|Role of glycogen synthase kinase following myocardial infarction and ischemia–reperfusion|
|Cellular responses of BRCA1 -defective HCC1937 breast cancer cells induced by the antimetastasis ruthenium(II) arene compound RAPTA-T|
An organometallic ruthenium(II) arene compound, Ru(η6-toluene)(PTA)Cl2 (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane), termed RAPTA-T, exerts promising antimetastatic properties. In this study, the effects of RAPTA-T on BRCA1-defective HCC1937 breast cancer cells have been investigated, and compared to its effects on BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cells. RAPTA-T showed a very low cytotoxicity against both tested cells. Ruthenium is found mostly in the cytoplasmic compartment of both cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals that the compound arrests the growth of both cells by triggering the G2/M phase that led to the induction of apoptosis. At equimolar concentrations, RAPTA-T causes much more cellular BRCA1 damage in HCC1937 than in MCF-7 cells, suppressing the expression of BRCA1 mRNA in both cell lines with the subsequent down-regulation of the BRCA1 protein. Interestingly, RAPTA-T exhibits an approximately fivefold greater ability to suppress the expression of the BRCA1 protein in HCC1937 than in MCF-7 cells. These data provide insights into the molecular mechanisms by which RAPTA-T exerts its effects on BRCA1-associated breast cancer cells.
|Proteasome inhibitors trigger mutations via activation of caspases and CAD, but mutagenesis provoked by the HDAC inhibitors vorinostat and romidepsin is caspase/CAD-independent|
Genotoxic anti-cancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy can contribute to an increase in second malignancies in cancer survivors due to their oncogenic effects on non-cancerous cells. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins or the proteasome differ from chemotherapy in that they eliminate cancer cells by regulating gene expression or cellular protein equilibrium, respectively. As members of these drug classes have been approved for clinical use in recent times, we investigated whether these two drug classes exhibit similar mutagenic capabilities as chemotherapy. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat/SAHA and romidepsin/FK288 were found to induce DNA damage, and mis-repair of this damage manifested into mutations in clonogenically viable surviving cells. DNA damage and mutations were also detected in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Exposure to both drug classes stimulated caspase activation consistent with apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of caspases protected cells from bortezomib-induced acute (but not clonogenic) death and mutagenesis, implying caspases were required for the mutagenic action of bortezomib. This was also observed for second generation proteasome inhibitors. Cells deficient in caspase-activated DNase (CAD) also failed to acquire DNA damage or mutations following treatment with bortezomib. Surprisingly, vorinostat and romidepsin maintained an equivalent level of killing and mutagenic ability regardless of caspase or CAD activity. Our findings indicate that both drug classes harbour mutagenic potential in vitro. If recapitulated in vivo, the mutagenicity of these agents may influence the treatment of cancer patients who are more susceptible to oncogenic mutations due to dysfunctional DNA repair pathways.
|17-Aminogeldanamycin selectively diminishes IRE1α-XBP1s pathway activity and cooperatively induces apoptosis with MEK1/2 and BRAF V600E inhibitors in melanoma cells of different genetic subtypes|
Outcomes of melanoma patient treatment remain unsatisfactory despite accessibility of oncoprotein-targeting drugs and immunotherapy. Here, we reported that 17-aminogeldanamycin more potently activated caspase-3/7 in BRAFV600E melanoma cells than geldanamycin, another inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). 17-aminogeldanamycin alleviated self-triggered compensatory increase in HSP70 mRNA level and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was followed by selective diminution of cytoprotective IRE1α-XBP1s pathway activity of unfolded protein response (UPR), inhibition of ERK1/2 activity and induction of apoptosis. Concomitantly, ATF6/p50 level and expression of PERK-dependent genes, CHOP and BIM, remained unaltered. This might result from an inframe deletion in EIF2AK3 leading to a PERKL21del variant revealed by whole-exome sequencing in melanoma cell lines. 17-aminogeldanamycin exhibited similar activity in NRASQ61R melanoma cells that harbored a heterozygous inactivating variant of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1P187S). In addition, 17-aminogeldanamycin acted cooperatively with trametinib (an inhibitor of MEK1/2) and vemurafenib (an inhibitor of BRAFV600E) in induction of apoptosis in melanoma cell lines as evidenced by in-cell caspase-3/7 activation and PARP cleavage that occurred earlier compared with either drug used alone. As trametinib and vemurafenib did not significantly affect HSP70 and GRP78 transcript levels, cooperation of MEK/BRAFV600E inhibitors and 17-aminogeldanamycin might result from a concurrent inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK cascade and IRE1α-dependent signaling, and cell-intrinsic ER homeostasis can determine the extent of the drug cooperation. Our study indicates that 17-aminogeldanamycin takes several advantages compared with other HSP90-targeting compounds, and can complement activity of BRAF/MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells of different genetic subtypes.
|Matrix metalloproteinase 9 induces keratinocyte apoptosis through FasL/Fas pathway in diabetic wound|
Apoptosis is a mechanism to remove unwanted cells in the tissue. In diabetic wound, which is characterized by delayed healing process, excessive apoptosis is documented and plays a crucial role. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), which is elevated in non-healed diabetic wound, is necessary for healing process but its abnormality resulted in a delayed healing. The classical function of MMP9 is the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, there is some literature evidence that MMP9 triggers cell apoptosis. Whether the excessive MMP9 contributes to epidermis cell apoptosis in delayed healing diabetic wound and the underlying mechanisms is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore whether MMP9 induced keratinocyte apoptosis and investigate the plausible mechanisms. Our in vitro study showed that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced keratinocyte apoptosis and enhanced MMP9 level. Besides, MMP9, both intra-cellular expressions and extra-cellular supplement, promoted cell apoptosis. Further, MMP9 resulted in an increased expression of FasL, other than Fas and p53. These findings identified a novel effect that MMP9 exerted in delayed diabetic wound healing, owing to a pro-apoptotic effect on keratinocyte, which was mediated by an increase of FasL expression. This study increases understanding of elevated MMP9 which is involved in diabetic wound repair and offers some insights into novel future therapies.
|Recombinant human lactoferrin induces apoptosis, disruption of F-actin structure and cell cycle arrest with selective cytotoxicity on human triple negative breast cancer cells|
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Here, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) expressed in Pichia pastoris was tested for its potential cytotoxic activity on a panel of six human breast cancer cell lines. The rhLf cytotoxic effect was determined via a live-cell HTS imaging assay. Also, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry protocols were employed to investigate the rhLf mode of action. The rhLf revealed an effective CC50 of 91.4 and 109.46 µg/ml on non-metastatic and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, with favorable selective cytotoxicity index values, 11.68 and 13.99, respectively. Moreover, rhLf displayed satisfactory SCI values on four additional cell lines, MDA-MB-468, HCC70, MCF-7 and T-47D (1.55–3.34). Also, rhLf provoked plasma membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage in MDA-MB-231 cells, being all three apoptosis-related morphological changes. Also, rhLf was able to shrink the microfilaments, forming a punctuated cytoplasmic pattern in both the MDA-MB-231 and Hs-27 cells, as visualized in confocal photomicrographs. Moreover, performing flow cytometric analysis, rhLf provoked significant phosphatidylserine externalization, cell cycle arrest in the S phase and apoptosis-induced DNA fragmentation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hence, rhLf possesses selective cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells. Also, rhLf caused apoptosis-associated morphologic changes, disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton organization, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and arrest of the cell cycle progression on triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Overall results suggest that rhLf is using the apoptosis pathway as its mechanism to inflict cell death. Findings warranty further evaluation of rhLf as a potential anti-breast cancer drug option.
|Correction to: MiRNA-126 expression inhibits IL-23R mediated TNF-α or IFN-γ production in fibroblast-like synoviocytes in a mice model of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis|
The authors would like to add an article note stating that "The authors Jie Gao and Ruina Kong have equally contributed to the article".
|Potential role of anastasis in cancer initiation and progression|
|Cell death rocks|
|Ultraspiracle-independent anti-apoptotic function of ecdysone receptors is required for the survival of larval peptidergic neurons via suppression of grim expression in Drosophila melanogaster|
In Drosophila melanogaster a significant number of heterogenous larval neurons in the central nervous system undergo metamorphosis-associated programmed cell death, termed metamorphoptosis. Interestingly distinct groups of doomed larval neurons are eliminated at different metamorphic phases. Although ecdysone hormonal signaling via nuclear ecdysone receptors (EcRs) is known to orchestrate the neuronal metamorphoptosis, little is known about how this signaling controls such diverse neuronal responses. Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-producing neurons in the ventral nerve cord are developmentally programmed to die shortly after adult emergence. In this study, we show that disruption of endogenous EcR function by ectopic expression of dominant negative forms of EcRs (EcRDN) causes premature death of larval CCAP neurons in a caspase-dependent manner. This event is rescued by co-expression of individual EcR isoforms. Furthermore, larval CCAP neurons are largely normal in ecr mutants lacking either EcR-A or EcR-B isoforms, suggesting that EcR isoforms redundantly function to protect larval CCAP neurons. Of surprise, a role of Ultraspiracle (Usp), a canonical partner of EcR, is dispensable in the protection of CCAP neurons, whereas both EcR and Usp are required for inducing metamorphoptosis of vCrz neurons shortly after prepupal formation. As a downstream, grim is an essential cell death gene for the EcRDN-mediated CCAP neuronal death, while either hid or rpr function is dispensable. Together, our results suggest that Usp-independent EcR actions protect CCAP neurons from their premature death by repressing grim expression until their normally scheduled apoptosis at post-emergence. Our studies highlight two opposite roles played by EcR function for metamorphoptosis of two different peptidergic neuronal groups, proapoptotic (vCrz) versus antiapoptotic (CCAP), and propose that distinct death timings of doomed larval neurons are determined by differential signaling mechanisms involving EcR.
Πέμπτη, 2 Μαΐου 2019
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