Πέμπτη, 2 Μαΐου 2019

Neuroradiology

Paranasal Sinus CT Is of Variable Value in Patients with Pediatric Cancer with Neutropenic Fever [LETTERS]


[other]


Imaging Review of New and Emerging Sinonasal Tumors and Tumor-Like Entities from the Fourth Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors [HEAD & NECK]
SUMMARY:

The sinonasal tract is an environment diverse with neoplasia. Given the continued discovery of entities generally specific to the sinonasal tract, the fourth edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors was released in 2017. It describes 3 new, well-defined entities and several less-defined, emerging entities. The new entities are seromucinous hamartomas, nuclear protein in testis carcinomas, and biphenotypic sinonasal sarcomas. Emerging entities include human papillomavirus–related sinonasal carcinomas, SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily B member 1–deficient sinonasal carcinomas, renal cell-like adenocarcinomas, and chondromesenchymal hamartomas. The literature thus far largely focuses on the pathology of these entities. Our goal in this report was to familiarize radiologists with these new diagnoses and to provide available information regarding their imaging appearances.



On Flow Diversion: The Changing Landscape of Intracerebral Aneurysm Management [INTERVENTIONAL]
SUMMARY:

Uptake of flow-diverting technology is rapidly outpacing the availability of clinical evidence. Most current usage is off-label, and the endovascular community is nearer the beginning than the end of the learning curve, given the number of devices in development. A comprehensive overview of technical specifications alongside key outcome data is essential both for clinical decision-making and to direct further investigations. Most-studied has been the Pipeline Embolization Device, which has undergone a transition to the Pipeline Flex for which outcome data are sparse or heterogeneous. Alternative endoluminal devices do not appear to be outperforming the Pipeline Embolization Device to date, though prospective studies and long-term data mostly are lacking, and between-study comparisons must be treated with caution. Nominal technical specifications may be unrelated to in situ performance, emphasizing the importance of correct radiologic sizing and device placement. Devices designed specifically for bifurcation aneurysms also lack long-term outcome data or have only recently become available for clinical use. There are no major studies directly comparing a flow-diverting device with standard coiling or microsurgical clipping. Data on flow-diverting stents are too limited in terms of long-term outcomes to reliably inform clinical decision-making. The best available evidence supports using a single endoluminal device for most indications. Recommendations on the suitability and choice of a device for bifurcation or ruptured aneurysms or for anatomically complex lesions cannot be made on the basis of current evidence. The appropriateness of flow-diverting treatment must be decided on a case-by-case basis, considering experience and the relative risks against standard approaches or observation.



Behavioral and Structural Effects of Single and Repeat Closed-Head Injury [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The effects of multiple head impacts, even without detectable primary injury, on subsequent behavioral impairment and structural abnormality is yet well explored. Our aim was to uncover the dynamic changes and long-term effects of single and repetitive head injury without focal contusion on tissue microstructure and macrostructure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We introduced a repetitive closed-head injury rodent model (n = 70) without parenchymal lesions. We performed a longitudinal MR imaging study during a 50-day study period (T2-weighted imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging) as well as sequential behavioral assessment. Immunohistochemical staining for astrogliosis was examined in a subgroup of animals. Paired and independent t tests were used to evaluate the outcome change after injury and the cumulative effects of impact load, respectively.

RESULTS:

There was no gross morphologic evidence for head injury such as skull fracture, contusion, or hemorrhage on micro-CT and MR imaging. A significant decrease of white matter fractional anisotropy from day 21 on and an increase of gray matter fractional anisotropy from day 35 on were observed. Smaller mean cortical volume in the double-injury group was shown at day 50 compared with sham and single injury (P < .05). Behavioral deficits (P < .05) in neurologic outcome, balance, and locomotor activity were also aggravated after double injury. Histologic analysis showed astrogliosis 24 hours after injury, which persisted throughout the study period.

CONCLUSIONS:

There are measurable and dynamic changes in microstructure, cortical volume, behavior, and histopathology after both single and double injury, with more severe effects seen after double injury. This work bridges cross-sectional evidence from human subject and pathologic studies using animal models with a multi-time point, longitudinal research paradigm.



Periventricular White Matter Abnormalities on Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Postural Instability Gait Disorder Parkinsonism [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Postural instability gait disorder is a motor subtype of Parkinson disease associated with predominant gait dysfunction. We investigated the periventricular white matter comprising longitudinal, thalamic, and callosal fibers using diffusion tensor MR Imaging and examined clinical correlates in a cohort of patients with Parkinson disease and postural instability gait disorder and healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All subjects underwent the Tinetti Gait and Balance Assessment and brain MR imaging. The DTI indices (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) from ROIs dropped over the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and the genu and body of corpus callosum were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Our findings showed that the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, genu of the corpus callosum, and body of the corpus callosum are more affected in postural instability gait disorder than in those with Parkinson disease or healthy controls, with more group differences among the longitudinal fibers. Only the callosal fibers differentiated the postural instability gait disorder and Parkinson disease groups. DTI measures in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontostriatal fibers (anterior thalamic radiation, anterior limb of the internal capsule), and genu of the corpus callosum fibers correlated with clinical gait severity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings from this case-control cohort lend further evidence to the role of extranigral pathology and, specifically, the periventricular fibers in the pathophysiology of postural instability gait disorder.



Gadolinium-Enhanced Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis: Optimizing the Recognition of Active Plaques for Different MR Imaging Sequences [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Gadolinium SWI is MR imaging that has recently been reported to be effective in the evaluation of several neurologic disorders, including demyelinating diseases. Our aim was to analyze the accuracy of gadolinium SWI for detecting the imaging evidence of active inflammation on MS plaques when a BBB dysfunction is demonstrated by a focal gadolinium-enhanced lesion and to compare this technique with gadolinium-enhanced T1 spin-echo and T1 spin-echo with magnetization transfer contrast.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

MR imaging studies of 103 patients (170 examinations) were performed using a 1.5T scanner. Two neuroradiologists scrutinized signal abnormalities of the demyelinating plaques on gadolinium SWI and compared them with gadolinium T1 before and after an additional magnetization transfer pulse. Interrater agreement was evaluated among gadolinium T1 magnetization transfer contrast, gadolinium SWI, and gadolinium T1 spin-echo using the coefficient. The T1 magnetization transfer contrast sequence was adopted as the criterion standard in this cohort. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for gadolinium T1 spin-echo and gadolinium SWI sequences.

RESULTS:

Differences in BBB dysfunction were evident among gadolinium SWI, gadolinium T1 spin-echo, and gadolinium T1 magnetization transfer contrast. Gadolinium T1 magnetization transfer contrast demonstrated the highest number of active demyelinating plaques. Gadolinium SWI was highly correlated with gadolinium T1 magnetization transfer contrast in depicting acute demyelinating plaques ( coefficient = 0.860; sensitivity = 0.837), and these techniques provided better performance compared with gadolinium T1 spin-echo ( coefficient = 0.78; sensitivity = 0.645).

CONCLUSIONS:

Gadolinium SWI was able to better detect BBB dysfunction in MS plaques and had a better performance than gadolinium T1 spin-echo. Increasing SWI sequence applications in clinical practice can improve our knowledge of MS, likely allowing the addition of BBB dysfunction analysis to the striking findings of the previously reported central vein sign.



Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Is Related to Focal Cortical Thinning in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional MRI Study [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Leptomeningeal inflammation is associated with the development of global cortical gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis. However, its association with localized loss of tissue remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal contrast enhancement, a putative marker of leptomeningeal inflammation, and focal cortical thinning in MS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Forty-three patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 15 with secondary-progressive MS were imaged on a 3T scanner. Cortical reconstruction was performed with FreeSurfer. Leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement foci were visually identified on 3D-FLAIR postcontrast images and confirmed using subtraction imaging. Leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement foci were mapped onto the cortex, and ROIs were obtained by dilating along the surface multiple times (n = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40). Resulting ROIs were then mapped onto the homologous region of the contralateral hemisphere. Paired t tests compared the thickness of the cortex surrounding individual leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement foci and the corresponding contralateral region. Results were corrected for the false discovery rate.

RESULTS:

Differences between ipsilateral and contralateral ROIs progressively decreased with larger ROIs, but no significant effects were detected when considering the entire MS sample. In patients with relapsing-remitting MS only, significantly reduced cortical thickness was found for 5 dilations (–8.53%, corrected P = .04) and 10 dilations (–5.20%, corrected P = .044).

CONCLUSIONS:

Focal leptomeningeal contrast enhancement is associated with reduced thickness of the surrounding cortex in patients with relapsing-remitting MS, but not in those with secondary-progressive MS. Our results suggest that pathology associated with the presence of leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement foci has a stronger, localized effect on cortical tissue loss earlier in the disease.



Moving Toward a Consensus DSC-MRI Protocol: Validation of a Low-Flip Angle Single-Dose Option as a Reference Standard for Brain Tumors [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

DSC-MR imaging using preload, intermediate (60°) flip angle and postprocessing leakage correction has gained traction as a standard methodology. Simulations suggest that DSC-MR imaging with flip angle = 30° and no preload yields relative CBV practically equivalent to the reference standard. This study tested this hypothesis in vivo.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eighty-four patients with brain lesions were enrolled in this 3-institution study. Forty-three patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. DSC-MR imaging (3T, single-dose gadobutrol, gradient recalled-echo–EPI, TE = 20–35 ms, TR = 1.2–1.63 seconds) was performed twice for each patient, with flip angle = 30°–35° and no preload (P–), which provided preload (P+) for the subsequent intermediate flip angle = 60°. Normalized relative CBV and standardized relative CBV maps were generated, including postprocessing with contrast agent leakage correction (C+) and without (C–) contrast agent leakage correction. Contrast-enhancing lesion volume, mean relative CBV, and contrast-to-noise ratio obtained with 30°/P–/C–, 30°/P–/C+, and 60°/P+/C– were compared with 60°/P+/C+ using the Lin concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Equivalence between the 30°/P–/C+ and 60°/P+/C+ protocols and the temporal SNR for the 30°/P– and 60°/P+ DSC-MR imaging data was also determined.

RESULTS:

Compared with 60°/P+/C+, 30°/P–/C+ had closest mean standardized relative CBV (P = .61), highest Lin concordance correlation coefficient (0.96), and lowest Bland-Altman bias (μ = 1.89), compared with 30°/P–/C– (P = .02, Lin concordance correlation coefficient = 0.59, μ = 14.6) and 60°/P+/C– (P = .03, Lin concordance correlation coefficient = 0.88, μ = –10.1) with no statistical difference in contrast-to-noise ratios across protocols. The normalized relative CBV and standardized relative CBV were statistically equivalent at the 10% level using either the 30°/P–/C+ or 60°/P+/C+ protocols. Temporal SNR was not significantly different for 30°/P– and 60°/P+ (P= .06).

CONCLUSIONS:

Tumor relative CBV derived from low–flip angle, no-preload DSC-MR imaging with leakage correction is an attractive single-dose alternative to the higher dose reference standard.



Morphologic Features on MR Imaging Classify Multifocal Glioblastomas in Different Prognostic Groups [ADULT BRAIN]
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Multifocal glioblastomas (ie, glioblastomas with multiple foci, unconnected in postcontrast pretreatment T1-weighted images) represent a challenge in clinical practice due to their poor prognosis. We wished to obtain imaging biomarkers with prognostic value that have not been found previously.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective review of 1155 patients with glioblastomas from 10 local institutions during 2006–2017 provided 97 patients satisfying the inclusion criteria of the study and classified as having multifocal glioblastomas. Tumors were segmented and morphologic features were computed using different methodologies: 1) measured on the largest focus, 2) aggregating the different foci as a whole, and 3) recording the extreme value obtained for each focus. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards, correlations, and Harrell concordance indices (c-indices) were used for the statistical analysis.

RESULTS:

Age (P < .001, hazard ratio = 2.11, c-index = 0.705), surgery (P < .001, hazard ratio = 2.04, c-index = 0.712), contrast-enhancing rim width (P < .001, hazard ratio = 2.15, c-index = 0.704), and surface regularity (P = .021, hazard ratio = 1.66, c-index = 0.639) measured on the largest focus were significant independent predictors of survival. Maximum contrast-enhancing rim width (P = .002, hazard ratio = 2.05, c-index = 0.668) and minimal surface regularity (P = .036, hazard ratio = 1.64, c-index = 0.600) were also significant. A multivariate model using age, surgery, and contrast-enhancing rim width measured on the largest foci classified multifocal glioblastomas into groups with different outcomes (P < .001, hazard ratio = 3.00, c-index = 0.853, median survival difference = 10.55 months). Moreover, quartiles with the highest and lowest individual prognostic scores based on the focus with the largest volume and surgery were identified as extreme groups in terms of survival (P < .001, hazard ratio = 18.67, c-index = 0.967).

CONCLUSIONS:

A prognostic model incorporating imaging findings on pretreatment postcontrast T1-weighted MRI classified patients with glioblastoma into different prognostic groups.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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