Τρίτη, 14 Μαΐου 2019

AIDS and Behavior

Men's Beliefs About the Likelihood of Serodiscordance in Couples with an HIV-Positive Partner: Survey Evidence from Rural Uganda

Abstract

Few studies in sub-Saharan Africa have assessed men's knowledge about the likelihood of serodiscordance in couples with an HIV-positive partner and how this is affected by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using a Likert scale and probabilistic scale, we elicited beliefs of 2532 rural Ugandan men about the likelihood of seroconcordance in married couples with an HIV-positive female partner who is either taking ART or not taking ART. Logistic regression analyses explored associations between beliefs and various health behaviors. Probabilistic scale responses were consistent with Likert scale responses. Seroconcordance was believed to be likely in the scenarios without ART and with ART, with mean seroconcordance likelihood of 8.1 and 6.6, respectively, on a scale of 0–10. The majority of participants (57%) believed the likelihood of seroconcordance was lower in the scenario with ART. The results suggest a need for enhanced education among men about serodiscordance in stable relationships and about the preventive effects of ART.



Changes in Characteristics and Behavior Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women in the Context of Reductions in HIV Diagnoses Among Women

Abstract

Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) connect lower prevalence populations of women to higher prevalence populations of men who have sex with men only. We hypothesize that HIV testing and treatment among MSMW have increased in recent years, and this increase can help explain the declining rates of new HIV diagnoses among African American women. We analyzed data from 2008, 2011, and 2014 of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. African American men who have sex with men (MSM) were surveyed from 19 United States cities using venue-based sampling and tested for HIV infection. We used generalized estimating equations, using year of survey as an independent variable, adjusting for age, to determine differences for selected outcomes regarding healthcare and risk behaviors over time. Among the 1299 African American MSMW interviewed, significant increases were observed in the percent of men who had an HIV test in the previous 12 months (2008: 54%, 2011: 69%, and 2014: 68%, p-value < 0.001). Among HIV-positive men, the percentage of men who were aware of their infection at the time of the interview increased significantly over time (26, 35, and 48%, p-value = 0.002). Among those men, the percentage who reported currently being on antiretroviral therapy also increased significantly over time (46, 69, and 72%, p-value = 0.050). The percentage of men reporting high-risk sexual risk behaviors increased or remained stable. Our findings support the hypothesis that HIV testing and treatment has increased among African American MSM from 2008 to 2014. Additional research is needed to fully explore the population-level impact it has on HIV transmission among women.



Mental health, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among HIV-negative adolescent sexual minority males: three U.S. cities, 2015

Abstract

We examined the association between mental health issues, social support, and HIV among adolescent sexual minority males (SMM), who are disproportionally affected by HIV. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (NHBS-YMSM) data among SMM aged 13–18 years were collected in three cities (Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia). Separate log-linked Poisson regression models were used to estimate associations between mental health issues and social support (general and family), and 3 HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes: past-year condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with a male partner, past-year sex with ≥ 4 partners, and first vaginal or anal sex before age 13. Of 547 adolescent SMM, 22% reported ever attempting suicide and 10% reported past-month suicidal ideation. The majority (52%) reported depression and anxiety. Thirty-nine percent reported CAI, 29% reported ≥ 4 sex partners and 22% reported first sex before age 13. Ever attempting suicide, suicidal ideation, and depression and anxiety were associated with CAI. Separately, ever attempting suicide and lack of family support were associated with  ≥ 4 sex partners. None of the mental health or support measures were associated with having sex before age 13. General social support was not associated with any sexual risk behaviors. Mental health issues are common among adolescent SMM and associated with sexual risk behaviors. Including mental health support in comprehensive HIV prevention for adolescent SMM could potentially reduce HIV risk in this population.



Interest in Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV is Limited Among Women in a General Obstetrics & Gynecology Setting

Abstract

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an important tool for reducing the risk of HIV acquisition, but identifying eligible and interested female patients remains difficult. We collected 144 surveys at urban Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics in Louisiana to assess interest in PrEP. Study participants were predominantly African–American (61.8%) and 45.1% had incomes of less than $20,000 per year. 84.7% of participants estimated their risk of HIV acquisition to be low. Initial interest in PrEP was moderate at 37.5% of the population. Number of partners, condom use, and self-perceived risk of HIV acquisition were associated with initial interest. After receiving more information about side effects and compliance requirements, only four of 144 (7.8% of initially interested, 2.8% of total) women remained interested in using PrEP. Concern about side effects was the major barrier to persistent interest. Further study is needed to determine how best to identify PrEP candidates in Obstetrics & Gynecology settings.



Limited Knowledge and Lack of Screening for Acute HIV Infection at Primary Care Clinics in High-Prevalence Communities of New York City

Abstract

Diagnosis and treatment of acute HIV infection (AHI) is crucial for ending the HIV epidemic. Individuals with AHI, who have high viral loads and often are unaware of their infection, are more likely to transmit HIV to others than those with chronic infection. In preparation for an educational intervention on AHI in primary health care settings in high HIV-prevalence areas of New York City, 22 clinic directors, 313 clinic providers, and 220 patients were surveyed on their knowledge and awareness of the topic from 2012–2015. Basic HIV knowledge was high among all groups while knowledge of AHI was partial among providers and virtually absent among patients. Inadequate knowledge about this crucial phase of HIV may be impeding timely identification of cases in the primary care setting.



Association of HIV Infection with Epilepsy and Other Comorbid Conditions

Abstract

Here, we aimed to investigate the associations of comorbidities in HIV patients given antiepileptic drugs. HIV patients given antiepileptic drugs for at least 6 months were considered. Comorbidities of the epileptic, HIV-positive patients were stratified according to patients' age and causes of epilepsy. Seventy-four of the 97 HIV patients identified had at least one comorbidity. Patients more than 50-years old had more comorbidities (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 1.1 ± 1.2, p < 0.01) compared with younger subjects. The distribution of the psychiatric disorders was comparable between age-related categories. A marginally significant trend for higher frequency of psychiatric disorders was observed in patients with idiopathic epilepsy versus other causes of epilepsy (43% vs. 24%), Because the presence of comorbid disorders is a major driver for premature mortality both in HIV infection and epilepsy, strategies aimed at favoring prevention, early identification, and adequate treatment in these clinical settings should be pursued at all levels of care.



Computer-Based Substance Use Reporting and Acceptance of HIV Testing Among Emergency Department Patients

Abstract

More than 10 years after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended routine HIV testing for patients in emergency departments (ED) and other clinical settings, as many as three out of four patients may not be offered testing, and those who are offered testing frequently decline. The current study examines how participant characteristics, including demographics and reported substance use, influence the efficacy of a video-based intervention designed to increase HIV testing among ED patients who initially declined tests offered by hospital staff. Data from three separate trials in a high volume New York City ED were merged to determine whether patients (N = 560) were more likely to test post-intervention if: (1) they resembled people who appeared onscreen in terms of gender or race; or (2) they reported problem substance use. Chi Square and logistic regression analyses indicated demographic concordance did not significantly increase likelihood of accepting an HIV test. However, participants who reported problem substance use (n = 231) were significantly more likely to test for HIV in comparison to participants who reported either no problem substance use (n = 190) or no substance use at all (n = 125) (x2 = 6.830, p < 0.05). Specifically, 36.4% of patients who reported problem substance use tested for HIV post-intervention compared to 30.5% of patients who did not report problem substance use and 28.8% of participants who did not report substance use at all. This may be an important finding because substance use, including heavy alcohol or cannabis use, can lead to behaviors that increase HIV risk, such as sex with multiple partners or decreased condom use.



The Relationship Between Discrimination and Missed HIV Care Appointments Among Women Living with HIV

Abstract

Receiving regular HIV care is crucial for maintaining good health among persons with HIV. However, racial and gender disparities in HIV care receipt exist. Discrimination and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity and gender, contributing to disparities. Data from 1578 women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study ascertained from 10/1/2012 to 9/30/2016 were used to: (1) estimate the relationship between discrimination and missing any scheduled HIV care appointments and (2) assess whether this relationship is effect measure modified by race/ethnicity. Self-reported measures captured discrimination and the primary outcome of missing any HIV care appointments in the last 6 months. Log-binomial models accounting for measured sources of confounding and selection bias were fit. For the primary outcome analyses, women experiencing discrimination typically had a higher prevalence of missing an HIV care appointment. Moreover, there was no statistically significant evidence for effect measure modification by race/ethnicity. Interventions to minimize discrimination or its impact may improve HIV care engagement among women.



Alone But Supported: A Qualitative Study of an HIV Self-testing App in an Observational Cohort Study in South Africa

Abstract

HIV self-testing has the potential to improve test access and uptake, but concerns remain regarding counselling and support during and after HIV self-testing. We investigated an oral HIV self-testing strategy together with a mobile phone/tablet application to see if and how it provided counselling and support, and how it might impact test access. This ethnographic study was nested within an ongoing observational cohort study in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative data was collected from study participants and study staff using 33 semi-structured interviews, one focus group discussion, and observation notes. The app provided information and guidance while also addressing privacy concerns. The flexibility and support provided by the strategy gave participants more control in choosing whom they included during testing. Accessibility concerns included smartphone access and usability issues for older and rural users. The adaptable access and support of this strategy could aid in expanding test access in South Africa.



The Impacts of Residential Location on the Risk of HIV Virologic Failure Among ART Users in Durban, South Africa

Abstract

Using a case–control study of patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2010–2012 at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa, we sought to understand how residential locations impact patients' risk of virologic failure (VF). Using generalized estimating equations to fit logistic regression models, we estimated the associations of VF with socioeconomic status (SES) and geographic access to care. We then determined whether neighborhood-level poverty modifies the association between individual-level SES and VF. Automobile ownership for men and having non-spouse family members pay medical care for women remained independently associated with increased odds of VF for patients dwelling in moderately and severely poor neighborhoods. Closer geographic proximity to medical care was positively associated with VF among men, while higher neighborhood-level poverty was positively associated with VF among women. The programmatic implications of our findings include developing ART adherence interventions that address the role of gender in both the socioeconomic and geographical contexts.



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