Τρίτη, 14 Μαΐου 2019

Dairy Science

Technical note: Evaluation of a novel enzymatic method to predict in situ undigested neutral detergent fiber of forages and nonforage fibrous feeds

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): A. Gallo, S. Bruschi, F. Masoero

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to optimize the conditions of a previously proposed enzymatic method used to estimate in situ undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF). We used a multi-step enzymatic approach, in which samples were first solubilized in NaOH solutions as a preincubation (PreInc) phase. After rinsing, samples were incubated (24 h at 39°C) in a buffered solution (pH 6) containing hemicellulase, cellulase, and Viscozyme L enzymes (Sigma-Aldrich s.r.l., Milan, Italy), followed by incubation (24 h at 39°C) in a buffered solution (pH 5) containing xylanase. Two sets of experiments were performed: a calibration trial (that tested different PreInc conditions on 9 selected forages) and a validation trial (that verified the results by testing multiple samples of 6 different forage types and a group of fibrous by-products). In the calibration trial, samples (300 mg in Ankom F57 filter bags; Ankom Technology Corp., Fairport, NY) were preincubated at 39°C in a 0.1 M NaOH solution for 90, 180, or 240 min, or in 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 M NaOH solution for 90 min. The results indicated that the best PreInc method, in terms of intra-laboratory repeatability and estimation of reference in situ values, was 90 min in a 0.2 M NaOH solution. Thus, we used this PreInc condition to determine enzymatic uNDF of 257 samples in the validation trial. Although the selected method generally had good accuracy in predicting in situ uNDF, inconsistencies were noted for certain forage types. Overall, when enzymatic uNDF was used to predict the in situ uNDF of all samples, the regression was satisfactory (intercept = 7.098, slope = 0.920, R2 = 0.73). The regression models developed for alfalfa hays, corn silages, and small grain silages had also acceptable regression performances and mean square error of prediction (MSEP) values, and the main sources of MSEP variation were error due to incomplete (co)variation and random error. Even when R2 values were >0.70, the MSEP value of the regression model for grass hays was 149.55, and that for nonforage fibrous feeds was 155.16. Although enzymatic uNDF partially overestimated the in situ uNDF, particularly in grass silages, the proposed procedure seems to be promising for accurately predicting in situ uNDF, because it generally had good repeatability and provided satisfactory estimates of in situ uNDF.



Are dietary strategies to mitigate enteric methane emission equally effective across dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep?

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Sanne van Gastelen, Jan Dijkstra, André Bannink

ABSTRACT

The digestive physiology of ruminants is sufficiently different (e.g., with respect to mean retention time of digesta, digestibility of the feed offered, digestion, and fermentation characteristics) that caution is needed before extrapolating results from one type of ruminant to another. The objectives of the present study were (1) to provide an overview of some essential differences in rumen physiology between dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep that are related to methane (CH4) emission; and (2) to evaluate whether dietary strategies to mitigate CH4 emission with various modes of action are equally effective in dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep. A literature search was performed using Web of Science and Scopus, and 94 studies were selected from the literature. Per study, the effect size of the dietary strategies was expressed as a proportion (%) of the control level of CH4emission, as this enabled a comparison across ruminant types. Evaluation of the literature indicated that the effectiveness of forage-related CH4 mitigation strategies, including feeding more highly digestible grass (herbage or silage) or replacing different forage types with corn silage, differs across ruminant types. These strategies are most effective for dairy cattle, are effective for beef cattle to a certain extent, but seem to have minor or no effects in sheep. In general, the effectiveness of other dietary mitigation strategies, including increased concentrate feeding and feed additives (e.g., nitrate), appeared to be similar for dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep. We concluded that if the mode of action of a dietary CH4 mitigation strategy is related to ruminant-specific factors, such as feed intake or rumen physiology, the effectiveness of the strategy differs across ruminant types, whereas if the mode of action is associated with methanogenesis-related fermentation pathways, the strategy is effective across ruminant types. Hence, caution is needed when translating effectiveness of dietary CH4mitigation strategies across different ruminant types or production systems.



Invited review: Milk lactose—Current status and future challenges in dairy cattle

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): A. Costa, N. Lopez-Villalobos, N.W. Sneddon, L. Shalloo, M. Franzoi, M. De Marchi, M. Penasa

ABSTRACT

Lactose is the main carbohydrate in mammals' milk, and it is responsible for the osmotic equilibrium between blood and alveolar lumen in the mammary gland. It is the major bovine milk solid, and its synthesis and concentration in milk are affected mainly by udder health and the cow's energy balance and metabolism. Because this milk compound is related to several biological and physiological factors, information on milk lactose in the literature varies from chemical properties to heritability and genetic associations with health traits that may be exploited for breeding purposes. Moreover, lactose contributes to the energy value of milk and is an important ingredient for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite this, lactose has seldom been included in milk payment systems, and it has never been used as an indicator trait in selection indices. The interest in lactose has increased in recent years, and a summary of existing information about lactose in the dairy sector would be beneficial for the scientific community and the dairy industry. The present review collects and summarizes knowledge about lactose by covering and linking several aspects of this trait in bovine milk. Finally, perspectives on the use of milk lactose in dairy cattle, especially for selection purposes, are outlined.



Housing tiestall dairy cows in deep-bedded pens during an 8-week dry period: Effects on lying time, lying postures, and rising and lying-down behaviors

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): E. Shepley, G. Obinu, T. Bruneau, E. Vasseur

ABSTRACT

Dairy cow lying behavior is useful in determining the cow's level of welfare, as well as in determining how her environment may affect her comfort and ease of movement. In tiestall systems, cows usually remain in a stall for the duration of their lactation. The dry period offers a unique opportunity to provide alternative housing to the cow with minimal effects on farm housing and management. Our objective was to determine whether housing tiestall cows in deep-bedded pens over an 8-wk dry period altered lying time, lying and rising ability, or lying postures. At dry-off, 20 cows, paired by parity and calving date, were randomly assigned to a deep-bedded loose pen (LP) or a tiestall (TS). Leg-mounted pedometers measured lying time. Rising and lying ability were measured using 6 events of rising and lying from 24-h video recordings taken once a week per cow. Sequenced images (1/min) from the 24-h recordings were used to document lying postures and locations for each cow. Data were analyzed for the early (first week of dry-off), mid, and late (week before calving) terms of the dry period. Lying time did not differ between LP and TS but was numerically higher for LP than TS cows (14.4 vs. 13.0 h/d, respectively). Contact with stall or pen confines when lying down was 5 times higher in TS than LP. The increased contact, coupled with a higher occurrence of hindquarter shifting in the late term, led to higher overall abnormal lying behaviors in TS. Contact with the stall upon rising increased in the late term for TS cows. Cows housed in loose pens also exhibited greater variation in hind-leg postures, keeping legs tucked 20% less often in favor of alternative postures. Stall hardware (e.g., tie rail, dividers) may have affected the ease of transition between lying and standing, leading to higher levels of contact with the stall. Loose-pen cows are able to assume more postures than TS cows when provided more space, possibly allowing them to orient themselves in ways that provide greater comfort. Lying surface in the deep-bedded loose pen may ease the cow's lying-down and rising movements and lead to the higher lying time found with LP cows. Overall, aspects of the stall largely contributed to differences in lying behaviors, warranting further study into whether freestall systems would yield similar outcomes. Improving our concept of ease of movement related to lying and quality of rest in dairy cows, through evaluating lying behaviors in different housing systems, allows for better recommendations on viable alternative housing options.



Lameness and lying behavior in grazing dairy cows

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): A.J. Thompson, D.M. Weary, J.A. Bran, R.R. Daros, M.J. Hötzel, M.A.G. von Keyserlingk

ABSTRACT

Lameness is a serious welfare issue for dairy cows. To date, the majority of studies have focused on its effect on health and behavior at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to identify (1) between-cow and (2) within-cow changes in lying behavior associated with consistent and changing lameness status in grazing dairy cows. Previous studies of lying behavior in grazing dairy cows have not considered the effect of precipitation, so a third aim was to determine the effect of precipitation on lying behavior. A total of 252 dairy cows from 6 pasture-based farms in southern Brazil were gait scored weekly to assess lameness using a 5-point scale [1–5, numerical rating score (NRS)] for 4 consecutive weeks. Cows were considered to have consistent lameness if they were scored as lame (NRS ≥3) on each of the 4 visits and considered to have a changing lameness status if scored as being nonlame (NRS <3) on at least 1 of the 4 visits. Cows classified as having a changing lameness status were further classified as developed, recovered, or inconsistent. Lying behavior (daily lying time, mean lying bout duration, and daily number of lying bouts) was recorded continuously for 3 wk using leg-mounted accelerometers. Cow-level variables included parity, days in milk, and body condition score. Regional precipitation and temperature were recorded hourly. Because only 1 primiparous cow was identified as lame at each of the 4 visits, the between-cow analysis of lameness was run on multiparous cows only. The overall prevalence of clinical lameness on the first visit was 39%, with development and recovery rates of 16 and 10% over the 4 visits, respectively. The between-cow effect of consistent lameness status on daily lying time and number of lying bouts was dependent on precipitation; consistently lame cows had reduced lying time and lying bouts on days with rain compared with days without rain. There was no within-cow effect of changing lameness status on any of the lying behaviors. Precipitation was associated with decreased daily lying time, increased mean lying bout duration, and decreased daily number of lying bouts. The results of this research provide the first evidence that the effect of consistent lameness status on lying behavior is associated with rainfall in grazing dairy cows. Future work measuring lying behavior of grazing dairy cows should include precipitation as a covariate.



Prediction of blood β-hydroxybutyrate content and occurrence of hyperketonemia in early-lactation, pasture-grazed dairy cows using milk infrared spectra

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): V. Bonfatti, S-A. Turner, B. Kuhn-Sherlock, T.D.W. Luke, P.N. Ho, C.V.C. Phyn, J.E. Pryce

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of milk infrared spectra to predict blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration for use as a management tool for cow metabolic health on pasture-grazed dairy farms and for large-scale phenotyping for genetic evaluation purposes. The study involved 542 cows (Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbreds), from 2 farms located in the Waikato and Taranaki regions of New Zealand that operated under a seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy system. Milk infrared spectra were collected once a week during the first 5 wk of lactation. A blood "prick" sample was taken from the ventral labial vein of each cow 3 times a week for the first 5 wk of lactation. The content of BHB in blood was measured immediately using a handheld device. After outlier elimination, 1,910 spectra records and corresponding BHB measures were used for prediction model development. Partial least square regression and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to develop prediction models for quantitative determination of blood BHB content and for identifying cows with hyperketonemia (HYK). Both quantitative and discriminant predictions were developed using the phenotypes and infrared spectra from two-thirds of the cows (randomly assigned to the calibration set) and tested using the remaining one-third (validation set). A moderate accuracy was obtained for prediction of blood BHB. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the prediction model in calibration was 0.56, with a root mean squared error of prediction of 0.28 mmol/L and a ratio of performance to deviation, calculated as the ratio of the standard deviation of the partial least squares model calibration set to the standard error of prediction, of 1.50. In the validation set, the R2 was 0.50, with root mean squared error of prediction values of 0.32 mmol/L, which resulted in a ratio of performance to deviation of 1.39. When the reference test for HYK was defined as blood concentration of BHB ≥1.2 mmol/L, discriminant models indicated that milk infrared spectra correctly classified 76% of the HYK-positive cows and 82% of the HYK-negative cows. The quantitative models were not able to provide accurate estimates, but they could differentiate between high and low BHB concentrations. Furthermore, the discriminant models allowed the classification of cows with reasonable accuracy. This study indicates that the prediction of blood BHB content or occurrence of HYK from milk spectra is possible with moderate accuracy in pasture-grazed cows and could be used during routine milk testing. Applicability of infrared spectroscopy is not likely suited for obtaining accurate BHB measurements at an individual cow level, but discriminant models might be used in the future as herd-level management tools for classification of cows that are at risk of HYK, whereas quantitative models might provide large-scale phenotypes to be used as an indicator trait for breeding cows with improved metabolic health.



Effect of weaning age on growth, mammary gland development, and immune function in Holstein Friesian calves fed conserved alfalfa (FiberStart)

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): S. McCoard, A. Heiser, K. Lowe, A. Molenaar, P. MacLean, P. Johnstone, S. Leath, S.O. Hoskin, M.A. Khan

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate intake, body growth, and the development of the rumen, mammary gland, and immune system in Holstein Friesian calves reared for 100 d on the commercially available feed FiberStart (conserved alfalfa, Medicago sativa; Fiber Fresh Feeds Ltd., Reporoa, New Zealand) and fed calf milk replacer (CMR) for either 56 or 91 d. Eighty calves (40 bulls and 40 heifer calves) were reared indoors in groups (n = 5 of the same sex/pen). All calves were fed 4 L of CMR/d (175 g/L of CMR) in 2 feeds/d for the first 10 d and then 1 feed/d until d 49 or 84. The calves were gradually weaned by d 56 (earlier weaned; n = 8 pens) and d 91 (later weaned; n = 8 pens). All calves were fed FiberStart ad libitum as the only solid feed source from d 1 to 100 of the study. Irrespective of treatment, all calves had similar body weights at d 0 (40.9 ± 3.0 kg) and d 49 (74.2 ± 5.1 kg) of the study. Calf sex had no effect on intake, growth, blood, and immune system parameters. Earlier-weaned calves consumed 18% more solid feed dry matter but had 16% lower body weight gain (28.9 vs. 38.5 kg, respectively) from d 56 to 100 relative to later-weaned calves, resulting in different body weight at 100 d (104 vs. 121 ± 1.3 kg). Although earlier-weaned calves could compensate for the loss of CMR dry matter and crude protein intake from d 56 to 100 by increasing forage intake, they were unable to compensate for the loss of energy from the CMR by increasing solid feed consumption. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 52% greater in earlier-weaned calves than in later-weaned calves at d 84, indicating greater metabolic activity of the rumen wall. The duration of CMR feeding had no influence on humoral or cell-mediated immune functions of the calves, as evidenced by a lack of effect on antivaccine antibody responses as well as on immune gene expression. Earlier- versus later-weaned heifer calves had 5% lower mammary gland mass, indicating that greater energy supply increased mammary mass. The results of this experiment demonstrate the ability to artificially rear dairy calves on a conserved alfalfa as the only solid feed. Furthermore, earlier weaning off CMR promotes solid feed intake and an associated increase in blood β-hydroxybutyrate, an indicator of rumen development, but increasing the duration of CMR feeding improves growth and mammary gland mass by d 100. The implications of these findings on lifetime growth, health, and milk production in dairy heifers warrant further investigation.



Invited review: A systematic review of the effects of early separation on dairy cow and calf health

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Annabelle Beaver, Rebecca K. Meagher, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk, Daniel M. Weary

ABSTRACT

Concern from the public is growing regarding early cow-calf separation, yet proponents of this practice maintain that artificial rearing is critical for cow and calf health. Early separation is assumed to reduce the risk of transfer of pathogens from dam to neonatal calf, but a wide range of health benefits associated with extended cow-calf contact has also been documented. The aim of this systematic review was to report and synthesize conclusions from the literature on dairy cow and calf health in conventional rearing versus cow-calf contact systems. Peer-reviewed, published manuscripts, written in English, directly comparing dairy cow or calf health in artificial versus suckling systems, were eligible for inclusion. We conducted 7 targeted searches using Web of Science to identify key literature on important health conditions. The resulting manuscripts underwent a 4-step appraisal process, and further manuscripts were sourced from reference lists. This process resulted in a final sample of 70 articles that addressed cow and calf health. Sufficient literature was available to assess mastitis in cows, and scours, cryptosporidiosis, Johne's disease, pneumonia, immunity, and mortality in calves. The results for cryptosporidiosis, pneumonia, immunity, and mortality were mixed, with some differences between studies likely attributable to flawed comparisons between cohorts. Overall, the articles addressing calf scours and mastitis pointed to beneficial or no effects of suckling. The studies addressing Johne's disease did not find cow-calf contact to be a significant risk factor. In conclusion, the scientific peer-reviewed literature on cow and calf health provides no consistent evidence in support of early separation.



Effects of blends of camel and calf chymosin on proteolysis, residual coagulant activity, microstructure, and sensory characteristics of Beyaz peynir

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): P. Gumus, A.A. Hayaloglu

ABSTRACT

Beyaz peynir, white-brined cheese, was manufactured using different blends of camel chymosin (100, 75, 50, 25, and 0%) with calf chymosin and ripened for 90 d. The purpose of this study was to determine the best mixture of coagulant for Beyaz peynir, in terms of the level of proteolysis, texture, and melting characteristic. The cheeses were evaluated in terms of chemical composition, levels of proteolysis, total free amino acids, texture, meltability, residual coagulant activity, microstructure, and sensory properties during 90 d of ripening. Differences in the gross chemical composition of these cheeses were statistically significant for all types of cheeses. We found that the levels of proteolysis were highly dependent on the blends of the coagulants. The higher proteolysis was observed in the cheeses using a higher ratio of calf chymosin. The differences of urea-PAGE and peptide profiles of each cheese were observed as well. Meltability values proportionally increased with the higher increasing levels of calf chymosin in the blend formula. These coagulants had a slight effect on the microstructure of cheeses. The cheese made with camel chymosin produced a harder texture than calf chymosin cheese, and hardness values of all cheese samples decreased during ripening. The cheeses having a high ratio of calf chymosin had higher residual enzyme activity than the cheeses made with camel chymosin. No significant difference in sensory properties was observed among the cheeses. In conclusion, the cheeses made with a high level of calf chymosin provided a higher level of proteolysis, residual coagulant activity, and meltability. The cheeses also presented a softer texture than cheeses made with a high content of camel chymosin. It was also found that camel chymosin may be used as a coagulant alone if low or limited levels of proteolysis are desired in the cheese.



Intravenous calcium infusion in a calving protocol disrupts calcium homeostasis compared with an oral calcium supplement

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Juliette Wilms, Guanlin Wang, John Doelman, Marc Jacobs, Javier Martín-Tereso

ABSTRACT

Hypocalcemia is a common postpartum condition in dairy cows, which negatively affects health and production. Intravenous Ca infusions are commonly included in calving protocols to prevent or mitigate the effect of hypocalcemia in multiparous cows. Thus, we sought to contrast the effect of intravenous Ca infusion against voluntary oral Ca intake on Ca metabolism. Serum total Ca (tCa) and whole-blood ionized Ca (iCa) were monitored in 24 multiparous Holstein cows after parturition. Precalving diets were formulated with a positive dietary cation-anion difference of 172 mEq/kg of DM and contained 4.1 g of Ca/kg of DM. At parturition, cows were blocked by calving sequence and calcemic status as either normocalcemic (cutoff threshold of iCa ≥1.10 mmol/L) or hypocalcemic (cutoff threshold of iCa <1.10 mmol/L). Cows in each block were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: either an oral source of Ca (Ca-Oral; n = 12) or an intravenous source of Ca (Ca-IV; n = 12). Cows in the Ca-Oral group were offered a 20-L commercial Ca suspension (48 g of Ca) for voluntary consumption. The supplement contained Ca carbonate, Ca formate, Ca propionate, and other minerals and vitamins (Farm-O-San Reviva, Trouw Nutrition, Amersfoort, the Netherlands). Cows in the Ca-IV group received a 450-mL intravenous Ca solution (13 g of Ca) that contained 298 mg/mL of Ca gluconate, 33 mg/mL of magnesium chloride, and 82 mg/mL of boric acid (AmosCAL, Kommer-Biopharm BV, Heiloo, the Netherlands). Both treatments were initiated within 25 ± 10 min after calving. The oral Ca suspension was offered to cows in a 25-L bucket and was available for 10 min. All cows in the Ca-Oral group voluntarily consumed the entire 20 L of the Ca suspension within 5 min. Blood samples for Ca analyses were collected at 0 (before treatment initiation), 1, 3, 10, and 18 h relative to treatment, and at 0700 and 1900 h for the next 2 consecutive days, to represent the 24-, 36-, 48-, and 60-h sampling time points. In Ca-IV cows, both iCa and tCa concentrations peaked at 1 h (1.54 mmol/L for iCa and 2.85 mmol/L for tCa) and declined to a nadir at 24 h following treatment initiation (0.94 mmol/L for iCa and 1.74 mmol/L for tCa). Although whole-blood iCa and serum tCa were higher at 1 and 3 h in Ca-IV cows, concentrations of iCa were greater for Ca-Oral cows at 18, 24, and 36 h and for tCa at 24 and 36 h. Our data indicate that intravenous Ca infusion immediately induced a state of hypercalcemia followed by lower whole-blood iCa and serum tCa concentrations 24 h later compared with oral Ca.



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