Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although glycaemic control reduces microvascular complications, the effect of intensive treatment strategies or individual drugs on macrovascular diseases is still debated. RNA oxidation is associated with increased mortality in patients with T2D. Inspired by animal studies showing effect of a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor (empagliflozin) on oxidative stress and a recent trial evaluating empagliflozin that demonstrated improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2D at high risk of cardiovascular events, we hypothesise that empagliflozin lowers oxidative stress.Methods and analysis
In this randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled study, 34 adult males with T2D will be randomised (1:1) to empagliflozin or placebo once daily for 14 days as add-on to ongoing therapy. The primary endpoints will be changes in 24-hour urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) determined before and after intervention (by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry). Additionally, fasting levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) will be determined in plasma before and after intervention (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Further, the plasma levels of iron, transferrin, transferrin-saturation, and ferritin are determined to correlate the iron metabolism to the markers of oxidative modifications.Ethics and dissemination
The study protocol has been approved by the Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (approval number H-16017433), the Danish Medicines Agency, and the Danish Data Protection Agency, and will be carried out under the surveillance and guidance of the GCP unit at Bispebjerg Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen in compliance with the ICH-GCP guidelines and in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The results of this study will be presented at national and international conferences, and submitted to a peer-reviewed international journal with authorship in accordance with Internation Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations state.Trial registration
Study name: EMPOX; Pre-results: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02890745). Protocol version 5.1 - August, 2016.
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