Κυριακή, 28 Ιουλίου 2019


Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma at the porta-hepatis following liver transplantation diagnosed on EUS-FNA


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a potentially fatal complication of chronic liver disease. Liver transplantation is now the preferred treatment due to good outcomes. We present a unique case of recurrence of HCC at the porta hepatis four years after orthotopic liver transplantation diagnosed via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Our report also highlights that intrahepatic recurrence of HCC can be surgically treated. However, further studies are needed to develop treatment algorithms for intra-hepatic recurrence of HCC post liver transplantation.

Obstructive pancreatitis secondary to a pancreatic metastasis from lung cancer treated with nasopancreatic drainage


A 44- and a 66-year-old woman underwent nasopancreatic drainage (NPD) to treat obstructive pancreatitis secondary to a pancreatic metastasis from lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed with stage IV lung cancer and underwent chemotherapy for 17 and 15 months, respectively. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a solid pancreatic tail tumor measuring 2.5 cm and 1.3 cm in diameter, respectively. Additionally, we observed dilatation of the upstream main pancreatic duct (MPD) and edematous parenchyma with peripancreatic inflammatory changes limited to the pancreatic tail. Both patients were diagnosed with moderately severe acute pancreatitis and received fluid resuscitation, an opioid analgesic, antibiotics, and a protease inhibitor. However, owing to unrelenting pain, we performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for pancreatic duct drainage in both patients. ERCP showed a stricture in the MPD in the pancreatic tail with upstream dilatation. A 5-Fr NPD tube was inserted to drain the dilated MPD, and cloudy pancreatic juice was drained. NPD tube placement led to pain relief in both patients. Pancreatic juice cultures grew Enterococcus faecium and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively. The NPD tube was later cut in both cases using a pair of scissor forceps.

Hepatic portal venous gas associated with Klebsiella oxytoca infection in the absence of preceding antibiotic treatment


Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a causative organism for hemorrhagic antibiotic-associated colitis. K. oxytoca infection is a typical example of microbial substitution diseases caused by exposure to antibiotics prior to the onset of diarrhea. Here, we repot a case with ileitis associated with K. oxytoca infection in the absence of preceding antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, abdominal computed tomography revealed wall thickening of the ileum and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG). K. oxytoca was isolated from the stool. This very elderly patient had been treated with azathioprine for long-standing history of ulcerative colitis. Immuno-compromised state of this patient was considered to allow overgrowth of K. oxytoca in the small bowel to cause not only ileitis but also HPVG.

Acute pancreatitis associated with massive bleeding due to a duodenal ulcer


A 74-year-old man presented to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain in addition to anemia and melena, which were suspected to be due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a blood-filled duodenum and acute pancreatitis. We prioritized treatments for pancreatitis, as the vital signs were stable, and temporary hemostasis was achieved. Two days later, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a duodenal ulcer with an exposed vessel, and endoscopic hemostasis was performed. We urge clinicians to consider the possibility of pancreatitis associated with massive bleeding due to a duodenal ulcer.

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis complicated with severe stricture requiring surgical resection


Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an uncommon benign disorder leading to esophageal strictures. The etiology remains unknown; however, anti-fungal treatments or endoscopic balloon dilation can improve early esophageal strictures and these rarely require surgical treatment. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with a 6 cm-long esophageal stricture due to EIPD, which did not improve following treatment with an anti-fungal agent, eventually causing aspiration pneumonia. Therefore, we performed a thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy, and his symptoms were improved after surgery. This case suggests that a surgical treatment should be considered in patients with extensive, severe strictures attributable to EIPD.

Early gastric cancer with ball valve syndrome treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection


An 84-year-old woman with pneumonia, congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure presented for iron-deficiency anemia and appetite loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 60-mm sub-pedunculated tumor arising from the antrum of the stomach. The tumor was friable, with bleeding, and prolapsed into the duodenal bulb, the ball valve syndrome. The tumor was considered the cause of the anemia and appetite loss. Attempted endoscopic reduction of the prolapsing tumor was unsuccessful, but the base of its stalk could be identified through the transparent hood; thus, we removed the tumor with endoscopic submucosal dissection. The tumor was retrieved successfully, and pathohistological examination revealed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. This case suggests that endoscopic submucosal dissection is useful as an alternative to surgery for removal of gastric tumors that have prolapsed into the duodenal bulb when polypectomy was difficult, but provided the tumor's attachment site can be identified endoscopically.

Curative endoscopic treatment of intussusception due to a giant colonic lipoma using a wedged balloon and ligation with detachable snares


A 67-year-old woman presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction. Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings suggested colo-colonic intussusception caused by a colonic lipoma. Colonoscopy with an endoscope tip balloon was performed for reduction. The intussusception was partially reduced by injecting dilute contrast media with a wedged inflated balloon at the endoscope tip. For definitive treatment of the polyp, ischemia was induced using a detachable snare. The abdominal pain well improved after endoscopic treatment. However, ultrasonography suggested a residual lesion. Another detachable snare was applied to the stalk on day 6. A large amount of dark-red necrotic tissue was passed per anus the following day. One month later, complete scarring of the site was confirmed colonoscopically. This is the first report of curative endoscopic treatment of an intussusception due to a giant colonic lipoma with detachable snares after the reduction with a wedged balloon of colonoscope tip.

A case of esophagogastroduodenoscopy induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with complete heart block


Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) describes a reversible left ventricular dysfunction characterized by apical ballooning and basal hyperkinesis, commonly triggered by emotional or physical distress. TC associated with an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) has rarely been reported. We report a case of TC with complete heart block (CHB) in a patient receiving an EGD, who had no underlying cardiac disease, had previously tolerated both local and general anesthesia, and who had previously undergone similar endoscopic procedures without complications. The concurrence of both TC and CHB is unique in this case pertaining to a patient with no significant risk factors. The incidence, mechanism and prognosis of TC-associated arrhythmias are also reviewed.

Asymptomatic giant cell hepatitis: a subtype of post-infantile giant cell hepatitis?


Giant cell hepatitis in adults is considered a rapidly progressive and life-threatening disease, but there are few descriptions of a prolonged disease course. A 36-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of abnormal liver function test results. Although asymptomatic, he had undergone follow-up for 9 years with these abnormalities. Because the cause of liver injury was not identified despite extensive noninvasive examinations, the patient underwent needle biopsy. He was finally diagnosed with post-infantile giant cell hepatitis (PIGCH) based on the presence of small numbers of giant multinucleated hepatocytes scattered primarily around the portal area. Necroinflammatory changes were very mild in the portal tracts and hepatic parenchyma. According to the histological findings as well as the accepted international diagnostic scoring system for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), which is closely related to PIGCH, AIH was unlikely, although antinuclear antibody was positive at a titer of 1:160. The present case may describe an unknown subtype of PIGCH, characterized by insidious disease onset and progression with concurrent, mildly active underlying hepatitis, which is in contrast with the well-documented aggressive nature of PIGCH.

Hepatic angiomyolipoma with early drainage veins into the hepatic and portal vein


Hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare stromal tumor composed of variable admixtures of thick-walled vessels, smooth muscles and adipose tissue. One of the specific radiological findings of hepatic AML is an early drainage vein noted via enhanced computed tomography (CT). We report a case of hepatic AML showing early drainage veins into both the hepatic and portal vein. The case involved a 46-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital because of a giant hepatic tumor. CT revealed well-enhanced 14 cm and 1 cm tumors in the left and right lobes, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the existence of adipose tissues in the larger tumor. Hepatic arteriography revealed early drainage veins draining into both the hepatic and portal vein. Based on a diagnosis of hepatic AML, left hepatectomy and partial hepatectomy were performed. Pathology revealed both tumors as hepatic AML based on human melanoma black-45 immuno-positivity. Hepatic AML with early drainage veins into both the hepatic and portal vein is rare. The dilated and retrogressive vein drains the abundant arterial blood flow of the tumor. The finding of early drainage veins into not only the hepatic vein but also the portal vein should be helpful for diagnosing hepatic AMLs.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos

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