Τρίτη, 14 Μαΐου 2019

Anaesthesiology

Propofol intravenous anaesthesia with desflurane compared with desflurane alone on postoperative liver function after living-donor liver transplantation: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Propofol is an anaesthetic that resembles α-tocopherol and it has been suggested that it protects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in liver transplantation. Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) presents an opportunity to test this hypothesis in both donors and recipients. OBJECTIVES We compared clinical outcomes after LDLT following anaesthesia with propofol and desflurane against desflurane alone. DESIGN A prospective, randomised, parallel study. SETTING Single-centre trial, study period June 2014 and May 2017. PATIENTS Sixty-two pairs of adult donors and recipients who underwent LDLT. INTERVENTION Patients were randomised to receive either desflurane balanced anaesthesia or propofol total intravenous anaesthesia combined with desflurane anaesthesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was peak liver transaminase levels during the first 7 days after surgery. Liver function was assessed at 10 different time-points (before surgery, 1 h after reperfusion, upon arrival in the ICU, and daily until postoperative day 7). Creatinine was measured to evaluate the incidence of acute kidney injury. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1 were assessed in 31 donors after induction, at hepatectomy and at the end of surgery and in 52 recipients after induction, and 1, 3 and 24 h after reperfusion. RESULTS Peak liver transaminase levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Liver function tests and creatinine were also similar between groups at all time-points. There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications, including acute kidney injury. With the exception of higher TNF-α in donors of the Propofol group at hepatectomy (0.60 ± 0.29 vs. 1.03 ± 0.53, P = 0.01) cytokine results were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION Despite the simultaneous administration of propofol infusion in both donors and recipients, no improvement in laboratory or surgical outcome was observed after LDLT compared with patients who received desflurane anaesthesia alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02504138 at clinicaltrials.gov. Correspondence to Young C. Yoo, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Severance Hospital, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, South Korea Tel: +82 2 2228 2420; fax: +82 2 2227 7897; e-mail: seaoyster@yuhs.ac © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Can quantitative sensory tests predict failed back surgery?: A prospective cohort study
BACKGROUND Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a pain condition refractory to therapy, and is characterised by persistent low back pain after spinal surgery. FBSS is associated with severe disability, low quality of life and high unemployment. We are currently unable to identify patients who are at risk of developing FBSS. Patients with chronic low back pain may display signs of central hypersensitivity as assessed by quantitative sensory tests (QST). This can contribute to the risk of developing persistent pain after surgery. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that central hypersensitivity as assessed by QST predicts FBSS. DESIGN AND SETTING We performed a prospective cohort study in three tertiary care centres with 141 patients scheduled for up to three segment spinal surgery for chronic low back pain due to degenerative changes. PATIENTS Chronic low back pain was defined as at least 3 on a numerical rating scale on most days during the week and with a minimum duration of 3 months. OUTCOMES We defined FBSS as persistent pain, persistent disability or a composite outcome defined as either persistent pain or disability. The primary outcome was persistent pain 12 months after surgery. We applied 14 QST using electrical, pressure and temperature stimulation to predict FBSS and assessed the association of QST with FBSS in multivariable analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, psychological and clinical and surgery-related characteristics. RESULTS None of the investigated 14 QST predicted FBSS, with 95% confidence intervals of crude and adjusted associations of all QST including one as a measure of no association. Results remained robust in all sensitivity and secondary analyses. CONCLUSION The study indicates that assessment of altered central pain processing using current QST is unlikely to identify patients at risk of FBSS and is therefore unlikely to inform clinical decisions. Correspondence to Prof. Michele Curatolo, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356540 Seattle, WA 98195-6540, USA Tel: +1 206 543 2568; fax: +1 206 543 2958; e-mail: curatolo@uw.edu Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Tidal volume challenge to predict fluid responsiveness in the operating room: A prospective trial on neurosurgical patients undergoing protective ventilation
BACKGROUND Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) do not predict fluid responsiveness when using a protective ventilation strategy: the use of functional haemodynamic tests can be useful to overcome this limitation. OBJECTIVES We tested the use of a tidal volume challenge (VTC), during 6 ml kg−1 [predicted body weight (PBW)] ventilation, and the end-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) for prediction of fluid responsiveness. DESIGN An interventional prospective study. SETTING Supine elective neurosurgical patients. INTERVENTIONS The study protocol was, first, the initial EEOT test was performed during baseline 6 ml kg−1 PBW ventilation; second, VTC was performed by increasing the VT up to 8 ml kg−1 PBW and PPV and SVV changes were recorded after 1 min; third, a second EEOT was performed during 8 ml kg−1 PBW ventilation; and VT was reduced back to 6 ml kg−1 PBW and a third EEOT was performed. Finally, a 250 ml fluid challenge was administered over 10 min to identify fluid responders (increase in stroke volume index ≥10%). RESULTS In the 40 patients analysed, PPV and SVV values at baseline and EEOT performed at 6 ml kg−1 PBW did not predict fluid responsiveness. A 13.3% increase in PPV after VTC predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 76.1%, while a 12.1% increase in SVV after VTC predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 95.2%. After EEOT performed at 8 ml kg−1 PBW, a 3.6% increase in cardiac index predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 89.4% and a specificity of 85.7%, while a 4.7% increase in stroke volume index (SVI) with a sensitivity of 89.4% and a specificity of 85.7%. CONCLUSION The changes in PPV and SVV obtained after VTC are reliable and comparable to the changes in CI and SVI obtained after EEOT performed at 8 ml kg−1 PBW in predicting fluid responsiveness in neurosurgical patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ACTRN12618000351213. Correspondence to Antonio Messina, MD, PhD, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, IRCCS Humanitas, Humanitas University, Via Alessandro Manzoni, 56, Rozzano – Milan 20089, Italy. Tel: +39(0)2 8224 8282; e-mail: mess81rc@gmail.com Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Effect of pre-operative oral carbohydrate loading on recovery after day-case cholecystectomy: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Pre-operative carbohydrate loading has been shown to reduce pre-operative discomfort and postoperative nausea and vomiting in general surgical patients. Few studies have considered day-case surgery. OBJECTIVE The aim of this prospective randomised study was to determine whether pre-operative carbohydrate loading enhanced recovery after day-case cholecystectomy. DESIGN A randomised controlled trial. SETTING Secondary care in a district general and a university hospital in Finland between 2013 and 2016. PATIENTS A total of 113 patients American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II aged 18 to 70 undergoing day-case cholecystectomy were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were bleeding or coagulation disorders, BMI more than 40 kg m−2, dementia, insulin-treated diabetes, migraine, Meniere's disease or a history of alcohol or drug abuse. INTERVENTION The carbohydrate-rich drink group received oral carbohydrate (200 ml) 2 to 3 h before surgery, and the control (fasting) group fasted from midnight according to standard protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to score six forms of discomfort: the need for analgesia and antiemetics, the time to drinking, eating and first mobilisation after surgery and the time to discharge. Any hospital re-admission was also recorded. RESULTS The highest VAS scores were seen for mouth dryness and tiredness 2 h after surgery in the fasting group. There were no significant differences in any VAS scores between the study groups. No differences in time to mobilisation, need for pain or antiemetic medication or time to discharge were seen between the groups. CONCLUSION Compared with overnight fasting, pre-operative carbohydrate loading did not significantly enhance peri-operative well being or recovery in patients undergoing day-case cholecystectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT03757208. Correspondence to Heli Helminen, Senior Physician, Department of Surgery, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Hanneksenrinne 7, 60220 Seinäjoki, Finland Tel: +358 64155888; e-mail: heli.helminen@epshp.fi © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Deep neuromuscular blockade improves surgical conditions during gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND There is a controversy in the literature whether deep compared with moderate neuromuscular block (NMB) improves surgical conditions for laparoscopic surgery. OBJECTIVES The primary outcome measure was to examine whether switching from moderate to deep NMB improves surgical conditions for laparoscopic surgery in the obese; secondary outcome measures were changes in intra-abdominal pressure, time required to perform the gastrojejunal anastomosis and peri-operative surgical complications. DESIGN A single-centre, randomised controlled study. Each patient was taken as their own control and examined twice: at the first evaluation (E1), all patients had a moderate NMB, thereafter patients were randomised to deep or moderate block and a second evaluation (E2) was performed within 10 min. Patients with excellent rating at E1 were excluded from E2, as their surgical condition could not be further improved. SETTING University Hospital France. PATIENTS Patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery under general anaesthesia were included. Main exclusion criteria were hypersensitivity to the drugs used and absence of written informed consent. INTERVENTIONS According to the group assignment, patients received bolus doses of rocuronium or 0.9% saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Surgical conditions were assessed with a 4-point rating scale. Intra-operative adverse events were assessed with the Kaafarani-classification and postoperative complications with the Clavien-Dindo classification. RESULTS Eighty-nine patients were initially included and data from 85 could be assessed at E1; surgical rating was excellent in 20, good in 35, acceptable in 18, poor in 12. After excluding those with an excellent rating, the remaining 65 patients were randomly assigned to deep or moderate block. At E2, an improvement of surgical conditions was observed in 29 out of 34 patients with deep block and in four out of 31 with moderate block; P < 0.0001. Poor surgical conditions were more frequently associated with surgical complications (61.5 versus 15.3%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Switching from moderate to deep block improves surgical conditions. Poor surgical conditions were associated with a higher incidence of surgical complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02118844 (www.clinicaltrial.gov). Correspondence to Prof. Thomas Fuchs-Buder, University de Lorraine, CHRU Nancy, Brabois University Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care, 7 allée du Morvan, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy 54511, France; E-mail: t.fuchs-buder@chru-nancy.fr © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

A randomised controlled pragmatic trial of acupressure therapy on quality of recovery after surgery
BACKGROUND Acupressure therapy is associated with favourable efficacies on postoperative nausea, pain and sleep disturbance, although the quality of the evidence is generally low. No randomised clinical trial has yet assessed the effect of acupressure on postoperative quality of recovery (QoR). OBJECTIVE The objective was to study acupressure efficacy on patient-reported postoperative recovery. DESIGN We conducted a single centre, three-group, blind, randomised controlled, pragmatic trial assessing acupressure therapy on the PC6, LI4 and HT7 acupoints. PATIENTS Postoperative patients expected to stay in hospital at least 2 days after surgery. INTERVENTIONS In the acupressure group, pressure was applied for 6 min (2 min per acupoint), three times a day after surgery for a maximum of 2 postoperative days during the hospital stay. In the sham group, extremely light touch was applied to the acupoints. The third group did not receive any touch. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the change in the QoR, using the QoR-15 questionnaire, between postoperative days 1 and 3. Key secondary outcomes included patients' satisfaction, postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain score and opioid (morphine equivalent) consumption. Assessors for the primary and secondary endpoints were blind to the group allocation. RESULTS Overall, 163 patients were randomised (acupressure n=55, sham n=53, no intervention n=55). The mean (SD) postoperative change in QoR-15 did not differ statistically (P = 0.27) between the acupressure, sham and no intervention groups: 15.2 (17.8), 14.2 (21.9), 9.2 (21.7), respectively. Patient satisfaction (on a 0 to 10 scale) was statistically different (P = 0.01) among these three groups: 9.1 (1.5), 8.4 (1.6) and 8.2 (2.2), respectively. Changes in pain score and morphine equivalent consumption were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION Two days of postoperative acupressure therapy (up to six treatments) did not significantly improve patient QoR, postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain score or opioid consumption. Acupressure, however, was associated with improved patient satisfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02762435. Correspondence to Eric Noll, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Avenue Molière, 67098 Strasbourg, France Tel: +33 3 88127076; fax: +33 3 88127074; e-mail: eric.noll@chru-strasbourg.fr © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Initial end-tidal carbon dioxide as a predictive factor for return of spontaneous circulation in nonshockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: A last straw to cling to?
BACKGROUND Early outcome prediction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been shown to be a reliable parameter to reflect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the chance of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). OBJECTIVES This study assessed the validity of early capnography as a predictive factor for ROSC and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with an underlying nonshockable rhythm. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING/PATIENTS During a 2-year observational period, data from 2223 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims within the city of Vienna were analysed. The focus was on the following patients: age more than 18 years, an underlying nonshockable rhythm, and advanced airway management within the first 15 min of advanced life support with subsequent capnography. INTERVENTION No specific intervention was set in this observational study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The first measured ETCO2, assessed immediately after placement of an advanced airway, was used for further analysis. The primary outcome was defined as sustained ROSC, and the secondary outcome was 30-day survival. RESULTS A total of 526 patients met the inclusion criteria. These were stratified into three groups according to initial ETCO2 values (<20, 20 to 45, >45 mmHg). Baseline data and resuscitation factors were similar among all groups. The odds of sustained ROSC and survival were significantly higher for patients presenting with higher values of initial ETCO2 (>45 mmHg): 3.59 [95% CI, 2.19 to 5.85] P = 0.001 and 5.02 [95% CI, 2.25 to 11.23] P = 0.001, respectively. On the contrary ETCO2 levels less than 20 mmHg were associated with significantly poorer outcomes. CONCLUSION Patients with a nonshockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who presented with higher values of initial ETCO2 had an increased chance of sustained ROSC and survival. This finding could help decision making as regards continuation of resuscitation efforts. Correspondence to Michael Poppe, Universitätsklinik für Notfallmedizin, Medizinische Universität Wien, Währinger Gürtel 18–20/6D, 1090 Wien, Austria Tel: +43 14040019640; fax: +43 14040019650; e-mail: michael.poppe@meduniwien.ac.at © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Effect of pretreatment with magnesium sulphate on the duration of intense and deep neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Magnesium sulphate is an important adjuvant drug in multimodal anaesthesia. In combination with rocuronium it can enhance neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Limited data exist concerning the effect of magnesium sulphate on the duration of deep or intense NMB and the period of no response. OBJECTIVE(S) To determine the role of magnesium sulphate on the duration of rocuronium-induced deep and intense NMB, and the period of no response to nerve stimulation. DESIGN A randomised controlled trial. SETTING A public tertiary care hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from February 2017 to March 2018. PATIENTS All patients between 18 and 65 years of age scheduled to undergo elective otorhinolaryngological surgery, with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg m−2 and an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of I or II. INTERVENTION(S) Before induction of anaesthesia 60 patients were pretreated with an intravenous infusion of either 100 ml 0.9% saline (saline group), or 60 mg kg−1 magnesium sulphate (magnesium group). After loss of consciousness, a bolus of rocuronium (0.6 mg kg−1) was administered. Neuromuscular function was measured by TOF-Watch SX monitor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary and secondary outcomes were the duration of the period of no response to nerve stimulation and intense and deep NMB, respectively. An additional outcome was the NMB onset time. RESULTS Median [IQR] durations of deep NMB were 20.3 [12.0 to 35.4] and 18.3 [11.2 to 26.3] min in the magnesium and saline groups, respectively (P = 0.18). Median durations of intense NMB were 21.7 [0.0 to 32.2] min and 0.0 [0.0 to 6.2] min (P = 0.001) in the magnesium and saline groups, respectively. Median durations of the period of no response were 40.8 [51.4 to 36.0] min and 28.0 [21.9 to 31.6] min (P = 0.0001) in the magnesium and saline groups, respectively. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulphate increased both the duration of intense NMB and the period of no response. The duration of deep NMB was similar in the magnesium sulphate group and saline group. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT02989272. Correspondence to Angelo J. Queiroz Rangel Micuci, Department of Anesthesiology, Bonsucesso Federal Hospital (Hospital Federal de Bonsucesso), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil E-mail: angelojorgemicuci@gmail.com © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Ultrasound as a new tool in the assessment of airway difficulties
BACKGROUND Prediction of difficult mask ventilation (DMV) is as challenging as difficult laryngoscopy. Ultrasound could be a helpful tool in the prediction of these difficulties. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of pre-operative ultrasound assessment of neck anatomy in predicting DMV and difficult laryngoscopy in patients undergoing during elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation. DESIGN Prospective, single blind, observational study. SETTING Operating theatre of a teaching hospital in Italy from April 2018 to July 2018. PATIENTS A total of 194 patients aged more than 18 years, without neck masses, previous thyroid surgery or tracheotomy undergoing general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation for elective ear, nose and throat-surgery were included in the study. OUTCOME MEASURES Ultrasound distances were recorded with a linear 6 to 13 MHz ultrasound transducer: measurements included the minimum distance from the thyroid isthmus to skin surface, the minimum distance from the hyoid bone to skin surface (DSHB), the minimum distance from skin to anterior commissure of the vocal cords, the minimum distance from skin to trachea at the level of the jugular notch and the distance from skin to epiglottis midway. The degree of DMV and difficult laryngoscopy was quantified. RESULTS The mean (SD) of DSHB was 0.88 (0.3) cm in the easy mask ventilation group, 1.4 (0.19) cm in DMV group. The mean of DSHB and of the other ultrasound distances increased according to the DMV and difficult laryngoscopy level. The DSHB was correlated with an increase in the risk for DMV (0.61 [IQR 0.5 to 0.69]). DMV groups were associated with a greater ultrasound-measured DSHB. CONCLUSION The prospective observational study confirms the relationship between ultrasound assessment of the anterior soft tissues of the neck and difficult laryngoscopy and DMV. DSHB and the other distances extend the available evidence, not only for difficult laryngoscopy but also for DMV. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov. identified NCT03592758. Correspondence to Francesco Alessandri, MD, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy Tel: +39 064 997 8007; e-mail: francesco.alessandri@uniroma1.it © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Necessity to depict difficult neck anatomy for training of cricothyroidotomy: A pilot study evaluating two surgical devices on a new hybrid training model
BACKGROUND Everyone dealing with airway emergencies must be able to accomplish cricothyroidotomy, which cannot be trained in real patients. Training models are necessary. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the suitability of a hybrid training model combining synthetic and porcine parts to depict variable neck anatomy. DESIGN Model-based comparative trial. SETTING Armed Forces Hospital Ulm, Germany, August 2018. INTERVENTION On four anatomical neck variations (long slim/long obese/short slim/short obese) we performed two surgical approaches to cricothyroidotomy (SurgiCric II vs. ControlCricTM). PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight volunteers divided into two groups based on their personal skill level: beginners group and proficient performers group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Time to completion was recorded for each procedure. Once the operator had indicated completion, the correct anatomical tube placement was confirmed by dissection and structures were inspected for complications. Primary outcomes were successful tracheal placement of an airway tube and time needed to achieve a patent airway. Secondary outcome was assessment of complications. RESULTS Overall, 384 procedures were performed. Median time to completion was 74 s. In total, 284 procedures (74%) resulted in successful ventilation. Time to completion was longer in short obese than in long slim and the risk of unsuccessful procedures was increased in short obese compared with long slim. Even if ControlCric resulted in faster completion of the procedure, its use was less successful and had an increased risk of complications compared with SurgiCric II. Proficient performers group performed faster but had an increased risk of injuring the tracheal wall compared with beginners group. CONCLUSION Participants had difficulties in performing cricothyroidotomy in obese models, but various and difficult anatomical situations must be expected in airway management and therefore must be taught. A new hybrid model combining porcine and synthetic materials offers the necessary conditions for the next step in training of surgical airway procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was performed without human tissue or living animals, and was therefore exempted from ethical review by the University of Ulm Ethical Committee, Germany (Chairperson Prof Dr C. Lenk) on 9 August 2018. Hence a protocol number was not attributed. Correspondence to Bjoern Hossfeld, LtCol., Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Federal Armed Forces Hospital, Oberer Eselsberg 40, 89081 Ulm, Germany Tel: +49 731 1710 26501; e-mail: bjoern.hossfeld@uni-ulm.de © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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