Παρασκευή, 10 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

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Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
Source:Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): E.M. Paula, G.A. Broderick, M.A.C. Danes, N.E. Lobos, G.I. Zanton, A.P. Faciola
Extrusion treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen-undegraded protein fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows. To assess performance, 30 multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± SD) 119 ± 23 d in milk and 44 ± 7 kg of milk/d and 15 primiparous cows averaging 121 ± 19 d in milk and 34 ± 6 kg of milk/d were blocked in a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period and 12-wk experimental period (experiment 1). Dietary ingredients differed only in protein supplements, which were SBM, CM, or TCM. All diets were formulated to contain (dry matter basis) 30% alfalfa silage, 30% corn silage, 4% soy hulls, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, and 16% CP. The SBM diet contained 25% high-moisture shelled corn and 8.6% SBM; the canola diets contained 22% high-moisture shelled corn and either 11.2% CM or 11.4% TCM. To assess ruminal digestion and omasal nutrient flow, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were blocked into 2 squares of 3 cows and randomly assigned within blocks to the same 3 dietary treatments as in experiment 1 in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (experiment 2). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare effects of different protein supplements: SBM versus CM + TCM and CM versus TCM. In experiment 1, compared with SBM, apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and nutrients were greater in cows fed both CM diets, and there was a tendency for nutrient digestibilities to be higher in cows fed CM compared with TCM. Diets did not affect milk yield and milk components; however, both canola diets decreased urinary urea N (% of total urinary N), fecal N (% of total N intake), and milk urea N concentration. In experiment 2, compared with SBM, both canola diets increased N intake and tended to increase rumen-degraded protein supply (kg/d) and N truly digested in the rumen (kg/d). Diets did not affect ruminal digestibility, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, and rumen-undegraded protein flow among diets. Results from this experiment indicate that replacing SBM with CM or TCM in diets of lactating cows improved digestibility and may reduce environmental impact. Moreover, under the conditions of the present study, treating CM by extrusion did not improve CM utilization.



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