Κυριακή, 28 Ιουλίου 2019

Musculoskeletal Surgery

Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in AO/OTA type B displaced clavicle fractures

Abstract

Introduction

Open reduction and plate fixation is known to reduce chances of malunion and symptomatic nonunion in displaced middle-third clavicle fractures. However, this treatment modality is also associated with several complications, such as hardware irritation, numbness around the surgical scar, infection, nonunion and implant failure. The minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique may reduce these complications.

Objective

To study clinical, radiological and functional outcomes of MIPO in AO/OTA type B displaced clavicle fractures and report any complications.

Materials and methods

A total of 22 patients underwent internal fixation of acute displaced AO/OTA type B clavicle fractures from Jan 2014 to Dec 2015 by MIPO using locking compression plates. Patients were followed up at a regular interval and assessed clinically and radiologically. The clavicle length difference was measured. Functional assessment was done at the end of 2 year using constant shoulder score (CSS) and disability of the arm, shoulder and hand score (Quick DASH) and complications if any were noted.

Results

All fractures united at a mean of 12.5 weeks. One (4.5%) patient had numbness around the surgical scar. None of the patients had wound-related complications. In four patients, hardware irritation was noted. The difference in clavicle length was not significant. All patients had excellent CSS and Quick DASH score at the final follow-up.

Conclusion

Internal fixation of displaced AO/OTA type B clavicle fractures by MIPO showed high fracture union rates and good functional outcomes.



Clinical outcomes in periarticular knee fractures with flexible fixation using far cortical locking screws in locking plate: a prospective study

Abstract

Purpose

Periarticular fractures around the knee joint are treated traditionally by locking plates which provide excellent stability but suppress callus formation. Far cortical locking (FCL) screws allow axial motion and enhance uniform callus formation. Our study aims to evaluate the outcomes of FCL screws in traditional locking plate in periarticular fractures of the knee.

Methods

Thirty patients with periarticular fractures of the knee joint were operated with locking plate using FCL screws. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using X-rays at 6, 12, 24 weeks, 1 year and with CT scan at 12-weeks follow-up.

Results

The average time for complete union was 20 weeks in tibial fractures and 24 weeks in femur fractures. Average time to full weight bearing ambulation was 4.8 ± 0.93 weeks. One patient had delayed union in which union was complete after 9 months.

Conclusion

This study shows that FCL screws in locking plates allow uniform callus formation and fracture union with minimal complication rates.



Surgical strategy in extensive proximal brachial plexus palsies

Abstract

Purpose

To describe and assess an overall surgical strategy addressing extensive proximal brachial plexus injuries (BPI).

Methods

Forty-five consecutive patients' charts with C5–C6–C7 and C5–C6–C7–C8 BPI were reviewed. Primary procedures were nerve transfers to restore elbow function and grafts to restore shoulder function when a cervical root was available; when nerve surgery was not possible or had failed, tendon transfers were conducted at the elbow while addressing shoulder function with glenohumeral arthrodesis or humeral osteotomy. Tendon transfers were used to restore finger extension.

Results

Forty-one patients underwent elbow flexion reanimation: thirty-eight had nerve transfers and eight received tendon transfers, including five cases secondary to nerve surgery failure; grade-3 strength or greater was reached in thirty-seven cases (90%). Twenty-nine patients had nerve transfers to restore elbow extension: twenty-five recovered grade-3 or grade-4 strength (86%). Forty-one patients underwent shoulder surgery: fourteen had nerve surgery and thirty-one received palliative procedures, including four cases secondary to nerve surgery failure; thirty patients recovered at least 60° of abduction and rotation (73%). Distal reconstruction was performed in thirty-seven patients, providing finger full extension in all cases but two (95%).

Conclusions

A standardized strategy may be used in extensive proximal BPI, providing overall satisfactory outcomes.



Passive anterior tibia translation in anterior cruciate ligament-injured, anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed and healthy knees: a systematic review

Abstract

Anterior tibia translation (ATT) is mainly prevented by the anterior cruciate ligament. Passive ATT tests are commonly used to diagnose an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, to select patients for an ACL reconstruction (ACLR), and as an outcome measure after an ACLR. The aim of this review was to present an overview of possible factors determining ATT. A second purpose was to give a summary of the ATT measured in the literature in healthy, ACL-injured and ACLR knees and a comparison between those groups. A literature search was conducted with PubMed. Inclusion criteria were full-text primary studies published in English between January 2006 and October 2016. Studies included reported ATT in explicit data in healthy as well as ACL-injured or ACLR knees or in ACL-injured as well as ACLR knees. Sixty-one articles met inclusion criteria. Two articles measured the ATT in healthy as well as ACL-injured knees, 51 in ACL-injured as well as in ACLR knees, three in ACLR as well as in healthy knees and three in healthy, ACL-injured and ACLR knees. A difference in ATT is found between healthy, contralateral, ACLR and ACL-injured knees and between chronic and acute ACL injury. Graft choices and intra-articular injuries are factors which could affect the ATT. The mean ATT was lowest to highest in ACLR knees using a bone–patella tendon–bone autograft, ACLR knees using a hamstring autograft, contralateral healthy knees, healthy knees, ACLR knees with an allograft and ACL-injured knees. Factors which could affect the ATT are graft choice, ACL injury or reconstruction, intra-articular injuries and whether an ACL injury is chronic or acute. Comparison of ATT between studies should be taken with caution as a high number of different measurement methods are used. To be able to compare studies, more consistency in measuring devices used should be introduced to measuring ATT. The clinical relevance is that an autograft ACLR might give better results than an allograft ACLR as knee laxity is greater when using an allograft tendon.

Level of evidence

III.



The role of poor oral health in surgical site infection following elective spinal surgery

Abstract

Study design

Cross-sectional study.

Objectives

To describe oral health and hygiene as a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI).

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients over 18 years of age who were candidates for elective spinal surgery. The exclusion criteria were immunodeficiency, history of cancer, history of previous infection at the surgical site, cutaneous diseases and long-term use of corticosteroids. Questionnaires were filled out for patients via an interview in order to collect the demographic data of patients. Oral and dental examinations were performed using DMFT (D: decayed, M: missing, F: filled, T: total) and PUFA (P: pulp, U: ulcer, F: fistula, A: abscess) indices. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and Mann–Whitney test.

Results

A total of 78 patients were evaluated. There were 59 females (75.6%) and 19 males (24.6%). Eight patients were positive for SSI. Teeth caries (P = 0.016) and periodontal disease (P = 0.049) were significantly correlated with SSI. No significant association was noted between PUFA and SSI (P > 0.05). Sixty-five patients (83.3%) had a history of dental infection before surgery. Fifty% of patients being positive for SSI had a history of dental abscess (P = 0.023).

Conclusions

A significant association exists between SSI and caries, gingivitis/periodontitis and history of dental abscess.



Tension band wiring versus locking plate fixation for simple, two-part Mayo 2A olecranon fractures: a comparison of post-operative outcomes, complications, reoperations and economics

Abstract

Purpose

Simple displaced transverse olecranon fractures are traditionally managed operatively with a tension band wire device (TBW). We compared clinical outcomes, morbidity and the cost of treatment of TBW versus pre-countered low-profile locking plates for the treatment of Mayo 2A fractures.

Patient and methods

All olecranon fractures admitted to our unit between 2008 and 2014 were identified (n = 129). Patient notes and radiographs were studied from presentation to final follow-up. Patient outcomes were recorded using the QuickDASH (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score. Patient demographics and nature of complications were recorded as were the rate and nature of any repeat operation.

Results

Eighty-nine patients had Mayo 2A fractures (69%). Sixty-four underwent TBW (n = 48) or locking plate fixation (n = 16). The mean ages of both groups were similar at 57 (15–93) and 60 (22–80), respectively. In the TBW group, the mean post-injury QuickDASH was 12.9, compared with 15.0 for the locking plate group. There was no statistically significant difference between the outcomes for either group. Nineteen of the 48 TBW patients had complications (39.6%). Sixteen of the 48 TBW patients had reoperations (33.3%). In particular, we would highlight that 13 (27.1%) of patients treated with TBW underwent subsequent removal of metalwork for hardware irritation. There were no complications and or reoperations in the 16 patients who received locking plate fixation. Both complication and reoperation rates were statistically significantly different. Despite being initially more expensive, when the cost of reoperation for TBW group was included, locking plates were found to be on average £236.33 less per patient than for TBW.

Conclusions

We suggest that locking plates are superior to TBW concerning post-operative morbidity, reoperation rate and cost for Mayo 2A fractures in contrast to previous articles.

Level of evidence

Therapeutic study, III.



Minimally invasive fixation for displaced intra-articular fractures of calcaneum: a short-term prospective study on functional and radiological outcome

Abstract

Introduction

Studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of late consequences and the socio-economic burden of intra-articular fractures of calcaneum when treated by surgical fixation. Operative management of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures (DIACF) pose significant challenges such as technical difficulty, wound healing and long-term pain and disability.

Materials and methods

All patients presenting to the ER with DIACF over a period of 2 years and matching the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Percutaneous fixation with 4 mm CC screw was undertaken with a minimally invasive sinus tarsi approach. All patients were available for a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Six radiological parameters were assessed, and functional outcome was evaluated using AOFAS score.

Results

Thirty-four patients with 42 calcaneal fractures were included in the study, and all patients were available for minimum follow-up period. All radiological parameters were attained within anatomic normal range and maintained at 24 months of follow-up. AOFAS score showed a mean value of 90.10 which is considered an excellent outcome. Superficial wound infection was seen in two patients, but no patients required a revision surgery.

Conclusion

Displaced intra-articular fractures pose a treatment dilemma, more so in cases of soft tissue complications like open injury or blisters. Percutaneous screw fixation with limited sinus tarsi incision has shown good functional and radiological outcome with minimal complications and can be undertaken without delay.



Reverdin–Isham procedure for mild or moderate hallux valgus: clinical and radiographic outcomes

Abstract

Background

In the last decade, interests in minimal incision surgery have been growing. Theoretically, this kind of procedure could decrease time to recovery and rehabilitation, with a reduction in morbidity. The present study assessed clinical and radiological outcomes and complications of percutaneous surgery for mild-to-moderate hallux valgus using Reverdin–Isham and Akin osteotomies without fixation after 60 months of follow-up.

Methods

A series of 48 patients (57 cases) with medium-to-moderate hallux valgus underwent the same percutaneous surgery, between 2003 and 2011. Data collection involved preoperative dorsal flexion, plantar flexion, M1P1, M1M2, DMAA angles, AOFAS scale score, and subjective satisfaction.

Results

AOFAS scale score rose from a preoperative median of 55.9–89.2/100 postoperatively (p < 0.001); 51 surgical procedures (89.5%) were considered as satisfactory or very satisfactory by patients at the end of follow-up. Hallux valgus and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) were significantly reduced (29.3° and 14.1°–15.4° and 7.7°, p < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant increase in MTPJ 1 stiffness (p < 0.001).

Discussion

Percutaneous correction by Reverdin–Isham and Akin osteotomies seems to be effective in isolated medium-to-moderate hallux valgus. Stiffness observed is comparable to other percutaneous and open procedures but needs to be compared in a randomized controlled clinical trial to extra-articular percutaneous procedures without capsule detachment in association with an internal fixation which allows an early mobilization.

Level of clinical evidence

IV.



Surgical treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture could be safely performed by general orthopedists

Abstract

Purpose

Displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF) requires a reduction and instrumentation. The trend is to send the cases to a fellowship-trained pediatric orthopedist. This study reviewed the outcomes and complications of SCHF surgically managed by orthopedic surgeons with different backgrounds of subspecialty training.

Methods

The medical records of 87 children (87 elbows) with an average age of 5.9 ± 3.1 (range 1.3–14.1) years with SCHF Gartland 2 and 3 who underwent operative fixation were reviewed. The demographics data and operative details were obtained. Radiographically, the Baumann and humerocapitella angles were measured. The lateral rotational percentage of Gordon was calculated. The Griffet index 1 and 2 were retrieved. The parameters were compared among groups of surgeons with a pediatric fellowship-trained background and surgeons with other subspecialty training. A univariate analysis was calculated for the risk of postoperative complications.

Results

The demographics data were comparable between the two groups. Children who were treated by non-pediatric fellowship-trained orthopedists showed higher but not significant degrees of postoperative Baumann angles; however, the proportion of children with an acceptable range of Baumann angle were similar. The overall complications rate was 17.5% and comparable between the two groups. Only SCHF Gartland 3 was associated with complications (P = 0.01).

Conclusions

Pediatric SCHF could be efficiently managed by a general orthopedic surgeon because the radiographic outcomes and complications were comparable to pediatric fellowship-trained orthopedists. Extra precautions need to be exercised in SCHF Gartland type 3 because the chance of complications is higher among these types of injuries.

Level of evidence

Level III.



Goldthwait technique for patellar instability: surgery of the past or here to stay procedure? A systematic review of the literature

Abstract

Patellar instability is the pathologic condition where the patella is prone to recurrent lateral dislocation. The clinical results on large series of patients and long-term outcome of Goldthwait techniques have not been described in the literature. The aim of this systematic review is: (1) to analyze and summarize the available literature focused on Goldthwait procedure in the treatment of recurrent patellar dislocation and (2) to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of patients treated with this surgical procedure. A systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the results of Goldthwait procedure according to the PRISMA 2009 guidelines. A total of 7 articles published were systematically reviewed. A total of 197 knees (182 patients: 86 males and 96 females) have been treated with Goldthwait procedure. The mean reported follow-up was 6.8 years. The mean age at surgery was 18 years old. The Goldthwait procedure was associated with open lateral retinacular release in 127 (64.5%) knees to arthroscopic lateral retinacular release in 20 (10.1%) knees, and with retinacular plasty and a vastus medialis advancement in 33 (16.7%) knees. Only in 17 (8.6%) knees the Goldthwait procedure was performed as an isolated procedure. Poor standardization of methodological assessment has been observed. Despite the limitations of the available literature, the Goldthwait technique provides satisfying results for the treatment of patellar instability even in pediatric population. More high-quality studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term complications and the real incidence of long-term PF osteoarthritis.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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