lesional perfusion, with respect to each global and lobar region within HC, and RRMS and SPMS patients (R2 ≤ 0.96, P < .006 and R2 ≤ 0.738, P < .006).

CONCLUSIONS:

The weak correlation between lobar WM and cortical GM volume loss and perfusion reduction suggests the independent pathophysiology of WM and cortical GM disease.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iozJuk

Hyperbaric oxygen treatment did not significantly affect radiation injury in the mandibular area of rats.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to enhance the microcirculation and thereby the oxygen tension in tissues. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HBOT on radiation injury in the mandibular area of rats.

from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gYYVaI

mDixon-based texture analysis of an intraosseous lipoma: a case report and current review for the dental clinician

An intraosseous lipoma is a rare histologic variant of lipoma, accounting for only 0.1% of all primary bone tumors. This may not be the actual incidence because most of these lesions are frequently asymptomatic, but imaging modalities such as CT or MRI seem to have increased the detection rate. Lipoma occasionally undergoes osseous metaplasia and becomes an osseous lipoma. Although there are numerous papers discussing intraosseous lipoma and some authors have tried to differentiate lipomas from osseous lipomas, there is still a great deal of confusion regarding radiological characteristic features and the use of terms.

from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ipdaWD

Internal dosimetry of inhaled iodine-131

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 181
Author(s): Mitra Kiani Nasab, Laleh Rafat Motavalli, Hashem Miri Hakimabad
In this paper, the dose assessment for the iodine inhalation exposure in 19 aerosol sizes and three gas/vapor forms at three levels of thyroid uptake, was performed. Two different modes of work (light vs. heavy) and breathing (nose vs. mouth) for aerosol inhalation were investigated. In order to calculate the cumulated activities per unit of inhaled activity, a combined model which included the latest models of both human respiratory and alimentary tract was developed. The S values for 131I were computed based on the ICRP adult male and female reference voxel phantoms by the Monte Carlo method. Then, the committed equivalent and committed effective dose coefficients were obtained (The data are available at http://ift.tt/2zgPtKh). In general, for the nonzero thyroid uptakes, the maximum cumulated activity was found in the thyroid. When the thyroid is blocked, however, the maximum depends on the work and breathing mode and radioisotope form. Overall, the maximum CED coefficient was evaluated for the inhalation of elemental iodine at thyroid uptake of ∼27% (2.8 × 10−8 Sv/Bq). As for the particle inhalation per se, mouth breathing of 0.6 nm and 0.2 μm AMTD particles showed to have the maximum (2.8 × 10−8 Sv/Bq) and minimum (6.4 × 10−9 Sv/Bq) CED coefficients, respectively. Compared to the reference CED coefficients, the authors found an increase of about 58% for inhalation of the aerosols with AMAD of 1 μm and 70% for 5 μm.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ztccn9

Assessment of the calibration of gamma spectrometry systems in forest environments

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 181
Author(s): Alan J. Cresswell, David C.W. Sanderson, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi
A Monte Carlo simulation was used to develop a model of the response of a portable gamma spectrometry system in forest environments. This model was used to evaluate any corrections needed to measurements of 137Cs activity per unit area calibrated assuming an open field geometry. These were shown to be less than 20% for most forest environments. The model was also used to assess the impact of activity in the canopy on ground level measurements. For similar activity per unit area in the lower parts of the canopy as on the ground, 10-25% of the ground based measurement would be due to activity in the canopy, depending on the depth profile in the soil. The model verifies that an optional collimator cap can assess activity in the canopy by repeat survey.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ztcaf1

Identification of intraplaque haemorrhage in carotid artery by simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraPlaque haemorrhage (SNAP) imaging: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate the usefulness of Simultaneous Non-contrast Angiography and intraPlaque haemorrhage (SNAP) imaging in characterising carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) compared with magnetisation-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) sequence.

Methods

Fifty-four symptomatic patients (mean age: 63.1 ± 5.7 years, 38 males) with carotid atherosclerosis were recruited and underwent carotid MR imaging. The presence and area of IPH on SNAP and MP-RAGE images were determined. The agreement in identifying IPH and its area between SNAP and MP-RAGE was analysed.

Results

Of 1368 slices with acceptable image quality in 54 patients, 13% and 22.6% were found to have IPH on MP-RAGE and SNAP images, respectively. There was moderate agreement between MP-RAGE and SNAP sequences in identifying IPH (κ = 0.511, p = 0.029). The area of IPH on SNAP images was significantly larger than that on MP-RAGE images (17.9 ± 18.2 mm2 vs. 9.2 ± 10.5 mm2, p < 0.001). For IPHs detected by SNAP imaging, the area of IPHs also detected by the MP-RAGE sequence was significantly larger than that of IPHs not detected by the MP-RAGE sequence (17.9 ± 19.2 mm2 vs. 6.4 ± 6.2 mm2, p < 0.001).

Conclusion

Compared with the MP-RAGE sequence, SNAP imaging detects more IPHs, particularly for smaller IPHs, suggesting that SNAP imaging might be a more sensitive tool for identification of carotid haemorrhagic plaques.

Key Points

Moderate agreement was found between SNAP and MP-RAGE in identification of IPH

SNAP imaging might be a more sensitive tool to detect carotid IPHs

Compared with the MP-RAGE sequence, SNAP imaging can detect carotid IPHs with smaller size

SNAP imaging can help clinicians to optimise the treatment strategy



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2AdDGKO

Comparison of MRI sequences in ideal fiducial maker-based radiotherapy for prostate cancer

Publication date: November–December 2017
Source:Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy, Volume 22, Issue 6
Author(s): Osamu Tanaka, Hisao Komeda, Mitsuyoshi Hattori, Shigeki Hirose, Eiichi Yama, Masayuki Matsuo
AimProstate contouring using CT alone is difficult. To overcome the uncertainty, CT/MRI registration using a fiducial marker is generally performed. However, visualization of the marker itself can be difficult with MRI. This study aimed to determine the optimal MRI pulse sequence for defining the marker as well as the prostate outline among five sequences.Materials and methodsA total of 21 consecutive patients with prostate cancer were enrolled. Two gold fiducial markers were placed before CT/MRI examination. We used the following five sequences: T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI; TR/TE, 400–650/8ms); T2-weighted fast spin-echo (T2WI; 4000/80); T2*-2D-weighted gradient echo (T2*2D; 700/18); T2*-3D-weighted gradient echo (T2*3D; TR/TE1/deltaTE, 37/14/7.3); and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo (CE-T1WI; 400–650/8). Qualitative image analysis of the sequences was performed by three observers. These observers subjectively scored all images on a scale of 1–3 (1=unclear, 2=moderate, 3=well visualized). A higher score indicated better visualization.ResultsT2WI was significantly superior to the other sequences in terms of prostate definition. T2*2D and T2*3D were strongly superior to the other sequences and were significantly superior in terms of fiducial marker definition.ConclusionsT2*2D and T2*3D are superior to the other sequences for prostate contouring and marker identification. Therefore, we recommend initial T2*3D and T2*2D examinations.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2h6Nu4k

Acute kidney injury in patients with nephrotic syndrome undergoing contrast-enhanced CT for suspected venous thromboembolism: a propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether intravenous iodinated contrast material administration increases the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with nephrotic syndrome undergoing contrast-enhanced CT.

Methods

Patients with nephrotic syndrome undergoing contrast-enhanced CT were retrospectively identified (n = 701). Control group consisted of patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving non-contrast CT (n = 1053). Two different 1:1 propensity score matching models using three or 10 variables were developed for each estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) subgroup. Incidence of post-CT AKI for the two groups was assessed and compared by standard AKI criteria and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria.

Results

After matching with three variables, the AKI incidence in the contrast-enhanced CT and non-contrast CT groups was 2.7% vs 2.5% (standard AKI criteria) and 4.2% vs. 6.7% (AKIN criteria) (p = 1.00 and 0.05), respectively. After matching with 10 variables, AKI incidences were 3.1% vs. 2.6% (standard AKI criteria) and 4.1% vs. 7.4% (AKIN criteria) (p = 0.72 and 0.03), respectively. AKI incidences of each eGFR subgroup in the contrast-enhanced CT group were not higher than in the non-contrast CT group (lowest p = 0.46).

Conclusion

Intravenous contrast material administration during CT was not found to be a risk factor for AKI in this large cohort of patients with nephrotic syndrome.

Key points

• AKI incidence of contrast-enhanced CT and non-contrast CT had no difference.

• AKI incidences of eGFR subgroup in contrast-enhanced CT were not increased.

• Studies without a non-contrast CT control group may overestimate CIN incidence.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2hxMxza

Iatrogenic Vessel Dissection in Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge about the localization and outcome of iatrogenic dissection (ID) during endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is limited. We aimed to determine the frequency, clinical aspects and morphology of ID in endovascular AIS treatment and to identify predictors of this complication.

Methods

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of ID carried out during endovascular treatment between January 2000 and March 2012 have been re-evaluated. The ID localization and morphology were analyzed and related to the interventional techniques. Baseline clinical and radiological findings, treatment modality and outcome were compared with patients without ID.

Results

Out of 866 patients 18 (2%) suffered an ID (44% female, median age 64 years). Localization was extracranial in 15 (83%, 14 internal carotid artery and 1 vertebral artery) and intracranial in 3 (17%; 1 vertebrobasilar dissection and 2 in the anterior circulation). Of the IDs 5 (28%) resulted in a high-degree, 3 (17%) in a moderate, 5 (28%) in a mild and 5 (28%) in no stenosis and 8 IDs were stented in the acute phase. At 3 months 7 (42%) patients had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin score mRS ≤ 2) and 6 (33%) patients had died. Patients with ID had a different stroke etiology (p = 0.041), were more likely to be smokers (44% versus 19%, p = 0.015) and were more likely to be treated with mechanical thrombectomy (100% versus 60%, p < 0.001). Although two ID patients had relevant complications, the outcome did not differ between the groups.

Conclusion

The occurrence of ID is a rare complication of endovascular AIS treatment associated with smoking and mechanical thrombectomy.



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2h6q1jK

Breast compression parameters and mammographic density in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate possible associations between breast compression parameters, including compression force, pressure and compressed breast thickness, and mammographic density assessed by an automated software.

Methods

We obtained data on breast compression parameters, breast volume, absolute and percentage dense volume, and body mass index for 14,698 women screened with two-view (craniocaudal, CC, and mediolateral oblique, MLO) digital mammography, in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme, 2014–2015. The Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to measure correlation between breast compression parameters, breast volume and absolute and percentage dense volume. Linear regression was used to examine associations between breast compression parameters and absolute and percentage dense volume, adjusting for breast volume, age and BMI.

Results

A fair negative correlation was observed between compression pressure and absolute dense volume (ρ = − 0.37 for CC and ρ = − 0.34 for MLO). A moderate negative correlation was identified for compressed breast thickness and percentage dense volume (ρ = − 0.56 for CC and ρ = − 0.62 for MLO). These correlations were corroborated by the corresponding associations obtained in the adjusted regression analyses.

Conclusions

Results from this study indicate that breast compression parameters may influence absolute and percentage dense volume measured by the automated software.

Key points

• A fair correlation was identified between compression pressure and absolute dense volume

• A moderate correlation was identified between compressed breast thickness and percentage dense volume

• Breast compression may influence automated density estimates



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2h54Jmy

Comment on: Percutaneous retrograde approach for mesenteric revascularization in chronic mesenteric ischemia.

Related Articles

Comment on: Percutaneous retrograde approach for mesenteric revascularization in chronic mesenteric ischemia.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):363-365

Authors: Giragani S, Balani A, Prabakar D, Reddy V

PMID: 29089691 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lI0UVT

Comment on: Dual LAD with anomalous origin of long LAD from right coronary sinus: A variant of type VI LAD.

Related Articles

Comment on: Dual LAD with anomalous origin of long LAD from right coronary sinus: A variant of type VI LAD.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):362-363

Authors: Prasad A, Sinha S, Brar R, Rana S

PMID: 29089690 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lHRNor

Imaging of retained surgical items: A pictorial review including new innovations.

Related Articles

Imaging of retained surgical items: A pictorial review including new innovations.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):354-361

Authors: Kumar GVS, Ramani S, Mahajan A, Jain N, Sequeira R, Thakur M

Abstract
With the advent of newer imaging modalities retained surgical items are now easily diagnosed by their characteristic imaging appearances. A combination of complementary imaging modalities helps to arrive at the diagnosis of this relatively rare complication. Factors contributing to their imaging features include the timing of diagnosis and imaging, presence of secondary infection, communication of the retained item with hollow viscus or external skin wound, and type of imaging modality used. A high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis before labeling it as a retained surgical item. In parallel with recent advances in surgery, it is essential that there is increasing awareness among radiologists regarding the newer types of retained surgical items.

PMID: 29089689 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lHDYGx

Diagnosing thoracic venous aneurysm: A contemporary imaging perspective.

Related Articles

Diagnosing thoracic venous aneurysm: A contemporary imaging perspective.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):350-353

Authors: Aggarwal R, Gautam R, Jhamb D, Sivasankar R

Abstract
Thoracic venous aneurysms are a rare clinical entity and contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the cornerstone of their diagnosis. We are reporting a rare case of isolated left brachiocephalic vein aneurysm, which was surgically managed, highlighting the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a definitive diagnostic modality in this patient.

PMID: 29089688 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lHsra6

Follow-up chest radiographic findings in patients with MERS-CoV after recovery.

Related Articles

Follow-up chest radiographic findings in patients with MERS-CoV after recovery.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):342-349

Authors: Das KM, Lee EY, Singh R, Enani MA, Al Dossari K, Van Gorkom K, Larsson SG, Langer RD

Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the follow-up chest radiographic findings in patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) who were discharged from the hospital following improved clinical symptoms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients (9 men, 27 women; age range 21-73 years, mean ± SD 42.5 ± 14.5 years) with confirmed MERS-CoV underwent follow-up chest radiographs after recovery from MERS-CoV. The 36 chest radiographs were obtained at 32 to 230 days with a median follow-up of 43 days. The reviewers systemically evaluated the follow-up chest radiographs from 36 patients for lung parenchymal, airway, pleural, hilar and mediastinal abnormalities. Lung parenchyma and airways were assessed for consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), nodular opacity and reticular opacity (i.e., fibrosis). Follow-up chest radiographs were also evaluated for pleural thickening, pleural effusion, pneumothorax and lymphadenopathy. Patients were categorized into two groups: group 1 (no evidence of lung fibrosis) and group 2 (chest radiographic evidence of lung fibrosis) for comparative analysis. Patient demographics, length of ventilations days, number of intensive care unit (ICU) admission days, chest radiographic score, chest radiographic deterioration pattern (Types 1-4) and peak lactate dehydrogenase level were compared between the two groups using the student t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test.
RESULTS: Follow-up chest radiographs were normal in 23 out of 36 (64%) patients. Among the patients with abnormal chest radiographs (13/36, 36%), the following were found: lung fibrosis in 12 (33%) patients GGO in 2 (5.5%) patients, and pleural thickening in 2 (5.5%) patients. Patients with lung fibrosis had significantly greater number of ICU admission days (19 ± 8.7 days; P value = 0.001), older age (50.6 ± 12.6 years; P value = 0.02), higher chest radiographic scores [10 (0-15.3); P value = 0.04] and higher peak lactate dehydrogenase levels (315-370 U/L; P value = 0.001) when compared to patients without lung fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: Lung fibrosis may develop in a substantial number of patients who have recovered from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Significantly greater number of ICU admission days, older age, higher chest radiographic scores, chest radiographic deterioration patterns and peak lactate dehydrogenase levels were noted in the patients with lung fibrosis on follow-up chest radiographs after recovery from MERS-CoV.

PMID: 29089687 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2io6DeO

Acute ischemic pancreatitis: A rare complication of empirical gastroduodenal artery embolization.

Related Articles

Acute ischemic pancreatitis: A rare complication of empirical gastroduodenal artery embolization.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):338-341

Authors: Chua WM, Venkatanarasimha N, Damodharan K

Abstract
Empirical embolization of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is accepted as a safe and effective treatment option for endoscopy-refractory nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with high surgical risk. Nontarget embolization is a recognized complication of transarterial embolization, however, symptomatic pancreatic injury is extremely rare. We report a patient who developed acute ischemic pancreatitis immediately after embolization of the GDA, which was confirmed intraoperatively. Interventionists as well as referring clinicians need to be aware of this rare but life threatening complication.

PMID: 29089686 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2zdMuSA

Use of multidetector computed tomography angiography of upper limb circulation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

Related Articles

Use of multidetector computed tomography angiography of upper limb circulation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):332-337

Authors: Altinsoy HB, Alatas O, Kayancicek H, Hafiz E, Dogan OF

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the bilateral forehand circulation using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as a noninvasive method to define criteria for an upper extremity arterial anatomy and pathology prior to the use of arterial conduits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with coronary artery disease who underwent total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly selected for this prospective study. MDCT angiography was performed for 110 examinations of forearm and hand arterial anatomy. Prior to MDCT, Allen tests were performed in all patients with a normal result, except four. Thirteen patients had diabetes mellitus (DM), 8 had peripheral artery occlusive disease, and 19 had a history of smoking.
RESULTS: All arteries, including axillary, ulnar artery (UA) and radial artery (RA), were clearly visualized in all patients. Upper extremity anatomical and pathological results were examined in 16 patients (29.1%). Severely calcified RA and/or UA were found in 6 patients who had a moderate renal failure. Nearly total occlusion of the RA was detected in another two patients. Focal intimal RA calcification was recorded in 1 female and 3 male patients. Ten patients who had severe calcification or intimal sclerosis of the upper extremity arteries had DM. The remaining patients had normal forehand arterial circulation. A persistent median artery with the absence of radial and ulnar arteries and a high bifurcation of RA from the brachial artery was detected as an anatomic variation in seven patients (12.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: The major advantages of MDCT angiography are its non-invasiveness and the ability to detect calcific subadventitial plaques, which are difficult to diagnose using conventional angiography. MDCT may be used as a safe and non-invasive method to assess RA and UA prior to harvesting the upper limb artery. Preoperative imaging of forehand arteries is a means to avoid unnecessary forearm exploration or the use of an unsuitable arterial conduit in CABG operations, especially in patients with DM and moderate renal impairment.

PMID: 29089685 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ymXXjD

Prenatal diagnosis of nail patella syndrome: A case report.

Related Articles

Prenatal diagnosis of nail patella syndrome: A case report.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):329-331

Authors: Padmanabhan LD, Yesodharan D, Nampoothiri S

Abstract
The Nail Patella Syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder affecting the nails, skeletal system, kidneys and eyes. Here, we report a case of NPS detected at 19 weeks of gestation. The movements of the elbow and knee joints were restricted and there was rotational deformity of the knee joints. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in-utero restriction of limb movements in a fetus with NPS.

PMID: 29089684 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ymXVIx

Ganglion impar block in patients with chronic coccydynia.

Related Articles

Ganglion impar block in patients with chronic coccydynia.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):324-328

Authors: Gonnade N, Mehta N, Khera PS, Kumar D, Rajagopal R, Sharma PK

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Coccydynia refers to pain in the terminal segment of the spinecaused by abnormal sitting and standing posture. Coccydynia is usually managed conservatively, however in nonresponsive patients, ganglion impar block is used as a good alternate modality for pain relief. This article studies the effect of ganglion impar block in coccydynia patients who were not relieved by conservative management.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out at the pain clinic in the departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Radiology in a tertiary centre in India. It was a prospective hospital-based study, in which 35 patients with coccydynia were considered for fluoroscopy-guided trans-sacro-coccygeal ganglion impar block. The outcome assessment was done using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores for a follow-up period of 6 months. Of the 35 patients, 4 were lost to follow-up. Analysis was done usingthe data from the remaining 31 patients.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients suffering from chronic coccydynia was 42.9 ± 8.39 years, and patients' age range was 28-57 years. The mean score of NRS and ODI before the procedure was 7.90 ± 0.16 and 48.97 ± 1.05, respectively. The interquartile range (IQR) of NRS score remained almost unchanged during pre and postprocedure, however, IQR of ODI varied during the pre and post procedural events. The NRS and ODI scores immediately after the procedure decreased drastically showing significant pain relief in patients, and the difference of scores till the end of study was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: This study recommends the trans-sacro-coccygeal "needle inside needle" technique for local anesthetic block of the ganglion impar for pain relief in patients with coccydynia. This should be integrated with rehabilitative measures including ergonomical modification for prolonging pain free period.

PMID: 29089683 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ymXTjT

CT-guided radiofrequency ablation in osteoid osteoma: Result from a tertiary cancer centre in India.

Related Articles

CT-guided radiofrequency ablation in osteoid osteoma: Result from a tertiary cancer centre in India.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):318-323

Authors: Kulkarni SS, Shetty NS, Polnaya AM, Janu A, Kumar S, Puri A, Gulia A, Rangarajan V

Abstract
AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation as a minimally invasive therapy for osteoid osteoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 43 symptomatic osteoid osteoma patients who were treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Forty out of 43 patients were naive cases and underwent primary treatment for osteoid osteoma with RFA, whereas 3 patients included in the study underwent RFA for local recurrence after having undergone surgical treatment. Diagnosis was based on clinical and characteristic imaging findings, and biopsy was done for cases with atypical presentation. Pre and post procedure Visual Analog Score (VAS) was documented in all cases. Monopolar RFA system was used in all patients, and the electrode was placed within the lesion nidus under CT guidance coaxially through 11G introducer needle. Ablation was performed at 90° C for 5 min.
RESULTS: Technical success rate of intranidal placement of electrode was 100%. The primary clinical success in our study was 97.7% (42 of 43), and the secondary clinical success was 100%. Pre and postprocedure VAS score in our study group was 7.8 and 0.4, respectively. Mean follow-up period in our study was 48 months (Range: 4-129 months). One patient had recurrence of pain 4 years after treatment and was treated successfully by a second session. Minor complications were seen in 3 patients with two cases of RF pad burns and one case of skin burn at the treatment site, and these were managed conservatively. No patients developed temporary/permanent neurological deficits, and no procedure-related mortality was seen in our study.
CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous RFA is a simple, safe, minimally invasive, and highly effective treatment option for osteoid osteoma with good long-term pain control and potentially low disease recurrence.

PMID: 29089682 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xN26sN

Utility of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosing subdiaphragmatic endometriosis presenting as shoulder pain.

Related Articles

Utility of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosing subdiaphragmatic endometriosis presenting as shoulder pain.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):314-317

Authors: Singh A, Das CJ, Das BK, Gupta AK

Abstract
Extrapelvic endometriosis (EPE) is a rare entity which may potentially occur at any site. Symptomatic EPE is now increasingly being managed laparoscopically. Imaging is imperative in diagnosis as well as extent delineation prior to surgery. In addition to increasing the success rate of diagnostic laparoscopy, prior knowledge of EPE at certain sites may modify the standard surgical technique. We present here an unusual case of chronic pain in the right shoulder in a 26-year-old female caused by subdiaphragmatic endometriosis (SDE). It was noticed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences; however, due to the lack of the characteristic signal intensity, imaging findings were noncontributory. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) facilitated its characterization and precisely mapped the extent of involvement. SDE should be suspected in young females presenting with cyclical shoulder pain. Due to nonspecific clinical features, it may remain undiagnosed. MRI is the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of EPE. Including DWI sequence in the MR protocol increases the diagnostic precision besides delineating the extent of involvement noninvasively.

PMID: 29089681 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ymXQEJ

Acute post traumatic portal venous thrombosis associated with shattered spleen: A case report.

Related Articles

Acute post traumatic portal venous thrombosis associated with shattered spleen: A case report.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):310-313

Authors: Gupta R, Mittal P, Sekhon PS, Mittal A, Kaur H, Aamir M

Abstract
Post-traumatic portal venous thrombosis is a rare event, and is usually seen in association with penetrating injuries. Portal venous thrombosis following blunt abdominal trauma is extremely rare with only few reports in the literature, some associated with underlying coagulation disorders. We report multidetector computed tomography findings in a case of blunt abdominal trauma with otherwise normal coagulation profile, which showed shattered spleen and MDCT evidence of acute thrombosis in the right branch of the portal vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of acute portal venous thrombosis in association with shattered spleen.

PMID: 29089680 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ymXNZz

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree: A rare cause of obstructive jaundice in children which can mimic choledochal cysts.

Related Articles

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree: A rare cause of obstructive jaundice in children which can mimic choledochal cysts.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):306-309

Authors: Kinariwala DJ, Wang AY, Melmer PD, McCullough WP

Abstract
Jaundice in children is more often due to hepatic disease than obstruction. Differential considerations for obstructive jaundice in children include choledocholithiasis, choledochal cysts and rare neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma in pediatric patients, typically involves the head and neck, genitourinary system and extremities. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree is a rare entity. We present a 3-year-old boy with abrupt onset obstructive jaundice. Although initial imaging suggested a dilated biliary system with fusiform common bile duct, sludge, and possible cholelithiasis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) diagnosed a common bile duct embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and further imaging showed involvement of the cystic duct. This case illustrates the importance of considering malignant etiologies in cases of obstructive jaundice, particularly when imaging is not classic for common causes.

PMID: 29089679 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xOe9WO

An extremely rare case of dermoid cyst of urinary bladder.

Related Articles

An extremely rare case of dermoid cyst of urinary bladder.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):302-305

Authors: Jain C, Mittal MK, Shiraz F

Abstract
We report an extremely rare case of a dermoid cyst of the urinary bladder in a 30-year-old female who presented with pain in the left flank and dysuria since 9 months. On imaging (ultrasound and computed tomography), a relatively well-defined mass lesion with areas of fat and calcification was seen arising from the bladder wall. Cystoscopy showed presence of hair on the surface of the lesion. Histopathological findings were consistent with dermoid cyst in the urinary bladder.

PMID: 29089678 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yprSaP

Unilateral renal agenesis with subseptate uterus and sacrococcygeal teratoma: A unique triad.

Related Articles

Unilateral renal agenesis with subseptate uterus and sacrococcygeal teratoma: A unique triad.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):298-301

Authors: Ahmed MS, Imtiaz S, Pathan H, Usman R

Abstract
Unilateral renal agenesis (URA) is a rare condition with a reported incidence of 0.93-1.8 per 1000 autopsies. It is commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding on imaging. URA is frequently associated with other genitourinary anomalies. Different associations have been described in both males and females, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported with subseptate uterus (SSU) and sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) in the same individual. Here, we present a unique case of URA with SSU and SCT.

PMID: 29089677 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoJDqJ

Endovascular management of iatrogenic renal vascular injuries complicating percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Role of renal angiography and embolization; an analysis of 159 cases.

Related Articles

Endovascular management of iatrogenic renal vascular injuries complicating percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Role of renal angiography and embolization; an analysis of 159 cases.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):293-297

Authors: Venkateswarlu J, Kumar MS, Babu RP, Abkari A

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of renal angiography in the detection of renal vascular injuries following percutaneous nephrolithotomy and to assess the efficacy of endovascular management of these complications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 159 consecutive patients over a period of 12 years from 2005 to 2016 who presented with significant post nephrolithotomy hemorrhage and who were evaluated by renal angiography as a first-line diagnostic study, followed by embolization of identified renal vascular injuries in the same session. The parameters assessed for each patient included type of renal vascular injury identified, type of embolic material and therapeutic outcome.
RESULTS: Renal vascular lesions identified in 119 patients were treated with embolization with complete resolution of hemorrhage, no further clinical deterioration and preservation of renal function.
CONCLUSIONS: Renal vascular injury is a rare complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Early renal angiography and selective embolization can play an integral diagnostic and therapeutic role.

PMID: 29089676 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoJBPD

Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis - A case report.

Related Articles

Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis - A case report.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):290-292

Authors: Shalini P, Shah VM

Abstract
Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and accompanied by progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. It occurs due to mutation in ROBO 3 gene/chromosome 11q23-q25. We report a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with complaints of defective vision in both eyes. On examination, she had scoliosis with restricted abduction and adduction in both eyes with intact elevation and depression. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbit showed brainstem hypoplasia with absence of facial colliculi, presence of a deep midline pontine cleft (split pons sign), and a butterfly configuration of the medulla, which are the radiological findings seen in this disorder.

PMID: 29089675 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ypPSKS

Serial brain MRI findings in a rare survivor of rabies encephalitis.

Related Articles

Serial brain MRI findings in a rare survivor of rabies encephalitis.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):286-289

Authors: Rao A, Pimpalwar Y, Mukherjee A, Yadu N

Abstract
Rabies is a neurotropic viral illness, almost always fatal, that is equally dreaded by healthcare practitioners and patients due to the dismal prognosis and limited treatment options once symptoms set in. There are hardly any reports on MRI changes in the brain in survivors of rabies encephalitis. We present the clinical course and the imaging findings on serial MRI examinations in a rare patient who survived rabies infection. Initial brain MRI done 8 days after onset of symptoms revealed bilaterally symmetrical non-enhancing areas of T1 and T2 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia, thalami, mid brain, and pons along with T2 hyperintensity and restricted diffusion in fronto-parietal cortical grey matter and left hippocampus. Subsequent MRI scans at 2 months and 5 months revealed progressive brain atrophy, leukoencephalopathy, and gliosis.

PMID: 29089674 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoJAex

Unusual presentation of hydatid cyst - ruptured intraventricular hydatid.

Related Articles

Unusual presentation of hydatid cyst - ruptured intraventricular hydatid.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):282-285

Authors: Thakur SH, Joshi PC, Kelkar AB, Seth N

Abstract
Echinococcosis in humans occurs as a result of infection by the larval stages of taenid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. Most of the intracranial hydatids develop in brain parenchyma. Hydatid cyst within the cerebral ventricle is quite unusual. Literature review showed few case reports of childhood as well as adult intraventricular hydatid cysts. None of these cases presented for the first time with features of ruptured intraventricular cyst. This is a very rare presentation of a common disease. The possibility of infestation with E. granulosus should be included in the differential diagnosis of raised intracranial tension in patients reporting from endemic areas, because the prognosis following surgical intervention is excellent, especially in the pediatric age group.

PMID: 29089673 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoeovW

Radiological requirements for surgical planning in cochlear implant candidates.

Related Articles

Radiological requirements for surgical planning in cochlear implant candidates.

Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):274-281

Authors: Alam-Eldeen MH, Rashad UM, Ali AHA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study is concerned with clarification of radiological findings that should be addressed and reported in patients listed for cochlear implant (CI) operation. These findings may force a surgeon to consider modifications of the surgical approach by a CI surgeon.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed from January 2015 to January 2016. It included 50 patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss who fulfilled the criteria for CI. Patients underwent CI surgery in the Department of Otolaryngology. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Combined examination of the CT and MRI by the radiologist and the surgeon was advocated.
RESULTS: Many anatomical variants were observed regarding the pattern of mastoid pneumatization, position of middle cranial fossa dura, sigmoid sinus position jugular bulb position, and the size and position of the mastoid segment of facial nerve canal. Labyrinthitis ossificans was seen in 3 patients (6%), otospongiosis in 1 patient (2%), and dilated vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac in 9 patients (18%).
CONCLUSION: Cochlear implantation is a major treatment modality in patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Radiological evaluation is integral in surgery planning.

PMID: 29089672 [PubMed]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yoJy6p

E. Edmund Kim, Hyung-Jun Im, Dong Soo Lee, Keon Wook Kang: Atlas and Anatomy of PET/MRI, PET/CT and SPECT/CT



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2z6tIwR

Francesco Collamati, supervised by Riccardo Faccini: An intraoperative beta-probe for cancer surgery, Springer Theses



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2h9pZHT

Pulmonary metastasectomy for thyroid cancer as salvage therapy for radioactive iodine-refractory metastases.

Pulmonary metastasectomy for thyroid cancer as salvage therapy for radioactive iodine-refractory metastases.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Oct 30;:

Authors: Moneke I, Kaifi JT, Kloeser R, Samson P, Haager B, Wiesemann S, Diederichs S, Passlick B

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Distant metastasis arising from thyroid cancer is rare but has been associated with significantly reduced long-term survival, especially when refractory to radioactive iodine ablation. We provide one of the largest studies worldwide reporting the outcome after salvage pulmonary metastasectomy for this entity, aiming to identify prognostic factors and to analyse surgical indication.
METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 43 patients who had undergone pulmonary metastasectomy for radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancer from 1985 to 2016.
RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 77 (95% confidence interval 41-113) months. Twenty-three (53%) patients were alive at the time of analysis. The majority of tumours were follicular thyroid cancer by histology, with 23% identified as Hurthle cell subtype. Five- and 10-year disease-specific (DS) survival was 84% and 59%, respectively. Thirty-one (72%) patients underwent R0-resection with a 5- and 10-year DS survival of 100% and 77%, respectively. This was significantly reduced to 62% and 22% (P = 0.013) in case of incomplete resection, respectively. Ten years after R0-metastasectomy, 17 (55%) patients were recurrence-free. Systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy was performed in 16 (37%) patients and was associated with improved long-term DS survival (10 years 88% vs 46%, P = 0.034). Moreover, a reduction of > 80% in serum thyroglobulin levels post-metastasectomy correlates with better long-term DS survival (10 years 81% vs 36%, P = 0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary metastasectomy is associated with good survival for selected patients with radioactive iodine-refractory metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer, especially if R0-resection can be achieved. Moreover, it is worth considering whether a significant reduction of tumour load, as indicated by thyroglobulin serum levels, seems possible.

PMID: 29092022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gWaNKo

Interreader Reliability of LI-RADS Version 2014 Algorithm and Imaging Features for Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Large International Multireader Study.

Interreader Reliability of LI-RADS Version 2014 Algorithm and Imaging Features for Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Large International Multireader Study.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 01;:170376

Authors: Fowler KJ, Tang A, Santillan C, Bhargavan-Chatfield M, Heiken J, Jha RC, Weinreb J, Hussain H, Mitchell DG, Bashir MR, Costa EAC, Cunha GM, Coombs L, Wolfson T, Gamst AC, Brancatelli G, Yeh B, Sirlin CB

Abstract
Purpose To determine in a large multicenter multireader setting the interreader reliability of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2014 categories, the major imaging features seen with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the potential effect of reader demographics on agreement with a preselected nonconsecutive image set. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient consent was waived for this retrospective study. Ten image sets, comprising 38-40 unique studies (equal number of CT and MR imaging studies, uniformly distributed LI-RADS categories), were randomly allocated to readers. Images were acquired in unenhanced and standard contrast material-enhanced phases, with observation diameter and growth data provided. Readers completed a demographic survey, assigned LI-RADS version 2014 categories, and assessed major features. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed with mixed-model regression analyses was the metric for interreader reliability of assigning categories and major features. Results A total of 113 readers evaluated 380 image sets. ICC of final LI-RADS category assignment was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61, 0.71) for CT and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.77) for MR imaging. ICC was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.90) for arterial phase hyperenhancement, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.88) for washout appearance, and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.87) for capsule appearance. ICC was not significantly affected by liver expertise, LI-RADS familiarity, or years of postresidency practice (ICC range, 0.69-0.70; ICC difference, 0.003-0.01 [95% CI: -0.003 to -0.01, 0.004-0.02]. ICC was borderline higher for private practice readers than for academic readers (ICC difference, 0.009; 95% CI: 0.000, 0.021). Conclusion ICC is good for final LI-RADS categorization and high for major feature characterization, with minimal reader demographic effect. Of note, our results using selected image sets from nonconsecutive examinations are not necessarily comparable with those of prior studies that used consecutive examination series. (©) RSNA, 2017.

PMID: 29091751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xMyMmj

T1 Shortening in the Globus Pallidus after Multiple Administrations of Gadobutrol: Assessment with a Multidynamic Multiecho Sequence.

T1 Shortening in the Globus Pallidus after Multiple Administrations of Gadobutrol: Assessment with a Multidynamic Multiecho Sequence.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 01;:162852

Authors: Kang KM, Choi SH, Hwang M, Yun TJ, Kim JH, Sohn CH

Abstract
Purpose To determine the association between the administration of the macrocyclic contrast medium gadobutrol and T1 relaxation time in the brains of patients with normal renal function by using multidynamic multiecho (MDME) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the need to obtain written informed consent was waived. This study included 46 patients (revealed by an electronic medical record search) who had received one or more gadobutrol injections and a maximum of one MR imaging contrast medium injection other than gadobutrol before MDME sequence acquisition. One radiologist performed quantitative analyses of regions of interest on quantitative T1 maps twice to cover the normal-appearing globus pallidus (GP), frontal white matter, frontal cortex, and thalamus. The number of administrations and the cumulative dose of gadobutrol, age, intervals between administrations, sex, and treatment were investigated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses of the T1 values in four brain regions and the GP-to-thalamus signal intensity (SI) ratio were performed. P values of less than the Bonferroni-corrected value of .01 were considered to indicate significant differences. Results Intraobserver reproducibility was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.62-0.81). Because of high multicollinearity between the number of gadobutrol administrations and accumulated dose (r = 0.96, P < .001), the number of gadobutrol administrations was considered in the regression analyses. T1 shortening in the GP was independently associated with the number of gadobutrol administrations (P = .002). T1 in the other brain regions and the GP-to-thalamus SI ratio were not significantly associated with the number of gadobutrol administrations (P > .01). Conclusion Multiple exposures to gadobutrol are associated with T1 shortening in the GP. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29091750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2AarnP9

The Protein Corona around Nanoparticles Facilitates Stem Cell Labeling for Clinical MR Imaging.

The Protein Corona around Nanoparticles Facilitates Stem Cell Labeling for Clinical MR Imaging.

Radiology. 2017 Nov 01;:170130

Authors: Nejadnik H, Taghavi-Garmestani SM, Madsen SJ, Li K, Zanganeh S, Yang P, Mahmoudi M, Daldrup-Link HE

Abstract
Purpose To evaluate if the formation of a protein corona around ferumoxytol nanoparticles can facilitate stem cell labeling for in vivo tracking with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Ferumoxytol was incubated in media containing human serum (group 1), fetal bovine serum (group 2), StemPro medium (group 3), protamine (group 4), and protamine plus heparin (group 5). Formation of a protein corona was characterized by means of dynamic light scattering, ζ potential, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Iron uptake was evaluated with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-Prussian blue staining, lysosomal staining, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. To evaluate the effect of a protein corona on stem cell labeling, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were labeled with the above formulations, implanted into pig knee specimens, and investigated with T2-weighted fast spin-echo and multiecho spin-echo sequences on a 3.0-T MR imaging unit. Data in different groups were compared by using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Compared with bare nanoparticles, all experimental groups showed significantly increased negative ζ values (from -37 to less than -10; P = .008). Nanoparticles in groups 1-3 showed an increased size because of the formation of a protein corona. hMSCs labeled with group 1-5 media showed significantly shortened T2 relaxation times compared with unlabeled control cells (P = .0012). hMSCs labeled with group 3 and 5 media had the highest iron uptake after cells labeled with group 1 medium. After implantation into pig knees, hMSCs labeled with group 1 medium showed significantly shorter T2 relaxation times than hMSCs labeled with group 2-5 media (P = .0022). Conclusion The protein corona around ferumoxytol nanoparticles can facilitate stem cell labeling for clinical cell tracking with MR imaging. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

PMID: 29091749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from Imaging via alkiviadis.1961 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xMyID5

Scientific rationale for the possible inhaled corticosteroid intraclass difference in the risk of pneumonia in COPD.

Related Articles

Scientific rationale for the possible inhaled corticosteroid intraclass difference in the risk of pneumonia in COPD.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:3055-3064

Authors: Janson C, Stratelis G, Miller-Larsson A, Harrison TW, Larsson K

Abstract
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) treatment combined with long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) reduces the risk of exacerbations in COPD, but the use of ICSs is associated with increased incidence of pneumonia. There are indications that this association is stronger for fluticasone propionate than for budesonide. We have examined systematic reviews assessing the risk of pneumonia associated with fluticasone propionate and budesonide COPD therapy. Compared with placebo or LABAs, we found that fluticasone propionate was associated with 43%-78% increased risk of pneumonia, while only slightly increased risk or no risk was found for budesonide. We have evaluated conceivable mechanisms which may explain this difference and suggest that the higher pneumonia risk with fluticasone propionate treatment is caused by greater and more protracted immunosuppressive effects locally in the airways/lungs. These effects are due to the much slower dissolution of fluticasone propionate particles in airway luminal fluid, resulting in a slower uptake into the airway tissue and a much longer presence of fluticasone propionate in airway epithelial lining fluid.

PMID: 29089754 [PubMed - in process]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yog2xM
via IFTTT

Choosing the Proper Interface for Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Subjects With Acute Respiratory Failure.

Related Articles

Choosing the Proper Interface for Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Subjects With Acute Respiratory Failure.

Respir Care. 2017 Oct 31;:

Authors: BaHammam AS, Singh TD, Gupta R, Pandi-Perumal SR

Abstract
Noninvasive ventilation is an effective treatment for a significant proportion of patients with acute respiratory failure. The success of noninvasive ventilation, however, depends on several factors, a major one being the selection of the proper interface. The choice and application of the interface in patients with acute respiratory failure is a considerable challenge for any treatment team. This review discusses the different types of interfaces that can be used in patients with acute respiratory failure, the differences between nasal, oro-nasal, and total face masks and the helmet, as well as the effect of interface type on treatment success and upper airway patency, mask fitting, problems related to the interface, and the relationship between ventilator type and interface choice.

PMID: 29089459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2yohksJ
via IFTTT

Hippocampal-prefrontal reactivation during learning is stronger in awake as compared to sleep states.

Related Articles

Hippocampal-prefrontal reactivation during learning is stronger in awake as compared to sleep states.

J Neurosci. 2017 Oct 31;:

Authors: Tang W, Shin JD, Frank LM, Jadhav SP

Abstract
Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events occur during both behavior (awake SWRs) and slow-wave sleep (sleep SWRs). Awake and sleep SWRs both contribute to spatial learning and memory, thought to be mediated by the coordinated reactivation of behavioral experiences in hippocampal-cortical circuits seen during SWRs. Current hypotheses suggest that reactivation contributes to memory consolidation processes, but whether awake and sleep reactivation are suited to play similar or different roles remains unclear. Here we addressed that issue by examining the structure of hippocampal (area CA1) and prefrontal (PFC) activity recorded across behavior and sleep stages in male rats learning a spatial alternation task. We found a striking state difference: prefrontal modulation during awake and sleep SWRs was surprisingly distinct, with differing patterns of excitation and inhibition. CA1-PFC synchronization was stronger during awake SWRs, and spatial reactivation, measured using both pairwise and ensemble measures, was more structured for awake SWRs as compared to post-task sleep SWRs. Stronger awake reactivation was observed despite the absence of coordination between network oscillations, namely hippocampal SWRs and cortical delta and spindle oscillations, that is prevalent during sleep. Finally, awake CA1-PFC reactivation was enhanced most prominently during initial learning in a novel environment, suggesting a key role in early learning. Our results demonstrate significant differences in awake and sleep reactivation in the hippocampal-prefrontal network. These findings suggest that awake SWRs support accurate memory storage and memory-guided behavior, whereas sleep SWR reactivation is better suited to support integration of memories across experiences during consolidation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTHippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) occur both in the awake state during behavior and in the sleep state after behavior. Awake and sleep SWRs are associated with memory reactivation and are important for learning, but their specific memory functions remain unclear. Here, we found profound differences in hippocampal-cortical reactivation during awake and sleep SWRs, with key implications for their roles in memory. Awake reactivation is a higher-fidelity representation of behavioral experiences, and is enhanced during early learning, without requiring coordination of network oscillations that is seen during sleep. Our findings suggest that awake reactivation is ideally suited to support initial memory formation, retrieval and planning, whereas sleep reactivation may play a broader role in integrating memories across experiences during consolidation.

PMID: 29089440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iTyBTG
via IFTTT

Undergraduate dental students' perceptions of head and neck anatomy teaching in Australia.

Undergraduate dental students' perceptions of head and neck anatomy teaching in Australia.

Eur J Dent Educ. 2017 Nov 01;:

Authors: Hassan NM, Akhter R, Al-Aubaidy H, Flatau A

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Most Australian universities have abbreviated the anatomy curriculum and modified its mode of delivery. This study examines dental student perceptions of different methods of head and neck anatomy teaching with respect to the adequacy of allocated time and the relative meaningfulness of the teaching methods.
METHODS: All second-year students in the School of Dentistry and Health Sciences at Charles Sturt University (CSU) were invited to complete a matrix-grid questionnaire. Participants were asked to score four methods of teaching (lectures, study of prosected materials, tutorials and quizzes) using a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire included questions about the time adequacy for anatomy lectures, tutorials and laboratory study, and the potential value of learning anatomy through the study of prosected materials. SPSS (Version 21.0) was used to analyse the data, and statistical significance was set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Seventy-two students (79.5%) responded to the survey. Overall, learning anatomy through the study of prosected materials was the single highest scored method, followed by lectures, tutorials and quizzes. Graduate entrants felt that not enough time was devoted to learning anatomy through the study of prosected materials, compared with school leavers (89.4% and 10.6%, respectively), having one extra session of learning in the anatomy laboratory (71.4% and 28.6%, respectively) and adding dissection (75.0% and 25.0%, respectively) would be helpful.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that dental students perceive the study of prosected materials in the wet laboratory as the most valuable method of learning anatomy, but an extended anatomy curriculum would be even more effective and appreciated.

PMID: 29091339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGTmCW
via IFTTT

20(s)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) increases the radiotherapy sensitivity of laryngeal carcinoma.

20(s)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) increases the radiotherapy sensitivity of laryngeal carcinoma.

Food Funct. 2017 Nov 01;:

Authors: Teng B, Zhao L, Gao J, He P, Li H, Chen J, Feng Q, Yi C

Abstract
Laryngeal carcinoma (LC) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors in the head and neck area. Due to its high morbidity and mortality, LC poses a serious threat to human life and health. Even with surgical removal, some patients were not sensitive to radiotherapy or experienced transfer or recurrence. 20(s)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a natural product from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have cytotoxic effects against several cancer cell lines. However, whether it can improve the radiation sensitivity and the underlying mechanism of PPD's sensitization effect is still unknown. Herein, from in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that the combination of PPD and radiation not only significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis, but also suppressed the tumor growth in mouse models. These findings confirmed the role of PPD in enhancing the sensitivity of radiotherapy. Moreover, our work showed that the expression levels of mTOR and its downstream effectors decreased remarkably after PPD addition when compared to radiation only. This result suggested that PPD's excellent synergistic effects with radiation might be associated with the down-regulation of the mTOR signaling pathway in Hep-2 cells.

PMID: 29090703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ynip3S
via IFTTT

Primordial Odontogenic Tumor: A case report with histopathological analyses.

Related Articles

Primordial Odontogenic Tumor: A case report with histopathological analyses.

Pathol Int. 2017 Nov 01;:

Authors: Mikami T, Ohashi Y, Bologna-Molina R, Mosqueda-Taylor A, Fujiwara N, Tsunoda N, Yamada H, Takeda Y

Abstract
Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is a benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumor included into the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of Head and Neck tumours in 2017. As far as the authors have confirmed, only eight cases of this tumor have been reported so far. This paper reports a case of POT that occurred in the right mandible of a 5-year-old patient. Panoramic radiograph showed a well-defined homogeneous radiolucency displacing the unerupted second deciduous molar to the deep part of the mandible. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of cell-rich mesenchymal tissue with myxoid areas, surrounded by columnar epithelium and non-keratinized cuboidal epithelium in the outer layers. The histopathological diagnosis was POT. The expression patterns of cytokeratins (CK) 14, 18, 19, vimentin and CD34 suggested that the grade of differentiation of the POT was approximately equivalent to that of normal primary tooth germ tissues in cap stage to late bell stage.

PMID: 29090496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGTl1Q
via IFTTT

Patients with advanced periodontal disease before intensity-modulated radiation therapy are prone to develop bone healing problems: a 2-year prospective follow-up study.

Related Articles

Patients with advanced periodontal disease before intensity-modulated radiation therapy are prone to develop bone healing problems: a 2-year prospective follow-up study.

Support Care Cancer. 2017 Oct 31;:

Authors: Schuurhuis JM, Stokman MA, Witjes MJH, Reintsema H, Langendijk JA, Vissink A, Spijkervet FKL

Abstract
PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has changed radiation treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). However, it is still unclear if and how IMRT changes oral morbidity outcomes. In this prospective study, we assessed the outcome of reducing post-IMRT sequelae by means of pre-radiation dental screening and eliminating oral foci.
METHODS: All consecutive dentate patients > 18 years, diagnosed with primary oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma, referred for pre-treatment dental screening between May 2011 and May 2013, were included and followed for 2 years. Patients were treated with IMRT or IMRT with chemotherapy (CHIMRT). Dental screening data, demographic data, and data on oral sequelae during follow-up were recorded. Diagnosed oral foci were treated before start of the radiation therapy.
RESULTS: Oral foci were found in 44/56 (79%) patients, consisting predominantly of periodontal breakdown. Bone healing problems after radiotherapy occurred more often in patients with periodontal pockets ≥ 6 mm at baseline (19 vs. 4% in patients with pockets < 6 mm). Osteoradionecrosis developed in 4/56 patients (7%) during follow-up. In line with this observation, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the periodontal inflamed surface area, which is higher in patients with more severe periodontal disease, predicted that a patient has a higher risk on developing osteoradionecrosis or bone healing problems (p = 0.028).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe periodontal disease before IMRT/CHIMRT are more prone to develop bone healing problems post-radiotherapy.

PMID: 29090383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGTjXM
via IFTTT

ACVR2B/Fc counteracts chemotherapy-induced loss of muscle and bone mass.

Related Articles

ACVR2B/Fc counteracts chemotherapy-induced loss of muscle and bone mass.

Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 31;7(1):14470

Authors: Barreto R, Kitase Y, Matsumoto T, Pin F, Colston KC, Couch KE, O'Connell TM, Couch ME, Bonewald LF, Bonetto A

Abstract
Chemotherapy promotes the development of cachexia, a debilitating condition characterized by muscle and fat loss. ACVR2B/Fc, an inhibitor of the Activin Receptor 2B signaling, has been shown to preserve muscle mass and prolong survival in tumor hosts, and to increase bone mass in models of osteogenesis imperfecta and muscular dystrophy. We compared the effects of ACVR2B/Fc on muscle and bone mass in mice exposed to Folfiri. In addition to impairing muscle mass and function, Folfiri had severe negative effects on bone, as shown by reduced trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), thickness (Tb.Th), number (Tb.N), connectivity density (Conn.Dn), and by increased separation (Tb.Sp) in trabecular bone of the femur and vertebra. ACVR2B/Fc prevented the loss of muscle mass and strength, and the loss of trabecular bone in femurs and vertebrae following Folfiri administration. Neither Folfiri nor ACVR2B/Fc had effects on femoral cortical bone, as shown by unchanged cortical bone volume fraction (Ct.BV/TV), thickness (Ct.Th) and porosity. Our results suggest that Folfiri is responsible for concomitant muscle and bone degeneration, and that ACVR2B/Fc prevents these derangements. Future studies are required to determine if the same protective effects are observed in combination with other anticancer regimens or in the presence of cancer.

PMID: 29089584 [PubMed - in process]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGTe6q
via IFTTT

Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS).

Related Articles

Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS).

Auris Nasus Larynx. 2017 Oct 28;:

Authors: Taki M, Nakamura T, Matsuura H, Hasegawa T, Sakaguchi H, Morita K, Ishii R, Mizuta I, Kasai T, Mizuno T, Hirano S

Abstract
Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a novel ataxic disorder consisting of the triad of cerebellar impairment, bilateral vestibular hypofunction, and a somatosensory deficit. We report the first Japanese case of CANVAS. The patient is a 68-year-old Japanese male. He was referred to our university for further evaluation of progressive gait disturbance and ataxia. He exhibited horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus and sensory deficit. Nerve conduction studies showed sensory neuronopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the atrophy of vermis but not of the brainstem. The caloric stimulation and video head impulse test (vHIT) showed bilateral vestibulopathy. The visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VVOR) was also impaired. In addition to neurological and electrophysiological examinations, simple neuro-otological examinations (i.e., caloric stimulation, vHIT, and VVOR) may reveal more non-Caucasian cases.

PMID: 29089158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGTbrg
via IFTTT

In vitro activity between linezolid and other antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium abscessus complex.

Related Articles

In vitro activity between linezolid and other antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium abscessus complex.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Zhang Z, Lu J, Song Y, Pang Y

Abstract
Linezolid (LZD) serves as an effective option in the treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) infection. Unfortunately, the combined activities of LZD with other antimicrobial agents against MABC have not been evaluated systemically. In this study, we randomly selected 32 Mycobacterium abscessus and 32 Mycobacterium massiliense isolates for the determination of in vitro synergistic effect between LZD and other antimicrobial agents, including amikacin (AMK), moxifloxacin (MOX), cefoxitin (CFX) and tigecycline (TGC). Out of 64 MABC isolates tested, only one (1.6%, 1/64) and two (3.2%, 2/64) exhibited resistance to AMK and LZD, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the percentage of TGC-resistant isolates was significantly lower among M. massiliense (9.4%, 3/32) than that among M. abscessus (25.0%, 8/32, P<0.001). In addition, LZD and AMK showed synergy for 29 MABC isolates (45.3%), whereas no antagonism was noted for this combination. The second mostly frequent synergistic effect was found in LZD plus TGC combination, and 26.6% (17/64) of the strains tested exhibited synergy. In contrast, LZD-CFX and LZD-MOX combinations appeared antagonistic for half of the isolates (48.4%, 31/64 for CFX and 51.6%, 33/64), and almost no synergistic effect was reported in any of the strains for these two combinations. In conclusion, our data reveal that LZD and AMK show the most potent activity against MABC. The frequent synergism is observed in LZD-AMK and LZD-TGC combinations, while LZD rarely exhibits in vitro synergy with MOX and CFX when tested against MABC.

PMID: 29089153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGSOgm
via IFTTT

Survival in patients with parotid gland carcinoma - Results of a multi-center study.

Related Articles

Survival in patients with parotid gland carcinoma - Results of a multi-center study.

Am J Otolaryngol. 2017 Oct 24;:

Authors: Honda K, Tanaka S, Shinohara S, Asato R, Tamaki H, Maetani T, Tateya I, Kitamura M, Takebayashi S, Ichimaru K, Kitani Y, Kumabe Y, Kojima T, Ushiro K, Mizuta M, Yamada K, Omori K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy, comprising only 1-4% of head and neck carcinomas; therefore, it is difficult for a single institution to perform meaningful analysis on its clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to update the clinical knowledge of this rare disease by a multi-center approach.
METHODS: The study was conducted by the Kyoto University Hospital and Affiliated Facilities Head and Neck Clinical Oncology Group (Kyoto-HNOG). A total of 195 patients with parotid gland carcinoma who had been surgically treated with curative intent between 2006 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical results including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), local control rate (LCR), regional control rate (RCR), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors.
RESULTS: The median patient age was 63years old (range 9-93years), and the median observation period was 39months. The OS, DFS, DSS, LCR, RCR, and DMFS at 3years were 85%, 74%, 89%, 92%, 88%, and 87%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed age over 74, T4, N+, preoperative facial palsy, high grade histology, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion were associated with poor OS. N+ and high grade histology were independent factors in multivariate analysis. In subgroup analysis, postoperative radiotherapy was associated with better OS in high risk patients.
CONCLUSION: Nodal metastases and high grade histology are important negative prognostic factors for OS. Postoperative radiotherapy is recommended in patients with advanced high grade carcinoma.

PMID: 29089142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGSv5c
via IFTTT

Mycological profile of tinea capitis in schoolchildren in rural southern Ethiopia.

https:--academic.oup.com-images-oup_pubm Related Articles

Mycological profile of tinea capitis in schoolchildren in rural southern Ethiopia.

Med Mycol. 2017 Apr 01;55(3):262-268

Authors: Pérez-Tanoira R, Marín I, Berbegal L, Prieto-Pérez L, Tisiano G, Cuadros J, Górgolas M, Ramos JM

Abstract
Tinea capitis is a known common infection among schoolchildren in developing countries that is still underreported in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiologic and etiologic profile of tinea capitis among school-aged children in a rural area in southern Ethiopia. We collected demographic and clinicodermatological data from school children aged 3-12 years with tinea infections. Pathologic specimens were taken for potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and mycological culture. Dermatophyte species were identified by macroscopic examination of the colony and microscopic examination of fungal cultures. A total of 634 schoolchildren were screened in the study; 128 cases were suspected for tinea capitis based on clinical examination of which 99 patients (mean age 6.7 years within a range of 4-12 years), who were subsequently positive, either based on KOH examination or showed growth of dermatophytes on culture, were included in our study. The ratio of males to females was 3:1. A total of 88 patients (89.9%) had a culture positive for dermatophytes. The zoophilic species Trichophyton verrucosum was the most prevalent isolate (n = 29 cases), followed by the anthropophilic species T. tonsurans (n = 27). The other Trichophyton species implicated were T. mentagrophytes (n = 14), as well as T. schoenleinii, T. soudanense, and T. violaceum. Only 11 of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum: M. audouinii (n = 8), M. ferrugineum (n = 2), and M. gallinae (n = 1). T. verrucosum, followed by T. tonsurans were the most frequent causative agents in this study.

PMID: 27555558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lL8qzF
via IFTTT

Consensus Report of the 2015 Weinman International Conference on Mesothelioma.

http:--linkinghub.elsevier.com-ihub-imag http:--linkinghub.elsevier.com-ihub-imag https:--http://ift.tt/2bsbOVj Related Articles

Consensus Report of the 2015 Weinman International Conference on Mesothelioma.

J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Aug;11(8):1246-1262

Authors: Carbone M, Kanodia S, Chao A, Miller A, Wali A, Weissman D, Adjei A, Baumann F, Boffetta P, Buck B, de Perrot M, Dogan AU, Gavett S, Gualtieri A, Hassan R, Hesdorffer M, Hirsch FR, Larson D, Mao W, Masten S, Pass HI, Peto J, Pira E, Steele I, Tsao A, Woodard GA, Yang H, Malik S

Abstract
On November 9 and 10, 2015, the International Conference on Mesothelioma in Populations Exposed to Naturally Occurring Asbestiform Fibers was held at the University of Hawaii Cancer Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The meeting was cosponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and the agenda was designed with significant input from staff at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. A multidisciplinary group of participants presented updates reflecting a range of disciplinary perspectives, including mineralogy, geology, epidemiology, toxicology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, public health, and clinical oncology. The group identified knowledge gaps that are barriers to preventing and treating malignant mesothelioma (MM) and the required next steps to address barriers. This manuscript reports the group's efforts and focus on strategies to limit risk to the population and reduce the incidence of MM. Four main topics were explored: genetic risk, environmental exposure, biomarkers, and clinical interventions. Genetics plays a critical role in MM when the disease occurs in carriers of germline BRCA1 associated protein 1 mutations. Moreover, it appears likely that, in addition to BRCA1 associated protein 1, other yet unknown genetic variants may also influence the individual risk for development of MM, especially after exposure to asbestos and related mineral fibers. MM is an almost entirely preventable malignancy as it is most often caused by exposure to commercial asbestos or mineral fibers with asbestos-like health effects, such as erionite. In the past in North America and in Europe, the most prominent source of exposure was related to occupation. Present regulations have reduced occupational exposure in these countries; however, some people continue to be exposed to previously installed asbestos in older construction and other settings. Moreover, an increasing number of people are being exposed in rural areas that contain noncommercial asbestos, erionite, and other mineral fibers in soil or rock (termed naturally occurring asbestos [NOA]) and are being developed. Public health authorities, scientists, residents, and other affected groups must work together in the areas where exposure to asbestos, including NOA, has been documented in the environment to mitigate or reduce this exposure. Although a blood biomarker validated to be effective for use in screening and identifying MM at an early stage in asbestos/NOA-exposed populations is not currently available, novel biomarkers presented at the meeting, such as high mobility group box 1 and fibulin-3, are promising. There was general agreement that current treatment for MM, which is based on surgery and standard chemotherapy, has a modest effect on the overall survival (OS), which remains dismal. Additionally, although much needed novel therapeutic approaches for MM are being developed and explored in clinical trials, there is a critical need to invest in prevention research, in which there is a great opportunity to reduce the incidence and mortality from MM.

PMID: 27453164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ynFtQ6
via IFTTT

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1335: A Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Importance of Park Features for Promoting Regular Physical Activity in Parks

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 1335: A Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Importance of Park Features for Promoting Regular Physical Activity in Parks

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph14111335

Authors: Sarah Costigan Jenny Veitch David Crawford Alison Carver Anna Timperio

Introduction: Parks in the US and Australia are generally underutilised, and park visitors typically engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Better understanding park features that may encourage visitors to be active is important. This study examined the perceived importance of park features for encouraging park-based PA and examined differences by sex, age, parental-status and participation in PA. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were completed by local residents (n = 2775) living near two parks (2013/2015). Demographic variables, park visitation and leisure-time PA were self-reported, respondents rated the importance of 20 park features for encouraging park-based PA in the next fortnight. Chi-square tests of independence examined differences in importance of park features for PA among sub-groups of local residents (sex, age, parental-status, PA). Results: Park features ranked most important for park-based PA were: well maintained (96.2%), feel safe (95.4%), relaxing atmosphere (91.2%), easy to get to (91.7%), and shady trees (90.3%). All subgroups ranked ‘well maintained’ as most important. Conclusions: Natural and built environment features of parks are important for promoting adults’ park-based PA, and should be considered in park (re)design.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lHQbek
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2307: Mutational Biases and GC-Biased Gene Conversion Affect GC Content in the Plastomes of Dendrobium Genus

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2307: Mutational Biases and GC-Biased Gene Conversion Affect GC Content in the Plastomes of Dendrobium Genus

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18112307

Authors: Zhitao Niu Qingyun Xue Hui Wang Xuezhu Xie Shuying Zhu Wei Liu Xiaoyu Ding

The variation of GC content is a key genome feature because it is associated with fundamental elements of genome organization. However, the reason for this variation is still an open question. Different kinds of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of GC content during genome evolution. However, these hypotheses have not been explicitly investigated in whole plastome sequences. Dendrobium is one of the largest genera in the orchid species. Evolutionary studies of the plastomic organization and base composition are limited in this genus. In this study, we obtained the high-quality plastome sequences of D. loddigesii and D. devonianum. The comparison results showed a nearly identical organization in Dendrobium plastomes, indicating that the plastomic organization is highly conserved in Dendrobium genus. Furthermore, the impact of three evolutionary forces—selection, mutational biases, and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC)—on the variation of GC content in Dendrobium plastomes was evaluated. Our results revealed: (1) consistent GC content evolution trends and mutational biases in single-copy (SC) and inverted repeats (IRs) regions; and (2) that gBGC has influenced the plastome-wide GC content evolution. These results suggest that both mutational biases and gBGC affect GC content in the plastomes of Dendrobium genus.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xNFqbO
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2312: Actions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Glucocorticoid Stress in Neurogenesis

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2312: Actions of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Glucocorticoid Stress in Neurogenesis

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18112312

Authors: Tadahiro Numakawa Haruki Odaka Naoki Adachi

Altered neurogenesis is suggested to be involved in the onset of brain diseases, including mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotrophic factors are well known for their positive effects on the proliferation/differentiation of both embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Especially, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been extensively investigated because of its roles in the differentiation/maturation of NSCs/NPCs. On the other hand, recent evidence indicates a negative impact of the stress hormone glucocorticoids (GCs) on the cell fate of NSCs/NPCs, which is also related to the pathophysiology of brain diseases, such as depression and autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, studies including ours have demonstrated functional interactions between neurotrophic factors and GCs in neural events, including neurogenesis. In this review, we show and discuss relationships among the behaviors of NSCs/NPCs, BDNF, and GCs.



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2lGKL3i
via IFTTT

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2310: International Journal of Molecular Science 2017 Best Paper Award

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2310: International Journal of Molecular Science 2017 Best Paper Award

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18112310

Authors: International Journal of Molecular Science Editorial Office

The Editors of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences have established the Best Paper Award to recognize the most outstanding articles published in the areas of molecular biology, molecular physics and chemistry that have been published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences. The prizes have been awarded annually since 2012 [...]



from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2A6BHaR
via IFTTT

Onofri-type inequalities for singular Liouville equations

We study the blow-up behavior of minimizing sequences for the singular Moser–Trudinger functional on compact surfaces. Assuming non-existence of minimum points, we give an estimate for the infimum value of the functional. This result can be applied to give sharp Onofri-type inequalities on the sphere in the presence of at most two singularities.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2h5f5Tp
via IFTTT

Factors Influencing Agreement between Parent and Child Reports of Anxiety Symptoms in Children with an High-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

Challenges with identifying and measuring anxiety in children and young people with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have prompted studies examining the reliability of and agreement between different informants. In this study, agreement and factors influencing agreement (caregivers’ educational level and stress; child’s age, gender, verbal and performance IQ) between parent and child reports of anxiety symptoms was examined in a sample of 70 children with an ASD (66 boys; 9–16 years; mean age = 11.21, SD = 1.79 years). The participants completed the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) - Child Version, while their parents completed the SCAS - Parent Version and the Parenting Stress Index. Children rated themselves as having significantly more anxiety symptoms compared to parental ratings of children’s anxiety. Parent and child reports of anxiety were significantly positively correlated for separation, social and generalized anxiety and for total anxiety scores with mostly medium effect sizes, but not for panic attack or obsessive-compulsive subscale scores. Higher parent-child agreement was found for anxiety symptoms associated with clearly observable behaviours. More agreement was associated with higher child verbal IQ and lower levels of parenting stress. Specifically, increased parental stress was associated with more discrepant caregiver-child reports of social anxiety symptoms. Our findings support the need for multi-informant data in order to capture a more comprehensive clinical picture of anxiety symptoms in children with an ASD and to consider the informants’ own stress and anxiety levels when obtaining caregivers’ perspectives.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2z9gsaW
via IFTTT

Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland–Urban Interface areas in Europe

Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland–Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service in landscape valuations to account for the significant landscape function of reducing the risk of catastrophic large fires.

from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2h5EJra
via IFTTT

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις