Κυριακή, 28 Ιουλίου 2019

Physiological Sciences

Thyroxin and calcitonin secretion into thyroid venous blood is regulated by pharyngeal mechanical stimulation in anesthetized rats

Abstract

The effects of the pharyngeal non-noxious mechanical stimulation on the secretion of immunoreactive thyroxin (iT4), immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT), and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) into thyroid venous blood were examined in anesthetized rats. Secretion rates of iT4, iCT, and iPTH were calculated from their concentration in thyroid venous plasma and the plasma flow rate. A mechanical stimulation was delivered to the pharynx by a rubber balloon placed on the tongue that was intermittently pushed into the pharyngeal cavity. Pharyngeal stimulation increased iT4 and iCT secretion, but iPTH secretion was unchanged. The secretion responses were abolished by transecting the superior laryngeal nerves (SLNs) bilaterally. The activities of the thyroid parasympathetic efferent nerves and the afferent nerves in the SLN increased significantly during pharyngeal stimulation. These results indicate that pharyngeal mechanical stimulation promotes thyroxin and calcitonin secretion from the thyroid gland by a reflex increase in SLN parasympathetic efferent activity, triggered by excitation of SLN mechanoreceptive afferents.



EAE-induced upregulation of mitochondrial MnSOD is associated with increases of mitochondrial SGK1 and Tom20 protein in the mouse kidney cortex

Abstract

Our previous demonstration that severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) increases MnSOD protein abundance in the mouse kidney cortex led this study to elucidate the underlying mechanism with monensin-treated HEK293 cells as a model. Severe EAE increases mitochondrial protein abundance of SGK1 kinase and Tom20, a critical subunit of mitochondrial translocase in the renal cortex. In HEK293 cells, catalase inhibits monensin-induced increases of mitochondrial SGK1 and Tom20 protein levels. Further, GSK650394, a specific inhibitor of SGK1 reduces monensin-induced increase of mitochondrial protein abundance of Tom20 and MnSOD. Finally, RNAi of Tom20 reduces the effect of monensin on MnSOD. MnSOD and Tom20 physically associate with each other. In conclusion, in HEK293 cells, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species increase protein abundance of mitochondrial SGK1, which leads to a rise of mitochondrial Tom20, resulting in importing MnSOD protein into the mitochondria. This could be a mechanism by which severe EAE up-regulates mitochondrial MnSOD in the kidney cortex.



Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen exposure mobilizing peroxiredoxin 6 to prevent oxygen toxicity

Abstract

Intermittent hyperbaric oxygen exposure (IE-HBO) can protect the body against oxygen toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not very clear. Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a special endogenous antioxidative protein. We explored if the protective effects of IE-HBO are related to Prdx6. Mice were exposed to 280 kPa O2 for 60 min, followed by 30-min exposure to 20% O2/N2 mixture with equal pressure, repeated for six cycles. The Prdx6 protein level and non-selenium glutathione peroxidase (NSGPx) activity in the brain and lungs were then measured and the injury degree of lung and the oxidation level of brain and lung were evaluated. On this basis, the relationship between Prdx6 and IE-HBO's protection was explored. Generally, both IE-HBO and continuous exposure to HBO (CE-HBO) could increase the protein and mRNA levels of Prdx6, and such increases were more significant 24 h after cessation of exposure; moreover, the Prdx6 level of IE-HBO was higher than that of CE-HBO in both brain and lung, also more significantly 24 h after cessation of exposure. In addition, IE-HBO exposure could more effectively potentiate the activity of NSGPx and increase GSH content in brain and lung tissues. At the same time, it could reduce oxidation products in these tissues. IE-HBO could also provide protection for the lungs against injuries resulting from prolonged HBO exposure. These data showed that IE-HBO can potentiate the production and the activity of Prdx6 and consequently mitigate oxidative damages in brain and lungs. The influences of IE-HBO on Prdx6 may form an important basis for its protection against oxygen toxicity.



Mitofusin-2 regulates inflammation-mediated mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress via the Yap-Hippo pathway

Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in inflammation-induced neurotoxicity. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a member of the GTPase family of proteins, resides in the ER membrane and is known to regulate ER stress. However, the potential role and underlying mechanism of Mfn2 in inflammation-induced neuronal dysfunction is unknown. In our study, we explored the potential of Mfn2 to attenuate inflammation-mediated neuronal dysfunction by inhibiting ER stress. Our data show that Mfn2 overexpression significantly ameliorated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced ER stress, as indicated by the downregulation of the ER stress proteins PERK, GRP78 and CHOP. Mfn2 overexpression also prevented the TNFα-mediated activation of caspase-3, caspase-12 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Cellular antioxidant dysfunction and reactive oxygen species overproduction were also improved by Mfn2 in the setting of TNFα in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells in vitro. Similarly, disordered calcium homeostasis, indicated by disturbed levels of calcium-related proteins and calcium overloading, was corrected by Mfn2, as evidenced by the increased expression of store-operated calcium entry (SERCA), decreased levels of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), and normalized calcium content in TNFα-treated N2a cells. Mfn2 overexpression was found to elevate Yes-associated protein (Yap) expression; knockdown of Yap abolished the regulatory effects of Mfn2 on ER stress, oxidative stress, calcium balance, neural death and inflammatory injury. These results lead us to conclude that re-activation of the Mfn2–Yap signaling pathway alleviates TNFα-induced ER stress and dysfunction of mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Our findings provide a better understanding of the regulatory role of Mfn2–Yap–ER stress in neuroinflammation and indicate that the Mfn2–Yap axis may be a focus of research in terms of having therapeutic value for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.



Effects of astaxanthin supplementation and electrical stimulation on muscle atrophy and decreased oxidative capacity in soleus muscle during hindlimb unloading in rats

Abstract

The effects of a combination of the antioxidant astaxanthin (AX) and electrical stimulation (ES) on muscle mass and mitochondrial oxidative capacity were investigated in the soleus muscle of hindlimb unloaded rats. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used; control, 1-week hindlimb unloading (HU), HU + AX, HU + ES, and HU + AX + ES. Respective rats in the AX groups received 50-mg/kg AX twice daily during HU. Calf muscles of rats in the ES groups were electrically stimulated for 240 s/day during HU. One-week HU decreased muscle mass along with decreased FoxO3a phosphorylation and increased ubiquitinated proteins expressions, decreased oxidative enzymatic activity accompanied with decline in PGC-1α protein expression, and increased reactive oxygen species production. However, the combination treatment could synergistically attenuate/suppress all HU-related changes, suggesting protective effects on muscle atrophy and decreased muscle oxidative capacity due to chronic neuromuscular inactivity.



Factors inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption: hormones and luminal factors that prevent excessive calcium uptake

Abstract

Besides the two canonical calciotropic hormones, namely parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3], there are several other endocrine and paracrine factors, such as prolactin, estrogen, and insulin-like growth factor that have been known to directly stimulate intestinal calcium absorption. Generally, to maintain an optimal plasma calcium level, these positive regulators enhance calcium absorption, which is indirectly counterbalanced by a long-loop negative feedback mechanism, i.e., through calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid chief cells. However, several lines of recent evidence have revealed the presence of calcium absorption inhibitors present in the intestinal lumen and extracellular fluid in close vicinity to enterocytes, which could also directly compromise calcium absorption. For example, luminal iron, circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, and stanniocalcin can decrease calcium absorption, thereby preventing excessive calcium uptake under certain conditions. Interestingly, the intestinal epithelial cells themselves could lower their rate of calcium uptake after exposure to high luminal calcium concentration, suggesting a presence of an ultra-short negative feedback loop independent of systemic hormones. The existence of neural regulation is also plausible but this requires more supporting evidence. In the present review, we elaborate on the physiological significance of these negative feedback regulators of calcium absorption, and provide evidence to show how our body can efficiently restrict a flood of calcium influx in order to maintain calcium homeostasis.



Effects of testosterone on circadian rhythmicity in old mice

Abstract

Serum testosterone concentration decreases with age in humans and rodents. Accordingly, old male mice show changes in locomotor activity rhythms: a lengthened free-running period and decreased activity levels among others. To investigate whether testosterone replacement improves the age-related decline in circadian rhythmicity, we examined the effects of testosterone on the circadian rhythms of wheel running activity in old male mice. Intact male C57BL/6J mice (18–22 months old) were subcutaneously implanted with silicone tubes packed with testosterone propionate (TP) or cholesterol. TP treatment significantly decreased the daily wheel running revolutions in a normal light/dark (LD) cycle and in constant darkness (DD), but did not affect the free-running period. The same experiment performed on young male gonadectomized mice (3–5 months old) demonstrated that TP treatment significantly increased activity levels in both LD and DD. These results suggest that testosterone replacement exacerbates the age-related decline in circadian rhythmicity.



Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) suppresses high Ca 2+ -enhanced adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells

Abstract

We have previously reported that increased extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ lead to adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, strategies to suppress high Ca2+-enhanced adipocyte accumulation have not been reported. We examined the effects of the diacylglycerol analog phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on proliferation and adipogenesis of mouse primary BMSCs. We used 9 mM CaCl2 and 100 nM ionomycin to increase extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+, respectively. PMA suppressed the expression of both C/EBPα and PPARγ under normal adipogenesis, adipogenesis + CaCl2, and adipogenesis + ionomycin conditions. PMA enhanced proliferation under normal adipogenesis conditions but suppressed proliferation under adipogenesis + CaCl2 and adipogenesis + ionomycin conditions. PMA did not affect the accumulation of adipocytes under normal adipogenesis conditions but suppressed adipocyte accumulation under adipogenesis + CaCl2 and adipogenesis + ionomycin conditions. These results suggest that the PMA-dependent pathway is an important signaling pathway to suppress high Ca2+-enhanced adipocyte accumulation.



Anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal nNOS in response to diet-induced obesity combined with exercise

Abstract

A high-fat diet (HFD) and overweight status can induce hippocampal dysfunction, leading to depression and anxiety. Exercise has beneficial effects on emotional behaviors. We previously reported that exercise training rescues HFD-induced excess hippocampal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, which is a key regulator of anxiety. Here, we investigated anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal nNOS expression in response to HFD combined with exercise. Mice were assigned to standard diet, HFD, or HFD with exercise groups for 12 weeks. We found that exercise during the final 6 weeks of the HFD regime improved 12 weeks of HFD-induced defecation, accompanied by rescue of excess nNOS expression. However, anxiety indicators in the elevated plus maze were unchanged. These effects were not apparent after only 1 week of exercise. In conclusion, 6 weeks of exercise training reduced HFD-related anxiety according to one of our measures (defecation), and reversed changes in the hippocampal nNOS/NO pathway.



Peripheral nerve injury in rats induces alternations in choice behavior associated with food reinforcement

Abstract

Operant methods that allow animals to avoid painful stimuli are interpreted to assess the aversive quality of pain; however, such measurements require investigator-initiated stimuli to animals. Here we developed a shuttle maze test to repeatedly assess activity associated nociception without forced stimulation. Rats ambulate back and forth between two treat feeders by taking either a short route with a prickly surfaced arch or a longer route with a smooth floor. L5–L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) reduced the preference for the short route with the arch, correlated with hypersensitivity in the hind paw. Oral gabapentin restored the short route preference and reduced hypersensitivity in SNL rats, and blockade of spinal α2-adrenoceptors reduced gabapentin's effects on hypersensitivity but not on preference index. These results suggest that SNL injury alters behavior in the shuttle maze test and that the shuttle maze test shows comparable results to reflexive hypersensitivity after SNL in magnitude and response to gabapentin.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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