Παρασκευή, 10 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Dynamic regulation of Cdr1 kinase localization and phosphorylation during osmotic stress [Signal Transduction]

Environmental conditions modulate cell cycle progression in many cell types. A key component of the eukaryotic cell cycle is the protein kinase Wee1, which inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 in yeast through human cells. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the protein kinase Cdr1 is a mitotic inducer that promotes mitotic entry by phosphorylating and inhibiting Wee1. Cdr1 and Wee1 both localize to punctate structures, termed nodes, on the medial cortex, but it has been unknown whether node localization can be altered by physiological signals. Here we investigated how environmental conditions regulate Cdr1 signaling for cell division. Osmotic stress induced hyperphosphorylation of the mitotic inducer Cdr1 for several hours, and cells delayed division for the same time period. This stress-induced hyperphosphorylation required both Cdr1 autophosphorylation and the stress-activated protein kinase Sty1. During osmotic stress, Cdr1 exited cortical nodes and localized in the cytoplasm. Using a series of truncation mutants, we mapped a C-terminal domain that is necessary and sufficient for Cdr1 node localization and found that Sty1 directly phosphorylates this domain in vitro. Sty1 was not required for Cdr1 exit from nodes, indicating the existence of additional regulatory signals. Both Cdr1 phosphorylation and node localization returned to basal levels when cells adapted to osmotic conditions and resumed cell cycle progression. In summary, we identified a mechanism that prevents Cdr1 colocalization with its inhibitory target Wee1 during osmotic stress. Dynamic regulation of protein localization to cortical nodes might represent a strategy to modulate entry into mitosis under differing environmental conditions.

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