Κυριακή, 28 Ιουλίου 2019

Cardiology

Electrical Storm: Current Evidence, Clinical Implications, and Future Perspectives

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Electrical storm (ES) is a life-threatening medical emergency of repetitive episodes of sustained ventricular arrhythmias within a short period. Its occurrence is associated with poor short- and long-term survival, even in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Management of ES is challenging and mainly based on retrospective studies. This article reviews the existing literature on ES, presents the available data regarding its management, and proposes a new algorithm based on current evidence.

Recent Findings

Recent research could modify the management of ES supporting the role of non-selective β1 and β2 blockade and the early intervention with catheter ablation as well as strengthening the role of cardiac sympathetic denervation.

Summary

A multipronged approach should be considered for the management of ES including identification and correction of reversible causes, ICD reprogramming, drug therapy (beta-blockers—especially non-selective ones—and other anti-arrhythmic drugs) and non-pharmacologic therapies such as catheter ablation and techniques of neuroaxial modulation. Although current data suggest early aggressive management, further research is required to clarify the optimal order and combination of therapies for the prevention of future events.



Do Thiazide Diuretics Increase the Risk of Skin Cancer? A Critical Review of the Scientific Evidence and Updated Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We reviewed the hypothesised mechanisms of skin cancerogenesis for thiazide diuretics; conducted an updated meta-analysis of studies focusing on their association with skin cancer risk; critically appraised the quality of available studies and identified knowledge gaps; and discussed implications for health professionals and patients.

Recent Findings

Thiazide diuretics possess well-described photosensitizing properties and a causal association with skin cancer is biologically plausible. The epidemiological evidence is stronger for squamous cell cancer; however, diversity in design among studies, methodological concerns potentially affecting the validity of results, and scarcity of data on dose-relation relationship suggest caution in drawing conclusions. Only few, unbalanced, and/or heterogeneous data exist to date for melanoma and basal cell cancer.

Summary

Patients effectively treated with thiazide diuretics are currently not advised to stop treatment, but encouraged to limit exposure to sunlight and regularly check their skin. While endorsing these recommendations, we believe that well-designed studies are urgently needed to overcome persistent knowledge gaps.



Current Role of the CardioMEMS Device for Management of Patients with Heart Failure

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Heart failure (HF) remains a significant burden to our healthcare system and a leading cause of hospitalizations. Current reactive strategies to treat and manage HF have failed to reduce hospitalizations and improve survival. The CardioMEMS device has recently been demonstrated to improve quality of life in HF and reduce HF-related hospitalizations. Current HF management strategies are reviewed with a particular emphasis on the current role of the CardioMEMS device.

Recent Findings

The CHAMPION trial is the only randomized trial looking at the CardioMEMS device. Patients managed with targeted pulmonary artery pressures resulted in 28% reduction in the primary end-point of HF-related hospitalization at 6 months (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60–0.85, p = 0.0002) and 37% reduction during the entire follow-up period, which averaged 15 months (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.52–0.77, p < 0.0001). The prospective open-label post-approval study recently presented a 58% reduction in HF hospitalizations per patient year (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.38–0.47, p < 0.0001).

Summary

Management of HF using the CardioMEMS device has been shown to reduce HF hospitalizations and improve quality of life regardless of ejection fraction. Patients best suited for this device are those with recurrent congestive symptoms despite optimal medical therapy.



Strategies for Appropriate Selection of SGLT2-i vs. GLP1-RA in Persons with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review will serve to highlight the clinical rationale used in the selection of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-ra).

Recent Findings

SGLT2-i and GLP1-ra are the first anti-hyperglycemics to demonstrate significant cardiovascular benefit in multiple cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs), with benefits that are consistent across class of medication.

Summary

Diabetes is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-ra) are the first anti-hyperglycemics to demonstrate significant cardiovascular benefit. Given the unique side effect and benefit profiles, appropriate consideration of these agents with a focus on cardiovascular risk reduction requires an individualized approach.



The Challenges of Redo Aortic Coarctation Repair in Adults

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Aortic coarctation is a common congenital abnormality causing significant morbidity and mortality if not corrected. Re-coarctation or restenosis of the aorta following treatment is a relatively common long-term problem and the optimal therapy has not been elucidated. In this review, we identify the challenges associated with and the optimal management for recurrent aortic coarctation and the most appropriate therapy for different patient cohorts.

Recent Findings

Open surgery provides a durable long-term aortic repair, however, given the complex nature of the procedure, has a somewhat higher rate of serious complications. Endovascular repair, although less invasive and relatively safe, has limitations in treated complex anatomy and is more likely to require repeat intervention.

Summary

Open surgical repair is more appropriate for infants that have not been intervened on and endovascular therapy should be reserved for older children and adults and those that require repeat intervention.



Imaging Strategies for Evaluating Low-Flow, Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis with Reduced and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most common valvular heart diseases, and aortic valve replacement (AVR) provides both symptomatic and survival benefit in symptomatic severe AS patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss low-flow low-gradient AS which is still a challenging diagnostic entity.

Recent Findings

Thirty–forty percent of patients with AS have low flow which makes it difficult to differentiate truly severe AS that benefits from AVR compared to pseudo-severe AS which is currently managed conservatively. Patients with low-flow low-gradient AS (LF-LG AS) include those with reduced left ventricular systolic function (classical LF-LG AS) and those with preserved left ventricular systolic function (paradoxical LF-LG AS). Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) helps to identify truly severe stenosis in patients with classical LF-LG AS. Aortic valve calcium scoring with multidetector computed tomography plays a major role in patients with paradoxical LF-LG AS and also among classical LF-LG AS patients who have reduced contractile reserve on DSE.

Summary

This article will provide an overview of imaging strategies for evaluating LF-LG AS with reduced and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.



Stroke Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: Beyond the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc Score

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Stroke prevention is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) management and the anticoagulation decision is currently based on CHA2DS2-VASc risk score. We discuss several novel risk factors besides those included in CHA2DS2-VASc score and alternative models for stroke prediction.

Recent Findings

Several clinical markers including obstructive sleep apnea and renal failure, laboratory markers like brain natriuretic peptide, imaging criteria including left atrial appendage morphology, spontaneous echo contrast, and coronary artery calcium score may predict stroke in AF patients. Addition of African American ethnicity to CHA2DS2-VASc score also improves stroke prediction in AF. Finally, novel models including TIMI-AF score, ATRIA score, and GARFIELD-AF scores have potential roles in risk stratification for stroke.

Summary

While CHA2DS2-VASc score is the currently recommended risk stratification model for stroke prediction in AF, use of additional clinical, laboratory, imaging markers, ethnicity, and novel stroke prediction models may further assist in decision to anticoagulate the AF patient for stroke prevention.



Effectiveness of Changes in Diet Composition on Reducing the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To highlight dietary changes shown to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events in epidemiological studies and that have been proven to be effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials

Recent Findings

Since dietary changes always involve multiple variables, recent observational and intervention studies on dietary prevention of cardiovascular disease focus not only to the limitation of a single nutrient/food intake but also to the other dietary changes implemented to replace it.

Summary

The available evidence supports three major dietary strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention: (1) the replacement of saturated fat with unsaturated fat and/or fiber-rich carbohydrate foods; (2) the reduction of salt intake; (3) the implementation of dietary patterns resembling the traditional Mediterranean diet. This support derives not only from RCTs but also from the combination of large observational cohort studies and relatively short-term randomized trials on cardiovascular risk factors.



Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting: Technical Developments and Initial Clinical Validation

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled non-invasive myocardial tissue characterization in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases by quantifying several tissue specific parameters such as T1, T2, and T2* relaxation times. Simultaneous assessment of these parameters has recently gained interest to potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and enable further understanding of the underlying disease. However, these quantitative maps are usually acquired sequentially and are not necessarily co-registered, making multi-parametric analysis challenging. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) has been recently introduced to unify and streamline parametric mapping into a single simultaneous, multi-parametric, fully co-registered, and efficient scan. Feasibility of cardiac MRF has been demonstrated and initial clinical validation studies are ongoing. Provide an overview of the cardiac MRF framework, recent technical developments and initial undergoing clinical validation.

Recent Findings

Cardiac MRF has enabled the acquisition of co-registered T1 and T2 maps in a single, efficient scan. Initial results demonstrate feasibility of cardiac MRF in healthy subjects and small patient cohorts. Current in vivo results show a small bias and comparable precision in T1 and T2 with respect to conventional clinical parametric mapping approaches. This bias may be explained by several confounding factors such as magnetization transfer and field inhomogeneities, which are currently not included in the cardiac MRF model. Initial clinical validation for cardiac MRF has demonstrated good reproducibility in healthy subjects and heart transplant patients, reduced artifacts in inflammatory cardiomyopathy patients and good differentiation between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy controls.

Summary

Cardiac MRF has emerged as a novel technique for simultaneous, multi-parametric, and co-registered mapping of different tissue parameters. Initial efforts have focused on enabling T1, T2, and fat quantification; however this approach has the potential of enabling quantification of several other parameters (such as T2*, diffusion, perfusion, and flow) from a single scan. Initial results in healthy subjects and patients are promising, thus further clinical validation is now warranted.



Contributions of Interactions Between Lifestyle and Genetics on Coronary Artery Disease Risk

Abstract

Purpose of the Review

To summarize current knowledge on interactions between genetic variants and lifestyle factors (G×L) associated with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and prioritize future research.

Recent Findings

Genetic risk and combined lifestyle factors and behaviors have a log-additive effect on the risk of developing CAD.

Summary

First, we describe genetic and lifestyle factors associated with CAD and then focus on G×L interactions. The majority of G×L interaction studies are small-scale candidate gene studies that lack replication and therefore provide spurious results. Only a few studies, of which most use genetic risk scores or genome-wide approaches to test interactions, are robust in number and analysis strategy. These studies provide evidence for the existence of G×L interactions in the development of CAD. Further G×L interactions studies are important as they contribute to our understanding of disease pathophysiology and possibly provide insights for improving interventions or personalized recommendations.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις