Τρίτη, 14 Μαΐου 2019

Functional Foods

Insulin resistance accelerated the clearance of resveratrol: A note of caution

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Zhixia Qiu, Qiuyan Liu, Jiaojiao Yu, Yu Dai, Xiaonan Li, Fang Huang, Ning Li

Abstract

Trans-resveratrol (RES), a well-known polyphenol exerts various health-promoting benefits, including glucose homeostasis maintenance. Here, we have investigated the impact of insulin resistance (IR) on RES disposition. Rats were fed with 10%-fructose-water for 8 weeks for developing IR. The systemic exposure to RES significantly decreased (IR vs normal, AUC0-24h, 1.73, 3.79, 9.27 vs 2.50, 6.12, 12.6 μM∙h, 20, 50, 100 mg/kg, p < 0.05). Tissue exposures to RES and conjugates were significantly decreased. The accumulated amount of RES in urine of IR rats was significantly increased (IR vs normal, 44.1 vs 21.5 μmol). The expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT1a1, 1a6) was significantly up-regulated, whereas that of sulfotransferases (SULT1a1, 1a2, 1a3) was down-regulated in specific tissues. Down-regulation of specific transporters (MRP2, BCRP, OATP1b2, OAT1, OAT3) might alter RES pharmacokinetics. The altered pharmacokinetic behavior of RES was largely attributed to its higher urinary excretion in IR rats. Specific strategies are required for compensating these metabolic alterations.

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Anti-pancreatic-cancer effect of a newly bred cabbage line, Amtak-ssamchae, is mediated by a reduction in regulatory-T-cell recruitment

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Sunggun Kim, Soo Jeong Kim, Eun-Sang Jo, Kicheol Gil, Na-Yeon Kim, Ji Sung Park, Dongbok Park, So-Young Park, Kwang Woo Hwang

Abstract

We aimed to investigate possible anticancer effects of Amtak-ssamchae (a newly bred cabbage line containing more carotenoids) in an in vitro pancreatic-tumor cell model and an in vivo model (Panc02 cells). In an in vitroassay, Amtak-ssamchae significantly reduced the viability of Panc02 cells relative to normal ssamchae. Furthermore, an Amtak-ssamchae extract significantly reduced the tumor size in mice inoculated with Panc02 cells, and this effect was accompanied by changes in the cell population in/near the tumor and spleen. Treatment with the extract of the new cabbage line blocked regulatory-T-cell recruitment, which is known as the main pathological mechanism of action of pancreatic cancer to avoid host immunity. Additionally, Amtak-ssamchae (not the normal line) contained β-carotene (at 27.9 ± 2.1 μg/g). Thus, we suggest that the Amtak-ssamchae extract could be a resource for natural supplements and functional foods for combating pancreatic cancer.

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Enterococcus faecalis milk fermentates display antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity towards key enzymes linked to hypertension and hyperglycaemia

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Ken Graham, Rosemary Rea, Paul Simpson, Helena Stack

Abstract

In this study, Enterococcus faecalis milk fermentates were assayed for total phenolic content, related antioxidant activity and the inhibition of key enzymes linked to hypertension and hyperglycaemia. Of the 25 isolates, milk fermented with E. faecalis DPC5154 had the highest level of total phenolic compounds (739.06 µg GAE/ml) and demonstrated the highest level of Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Activity (TEAA) based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (271.27 TEAA (µM) and 272.75 TEAA (µM), respectively). Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and α-glucosidase is considered a useful therapeutic approach in the management of hypertension and hyperglycaemia, respectively. Milk fermented with DPC5154 completely inhibited ACE and displayed the highest level of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (33.41%). These studies provide in vitro evidence for the beneficial use of DPC5154 and other E. faecalis isolates for the generation of bioactive milk products with antioxidant, antihypertensive and anti-hyperglycaemic activity.

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Extruded sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) improves gut microbiota, reduces inflammation, and oxidative stress in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Andressa Rodrigues de Sousa, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Mariana Grancieri, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Fernanda de Oliveira Araújo, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded sorghum flour (ESF) on rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) on gut microbiota modulation, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were fed a normal diet (AIN-93 M, n = 8), HFD (n = 8), or HFD plus ESF replacing 50% cellulose and 100% corn starch (HFDS50, n = 8) or HFD plus ESF replacing 100% cellulose and 100% corn starch (HFDS100, n = 8) for eight weeks. ESF improved the composition of intestinal microbiota by increasing the proportion of the Bacteroidetes phylum instead of the Firmicutes phylum. Furthermore, ESF reduced the concentrations of p65 NF-κB in liver, seric resistin, lipids peroxidation and increase the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, the expression of superoxide dismutase, and the heat shock protein 72. In conclusion, ESF improves the intestinal dysbiosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in obese rats fed a hyperlipid diet.

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Enhanced bioavailability of iron from spray dried whey protein concentrate-iron (WPC-Fe) complex in anaemic and weaning conditions

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Kamal Gandhi, Savita Devi, Priyae Brath Gautam, Rajan Sharma, Bimlesh Mann, Suvartan Ranvir, Khushbu Sao, Vanita Pandey

Abstract

The lower bioavailability of iron from the diet has led to iron deficiency and several ill-effects on health. The objective of this study was to assess the bioavailability of iron from spray dried whey protein concentrate-iron (WPC-Fe) complex in weaning and anaemic rats. Blood hemoglobin level, bioavailability, lipid profile, antioxidant status and concentration of iron delivery molecules were analysed under in vivo conditions. Hemoglobin level, % apparent digestibility coefficient and % retention/intake were increased in weaning and anaemic rats on 7th and 28th days. Additionally, WPC-Fe supplementation reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, maintained serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL-cholesterol. Simultaneously, it decreased the superoxide level and lipid peroxidation and increased the catalase activity. The level of iron delivery/transport molecules including liver and serum ferritin and transferrin concentration was enhanced. Thus, WPC-Fe complex could be a better and innovative organic iron fortificant with enhanced bioavailability of iron.

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Metabolic profiling and investigations on crude extract of Olea europaea L. leaves as a potential therapeutic agent against skin cancer

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Debabrata Majumder, Mousumi Debnath, K.V. Libin Kumar, Priyatosh Nath, Rahul Debnath, Chaitali Sarkar, G.B.K.S. Prasad, Yogesh Kumar Verma, Debasish Maiti

Abstract

Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract (OLE) have shown therapeutic activity against different types of cancer. However, it is less known that olive leaf extract has anti myeloma activity. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of OLE was evaluated against mouse metastatic melanoma B16F10 cell lines. The extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging activity and the presence of bioactive compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry respectively. The aqueous OLE induced apoptosis of B16F10 cells through ERK 1/2 and p53 mediated pathway. The metabolic profiling of OLE showed 23 metabolites notably oleuropein aglycone, apigenin, luteolin, tyrosol, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein present in OLE may be responsible for disrupting the activation of ERK1/2 receptor in melanoma B16F10 cell lines. These findings pave path for further investigations of the structure and function at the molecular level to establish the anticancer activity of oleuropein in melanoma skin cancer.

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Modulation of Akt-p38-MAPK/Nrf2/SIRT1 and NF-κB pathways by wine pomace product in hyperglycemic endothelial cell line

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Gisela Gerardi, Mónica Cavia-Saiz, María D. Rivero-Pérez, María L. González-SanJosé, Pilar Muñiz

Abstract

Wine by-products show great potential as source of bioactive compounds that protect the vascular endothelial function by the modulation of both Nrf2 and Nf-κB pathways. This study investigates the pathways involved in the effects of a red wine pomace product (rWPP) against inflammatory and oxidative damage in hyperglycemic EA.hy926 endothelial cells. rWPP-digested fractions showed an inhibitory effect on IKK/IκBα/NF-κB pathway and a stimulatory effect on Akt-p38-MAPK/Nrf2 pathway with an impact on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory downstream targets. In addition, the pathways regulation was also accompanied by downregulation of the gene expression of superoxide dismutase 2, cyclooxygenase 2 and NADPH oxidase 4. These results suggest the expression of SOD2 as an early adaptive response to the inflammatory effect mediated by NF-κB in hyperglycemic cells, and the treatment with the rWPP-digested fractions regulate this inflammatory process by Nrf2 pathway increased expression of antioxidant enzymes.

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Polyphenols from Morchella angusticepes Peck attenuate D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute hepatic failture in mice

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Qiming Wang, Keke Lu, Fuhua Li, Lin Lei, Jichun Zhao, Surui Wu, Ran Yin, Jian Ming

Abstract

We investigated the effect of polyphenols extracted from M. angusticepes Peck (PMP) on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS) induced acute hepatic failure (AHF) in mice. Results indicated that administration of PMP relieved the leakage of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The level of serum ALT was reduced in groups of P-H (800 mg PMP/kg BW) and P-L (400 mg PMP/kg BW) by 44.6% and 31.8%, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), PPARα, PPARγ gene and protein were up-regulated after injection D-GalN/LPS. In contrast, PMP pretreatment noticeably prevented D-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and steatosis. It suggested that PMP attenuated D-GalN/LPS-induced AHF in mice, which was likely attributed to the co-activation of Nrf2, PPARα, PPARγ and alleviating the oxidative stress reaction, reducing the body inflammatory response and regulating the lipid metabolism.

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Thelenota ananas saponin extracts attenuate the atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice by modulating lipid metabolism

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Qi-An Han, Shiliang Jia, Kaifeng Li, Yinqiang Sui, Hui Hong, Xiuping Dong, Yongkang Luo, Beiwei Zhu

Abstract

As one of the most nutrient-rich marine species, Thelenota ananas has various effects, but its antiatherosclerosis activity has yet to be plumbed in depths. In this work, T. ananas saponin extracts were used to assess the effect on atherosclerosis development in the apoE−/− mice. In detail, the saponin treated groups clearly showed an inhibitory effect on the size of aortic atheromatous plaque, and the levels of serum lipid and inflammatory cytokines compared with the atherosclerosis model mice. Interestingly, the saponin extracts decreased the lipid profiles and oxidation in the visceral fat, and markedly altered the expressions of key proteins related to lipid synthesis and inflammation in the liver. Furthermore, saponin extracts promoted the diversity of the fecal bacterial colonies which has a close correlation with lipid metabolism. The results above revealed that T. ananassaponin extracts may be a beneficial natural resource for the prevention of atherosclerosis by modulating lipid metabolism.

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l-histidine and l-carnosine accelerate wound healing via regulation of corticosterone and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation in d-galactose-induced aging models in vitro and in vivo

Publication date: July 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 58

Author(s): Yerin Kim, Eunju Kim, Yuri Kim

Abstract

Impaired skin wound healing in the elderly can lead to medical issues and increased mortality. Although l-histidine and l-carnosine are potent anti-aging amino acids, the wound healing effects of these amino acids in aging remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the regenerative potential of l-histidine and l-carnosine in in vitro and in vivo aging models. l-histidine (1 mM), l-carnosine (10 mM), or a combination improved proliferation, migration, senescence, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in d-galactose-induced aged keratinocytes. An in vivo mouse aging model was established with injection of d-galactose (s.c. 500 mg/kg) daily for eight weeks. Supplementation with l-histidine (2 g/L), l-carnosine (2 g/L), or a combination improved collagen and wound healing with EMT markers, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and MMP-2. These effects were concomitant with reduced circulating levels of corticosterone and increased PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that l-histidine and l-carnosine have the potential to facilitate wound healing in aging skin.

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