Κυριακή, 28 Ιουλίου 2019

Angiogenesis

A new prognostic model for survival in second line for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: development and external validation

Abstract

Background

In patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), the oncologic benefit of second-line treatment for high volume tumors or presence of more than five risk factors remain to be defined. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a new model most likely to correctly predict overall survival (OS) categories in second line.

Method

mRCC patients treated within clinical trials at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus (GRCC) formed the discovery set. Patients from two phase III trials from Pfizer database (PFIZERDB), AXIS (NCT00678392), and INTORSECT (NCT00474786), formed the external validation set. New prognostic factors were analyzed using a multivariable Cox model with a backward selection procedure. Performance of the GRCC model and the prognostic classification scheme derived from it, measuring by R2, c-index, and calibration, was evaluated on the validation set and compared to MSKCC and IMDC models.

Results

Two hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the GRCC cohort and 855 patients in the PFIZERDB. Median OS was similar in the discovery and validation cohorts (16.8 [95% CI 12.9–21.7] and 15.3 [13.6–17.2] months, respectively). Backward selection procedure identified time from first to second-line treatment and tumor burden as new independent prognostic factors significantly associated to OS after adjusting for IMDC prognostic factors (HR 1.68 [1.23–2.31] and 1.43 [1.03–1.99], respectively). Dividing patients into four risk groups, based on the number of factors selected in GRCC model, median OS from the start of second line in the validation cohort was not reached (NE) [95% CI 24.9–NE] in the favorable risk group (n = 20), 21.8 months [18.6–28.2] in the intermediate-risk group (n = 367), 12.7 months [11.0–15.8] in the low poor-risk group (n = 347), and 5.5 months [4.7–6.4] in the high poor-risk group (n = 121). Finally, this model and its prognostic classification scheme provided the better fit, with higher R2 and higher c-index compared to other possible classification schemes.

Conclusion

A new prognostic model was developed and validated to estimate overall survival of patients with previously treated mRCC. This model is an easy-to-use tool that allows accurate estimation of patient survival to inform decision making and follow-up after first line for mRCC.



Cancer stem cells contribute to angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary

Abstract

The origin of blood and lymphatic vessels in high-grade serous adenocarcinoma of ovary (HGSOC) is uncertain. We evaluated the potential of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in HGSOC to contribute to their formation. Using spheroids as an in vitro model for CSCs, we have evaluated their role in primary malignant cells (PMCs) in ascites from previously untreated patients with HGSOC and cell lines. Spheroids from PMCs grown under specific conditions showed significantly higher expression of endothelial, pericyte and lymphatic endothelial markers. These endothelial and lymphatic cells formed tube-like structures, showed uptake of Dil-ac-LDL and expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase confirming their endothelial phenotype. Electron microscopy demonstrated classical Weibel–Palade bodies in differentiated cells. Genetically, CSCs and the differentiated cells had a similar identity. Lineage tracking using green fluorescent protein transfected cancer cells in nude mice confirmed that spheroids grown in stem cell conditions can give rise to all three cells. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets vascular endothelial growth factor inhibited the differentiation of spheroids to endothelial cells in vitro. These results suggest that CSCs contribute to angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary, which can be inhibited.



Anti-secretogranin III therapy of oxygen-induced retinopathy with optimal safety

Abstract

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with pathological retinal neovascularization is the most common cause of blindness in children. ROP is currently treated with laser therapy or cryotherapy, both of which may adversely affect the peripheral vision with limited efficacy. Owing to the susceptibility of the developing retina and vasculatures to pharmacological intervention, there is currently no approved drug therapy for ROP in preterm infants. Secretogranin III (Scg3) was recently discovered as a highly disease-restricted angiogenic factor, and a Scg3-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) was reported with high efficacy to alleviate oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in mice, a surrogate model of ROP. Herein we independently investigated the efficacy of anti-Scg3 mAb in OIR mice and characterized its safety in neonatal mice. We developed a new Scg3-neutralizing mAb recognizing a distinct epitope and independently established the therapeutic activity of anti-Scg3 therapy to alleviate OIR-induced pathological retinal neovascularization in mice. Importantly, anti-Scg3 mAb showed no detectable adverse effects on electroretinography and developing retinal vasculature. Furthermore, systemic anti-Scg3 mAb induced no renal tubular injury or abnormality in kidney vessel development and body weight gain of neonatal mice. In contrast, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drug aflibercept showed significant side effects in neonatal mice. These results suggest that anti-Scg3 mAb may have the safety and efficacy profiles required for ROP therapy.



The plaque-aortic ring assay: a new method to study human atherosclerosis-induced angiogenesis

Abstract

Progression of atherosclerotic plaques into life-threatening lesions is associated with angiogenesis which contributes to intraplaque hemorrhages and plaque instability. The lack of adequate models for the study of human plaque-induced angiogenesis has limited progress in this field. We describe here a novel ex vivo model which fills this gap. Plaques obtained from 15 patients who underwent endarterectomy procedures were co-cultured in collagen gels with rat aorta rings which served as read-out of human plaque angiogenic activity. The majority of plaque fragments markedly stimulated angiogenic sprouting from the aortic rings while concurrently promoting the outgrowth of resident macrophages from the aortic adventitia. This stimulatory activity correlated with the presence of intraplaque macrophages. Proteomic analysis of plaque secretomes revealed heterogeneity of macrophage-stimulatory cytokine and angiogenic factor production by different plaques. VEGF was identified in some of the plaque secretomes. Antibody-mediated blockade of VEGF had significant but transient inhibitory effect on angiogenesis, which suggested redundancy of plaque-derived angiogenic stimuli. Pharmacologic ablation of adventitial macrophages permanently impaired the angiogenic response of aortic rings to plaque stimuli. Our results show that human plaque-induced angiogenesis can be reproduced ex vivo using rat aortic rings as read-out of plaque angiogenic activity. This model can be used to identify key cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the neovascularization of human plaques.



Cancer-derived exosomal miR-221-3p promotes angiogenesis by targeting THBS2 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

Abstract

Aims

Recently, cancer-derived exosomes were shown to have pro-metastasis function in cancer, but the mechanism remains unclear. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor progression and is a great promising therapeutic target for advanced cervical cancer. Here, we investigated the role of cervical cancer cell-secreted exosomal miR-221-3p in tumor angiogenesis.

Methods and results

miR-221-3p was found to be closely correlated with microvascular density in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) by evaluating the microvascular density with immunohistochemistry and miR-221-3p expression with in situ hybridization in clinical specimens. Using the groups of CSCC cell lines (SiHa and C33A) with miR-221-3p overexpression and silencing, the CSCC exosomes were characterized by electron microscopy, western blotting, and fluorescence microscopy. The enrichment of miR-221-3p in CSCC exosomes and its transfer into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were confirmed by qRT-PCR. CSCC exosomal miR-221-3p promoted angiogenesis in vitro in Matrigel tube formation assay, spheroid sprouting assay, migration assay, and wound healing assay. Then, exosome intratumoral injection indicated that CSCC exosomal miR-221-3p promoted tumor growth in vivo. Thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) was bioinformatically predicted to be a direct target of miR-221-3p, and this was verified by using the in vitro and in vivo experiments described above. Additionally, overexpression of THBS2 in HUVECs rescued the angiogenic function of miR-221-3p.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that CSCC exosomes transport miR-221-3p from cancer cells to vessel endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis by downregulating THBS2. Therefore, CSCC-derived exosomal miR-221-3p could be a possible novel diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CSCC progression.



Prognostic effect of VEGF gene variants in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer patients

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical and pathological characteristics are still considered prognostic markers in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients but they cannot explain all interindividual variability. Tumoral angiogenesis mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical for the progression and metastasis of the disease. We aimed to investigate the prognostic role of genetic variants within the VEGF pathway in patients with metastatic NSCLC.

Materials and methods

We prospectively included 170 patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. A comprehensive panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes belonging to the VEGF pathway (VEGFA, VEGFR1/FLT1, VEGFR2/KDR, GRB2, ITGAV, KISS1, KRAS, PRKCE, HIF1α, MAP2K4, MAP2K6, and MAPK11) were genotyped in blood DNA samples. SNPs were evaluated for association with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results

In multivariate analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, we found that VEGFA rs2010963 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 were significantly associated with OS [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.7 (0.5–0.9); p = 0.026 and HR 1.5 (1.1–2.3); p = 0.025, respectively]. Additionally, ITGAV rs35251833 and MAPK11 rs2076139 were significantly associated with PFS [HR 2.5 (1.4–4.3; p = 0.002 and HR 0.6 (0.5–0.9); p = 0.013, respectively].

Conclusion

Our findings reinforce the potential clinical value of germline variants in VEGFA and VEGFR2 and show for the first time variants in ITGAV and MAPK11 as promising prognostic markers in metastatic NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.



Monitoring tumour microenvironment changes during anti-angiogenesis therapy using functional MRI

Abstract

Objective

This study aims to explore the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) in assessing vessel function and tumour aggressiveness during anti-angiogenesis treatment.

Materials and methods

A colon cancer xenograft model was established in BALB/C nude mice with the HCT116 cell line. Sixteen mice were randomly divided into Group A and Group B, which were treated with saline or bevacizumab by intraperitoneal injection on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th and 13th days and underwent DCE-MRI and BOLD-MRI examinations before and on the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days after treatment. Group C was treated with oxaliplatin monotherapy, and Group D was treated with bevacizumab and oxaliplatin as a point of comparison for therapeutic effects. The pathological examinations included HE, HIF-1α, fibronectin and TUNEL staining, as well as α-SMA and CD31 double staining. One-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis were the main methods used for statistical analysis.

Results

Group D manifested the highest tumour inhibition rate and smallest tumour volume on day 15, followed by Group C, Group B and Group A. Ktrans (F = 81.386, P < 0.001), Kep (F = 45.901, P < 0.001), Ve (F = 384.290, P < 0.001) and R2* values (F = 89.323, P < 0.001) showed meaningful trends with time in Group B but not Group A. The Ktrans values and tumour vessel maturity index (VMI) were higher than baseline values 3–12 days after bevacizumab treatment. The CD31 positive staining rate and VMI had the strongest correlations with Ktrans values, followed by AUC180Ve and Kep values. The R2* value positively correlated with the positive staining rates of HIF-1α and fibronectin.

Conclusion

Intermittent application of low-dose anti-angiogenic inhibitor treatment may help improve the effect of chemotherapy by reducing hypoxia-related treatment resistance and improving drug delivery. DCE-MRI is useful for evaluating vessel maturity and vascular normalization, while BOLD-MRI may help to predict tumour hypoxia and metastatic potential after anti-vascular treatment.



Exhaustion of the bone marrow progenitor cell reserve is associated with major events in severe limb ischemia

Abstract

Lower numbers of progenitor cells (PCs) in peripheral blood (PB) have been associated with cardiovascular events in high-risk populations. Therapies aiming to increase the numbers of PCs in circulation have been developed, but clinical trials did not result in better outcomes. It is currently unknown what causes the reduction in PB PC numbers: whether it is primary depletion of the progenitor cell reserve, or a reduced mobilization of PCs from the bone marrow (BM). In this study, we examine if PB and BM PC numbers predict Amputation-Free Survival (AFS) in patients with Severe Limb Ischemia (SLI). We obtained PB and BM from 160 patients enrolled in a clinical trial investigating BM cell therapy for SLI. Samples were incubated with antibodies against CD34, KDR, CD133, CD184, CD14, CD105, CD140b, and CD31; PC populations were enumerated by flow cytometry. Higher PB CD34+ and CD133+ PC numbers were related to AFS (Both Hazard Ratio [HRevent] = 0.56, p = 0.003 and p = 0.0007, respectively). AFS was not associated with the other cell populations in PB. BM PC numbers correlated with PB PC numbers and showed similar HRs for AFS. A further subdivision based on relative BM and PB PC numbers showed that BM PC numbers, rather than mobilization, associated with AFS. Both PB and BM PC numbers are associated with AFS independently from traditional risk factor and show very similar risk profiles. Our data suggest that depletion of the progenitor cell reserve, rather than decreased PC mobilization, underlies the association between PB PC numbers and cardiovascular risk.



Adgrf5 contributes to patterning of the endothelial deep layer in retina

Abstract

Neovascularization of the inner retinal space is a major cause of vision loss. In retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) syndrome, newly formed vessels originate from the retinal plexus and invade the inner retinal space. However, the molecular pathways preventing subretinal vascularization remain largely unknown. In most murine models of RAP, pathological neovascularization occurs concomitantly with the development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we demonstrate that disturbing the sequence of morphogenetic events that shape the three-layered retinal vascular network leads to subretinal vascularization. Sprouts emerging from the perivenous region after the first postnatal week extended toward the retinal space where they merged into the deep layer. The small GTPase Rac1 was required for the formation of these vascular extensions and the vascular inner plexus is formed coaxially to the overarching veins. The adhesion receptor Adgrf5 was highly expressed in the endothelium of the central nervous system, where it regulates blood–brain barrier formation. The vascular superficial plexus of Adgrf5 mutant mouse retinae exhibited an increased vascular density in the perivenous areas with increased projections toward the inner plexus where they subsequently created hyper-dense endothelial cells (EC) clusters. Disturbing the perivenous pool of EC thus significantly altered the inner plexus formation. These abnormalities culminated in transient vascular protrusions in the inner retinal space. Taken together, these results reveal a previously unobserved vascular morphogenetic defect in Adgrf5 knockout mice, implicating a role for ADGRF5 in the initiation of subretinal vascularization. Our findings also illustrate how vein-derived EC shape the inner retinal layer formation and could control the appearance of angiomatous malformations.



PinX1 represses renal cancer angiogenesis via the mir-125a-3p/VEGF signaling pathway

Abstract

Background

PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a tumor suppressor in various tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PinX1's role in cancer development and progression remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to uncover the new molecular mechanism and role of PinX1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression.

Methods

We used miRNA microarray to detect the different expressed miRNAs upon PinX1 knockdown. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Luciferase reporter assays were taken to identify the molecular mechanism of PinX1 in regulating mir-125-3p. In situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression of mir-125a-3p in RCC using tissue microarray. The correlations between the mir-125a-3p expression level and clinicopathological features were evaluated using the χ2 test. The role and molecular mechanism of PinX1 in RCC angiogenesis were investigated through a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Results

In this study, we discovered a new molecular mechanism of PinX1, in which PinX1 transcriptionally activated mir-125a-3p expression, thereby inhibiting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is the target gene of mir-125a-3p. PinX1 also repressed tumor angiogenesis by increasing the mir-125a-3p expression in renal cancer. Moreover, the loss of mir-125a-3p expression was manifested in patients with RCC, and low miR-125a-3p levels correlated with poor survival of these patients.

Conclusions

PinX1 represses renal cancer angiogenesis through mir-125a-3p/VEGF signal pathway. The miR-125a-3p may be a candidate clinical prognostic marker and a novel therapeutic target in RCC.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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