Τρίτη, 19 Μαρτίου 2019

Otolaryngology

Transdermal lidocaine as treatment for chronic subjective tinnitus: A pilot study

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Daniel C. O'Brien, Aaron D. Robinson, Nancy Wang, Rodney Diaz

Abstract
Objective

To assess the efficacy of transdermal lidocaine as a treatment for chronic subjective tinnitus as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI).

Study design

Pilot, prospective efficacy trial.

Setting

Tertiary care hospital.

Patients

Men and women, over the age of 18 with chronic subjective tinnitus for >6 months.

Intervention

Daily application of commercially available transdermal lidocaine patch.

Outcome measure

Change in the TFI.

Results

The average pre-treatment TFI score was 56.2. After 1 month the average TFI decreased to 41 (p < 0.05). The scores dropped to 34 and 35 after 2 and 3 months of treatment respectively. Despite improvement in symptoms of tinnitus, most patients did not continue the study after the first month, dropping out due to the size, discomfort, and appearance of the lidocaine patch, failure to follow-up and lack of perceived benefit from treatment.

Conclusions

In this preliminary study, 5% transdermal lidocaine appears to be a potential treatment for chronic subjective tinnitus. The majority of subjects who completed 1 month of treatment had clinically significantly improved tinnitus. These findings are confounded however by the small sample size and significant drop out rate.



Mild hypothermia is associated with improved outcomes in patients undergoing microvascular head and neck reconstruction

Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Benjamin M. Laitman, Yue Ma, Bryan Hill, Marita Teng, Eric Genden, Samuel DeMaria, Brett A. Miles

Abstract
Objective

Microvascular free tissue transfer has become the standard for reconstruction for large defects. With long operative times and an increased surface area exposed, transient hypothermia is common, but it is unclear how this impacts surgical outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of core body temperature on free tissue flap outcomes in patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction.

Study design

Retrospective data analysis.

Setting

Mount Sinai Hospital; NYC, NY; 2007–2016.

Subjects and methods

Demographic information, mean/minimum/maximum body temperatures, and the presence of flap complications (venous thrombosis, arterial insufficiency, flap death, wound infection/dehiscence, fistula, chyle leak, hematoma/seroma) of 519 free tissue transfer patients were documented. Binomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between the presence of flap complications and mean temperature. Statistical analysis used SPSS, with p-values ≤0.05 deemed statistically significant.

Results

393 soft-tissue and 125 osteocutaneous flaps were included. 19.8% (n = 103) patients had the presence of ≥1 flap complication, while 80.2% (n = 416) did not. Average temperature for all patients was 36.12 ± 0.84 °C, with minimum at 34.43 ± 0.97 °C and maximum at 37.24 ± 1.23 °C. After controlling for several factors including: tumor stage, radiation, diabetes, BMI, age, sex, and flap type, there was a significant association between flap complications and mean intraoperative temperature (Exp(B) = 1.559, p = 0.004).

Conclusion

Higher intraoperative temperatures were associated with worse outcomes. A mild relative hypothermia may improve flap outcomes in this population. This represents the largest study to date evaluating the impact of intraoperative temperature on free tissue transfer outcomes.



Non-recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: Frequency, anatomical variations according to a new classification and surgery consideration

Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Quang Van Le, Quoc Ngo Duy, Quy Xuan Ngo

Abstract
Background

Iatrogenic injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is one of the most concerning problems of thyroid surgery. The non-recurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) is a rare variation of the RLN.

Objectives

We aimed to identify the proportion of NRLN (during thyroidectomy), introduce a new details classification and recommend some surgical considerations.

Materials and methods

From May 2017 to September 2018, our hospital carried out 2462 thyroid operations. We reported the NRLN rate and distinguished NRLN into three types: (a) Type 1: descending – NRLN runs downward to the cricothyroid joint; (b) Type 2: vertical – NRLN runs vertically to the cricothyroid joint; (c) Type 3: ascending – NRLN runs upward to the cricothyroid joint.

Results

Overall, right-side NRLN had an incidence rate of 0.74% (16 out of 2158 total right thyroid surgeries). However, we did not detect any patient with left-sided NRLN. 12.5% of our patients had type 1, 25% had type 2 and 62.5% had type 3. All 16 patients with NRLN were treated without any complications or injury and some considerations for surgeons were mentioned on how to avoid injury of the NRLN.

Conclusion

Despite NRLN occurrence being rare, the injury probability during surgery can reach up to 12.9% if correct procedures were not carried out. Here, we introduce a new details classification and information with which they can make appropriate surgical considerations to avoid nerve injury in thyroid surgery.



Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the external ear

Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Brian C. Deutsch, Zachary G. Schwam, Vivian Z. Kaul, George B. Wanna

Abstract

Herein we present the rare case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the external ear treated by surgical resection and full-thickness skin graft. Current diagnosis and management options are reviewed.



Thyroid cancer in patients undergoing surgery for hyperthyroidism

Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Yogesh More, Aly Bernard Khalil, Huda Mustafa, Manjiri Gupte, Musa al abbadi, Doua Elamin, Luay Aziz, Shaikh Irfan Basha



Seed and soil? - Pharyngeal Merkel cell carcinoma after radiotherapy for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Monica K. Rossi, D. Anand Rajan Kanagasabapathy, Henry T. Hoffman

Abstract

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a neuroendocrine cutaneous malignancy that may present as metastatic disease without a known primary site but, most commonly originates in the sun-exposed skin of the head, neck, and extremities. We present a 66-year-old male treated with chemo-radiation for T3N2cM0 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) six years before he was diagnosed with MCC isolated to the radiated laryngopharynx. Mucosal MCC is rare and radiation-induced MCC has been hypothesized to occur in previously radiated tissue but, never before to the laryngopharynx. Implications regarding cancer biology and management is focused with discussion on relevant advances in pathologic assessment and immunotherapy.



A systematic review of the nasal septal turbinate: An overlooked surgical target

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): William J. Moss, Farhoud Faraji, Aria Jafari, Adam S. DeConde

Abstract
Objective

The nasal septal turbinate (NST) is a conspicuous structure located in the anterior nasal cavity that impacts the internal nasal valve. Its structure and function is often thought to be poorly characterized, and it is rarely addressed surgically. The authors perform a systematic review in an attempt to synthesize what has been learned of this structure and to evaluate its potential as a treatment target.

Methods

A query of the Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was undertaken in search of studies evaluating the NST. This qualitative systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed with established criteria.

Results

Of the initial 1069 hits from the four databases, 16 articles were ultimately included in the review, which varied in quality and risk of bias. The included articles consisted predominantly of radiographic and histopathologic studies. Four studies evaluated NST treatment outcomes. The NST represents a fusiform-shaped region of erectile tissue, similar in structure and function to that of the turbinates. Preliminary treatment outcomes suggest the NST represents an important surgical target in nasal airway surgery.

Conclusion

When evaluating nasal obstruction patients, surgeons should assess the NST and consider addressing it surgically.



The role of doxycycline in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Arjun K. Parasher, Sarah M. Kidwai, Neeraja Konuthula, Erden Goljo, Stephanie Pan, Alok T. Saini, Anthony Del Signore, Alfred Marc Iloreta, Satish Govindaraj, Benjamin D. Malkin

Abstract
Introduction

Many theories on the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) exist. The most effective management of CRSwNP has not been elucidated. Doxycycline, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, has shown durable effects; however, its efficacy in combination with standard therapy has not been examined. We hypothesized that its addition to the standard anti-inflammatory regimen would improve patient outcomes.

Methods

We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary level institution. Patients with moderate or severe CRSwNP were randomized into two groups, each receiving a 20-day course of oral corticosteroids and doxycycline or placebo. The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), nasal polyp scores, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded at the initial, 3-, 8- and 12-week visits.

Results

49 patients were enrolled, 24 in the experimental and 25 in the placebo group with 3 moderate disease patients in each group. There were 12 dropouts in the treatment group and 14 in the placebo group. The most common reasons for dropout were severe CRS and asthma exacerbations. There was no significant difference in SNOT-22 scores, nasal polyp scores, and VAS scores between the two arms.

Conclusions

Non-surgical management of patients with CRSwNP remains challenging. Our conclusions are limited given the high dropout rate and thus, limited sample size with inadequate power. This study is important, however, because a high dropout rate of mostly severe disease patients may illustrate that this patient population may not be optimally managed with medical therapy alone.



Sensorineural hearing loss and volatile organic compound metabolites in urine

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Charles Pudrith, William N. Dudley

Abstract
Purpose

Oxidative stress in the auditory system contributes to acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Systemic oxidative stress, which may predict auditory oxidative stress, can be assessed by measuring volatile organic compound metabolite concentrations in urine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if hearing decreased in those with higher concentrations of urinary volatile organic compound metabolites.

Materials and methods

Audiometric, demographic, and metabolite concentration data were downloaded from the 2011–2012 cycle of the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Participants were first grouped by reported noise exposure. For each metabolite, an analysis of covariance was used to look for differences in age-adjusted hearing loss among urinary volatile organic compound metabolite concentration groups. Participants were grouped into quartiles based on concentration for each metabolite separately because many individuals were at the lower limit of concentration detection for several metabolites, leading to a non-normal distribution.

Results

Age-adjusted high-frequency pure-tone thresholds were significantly (FDR < 0.05) increased by about 3 to 4 dB in high concentration quartile groups for five metabolites. All five metabolites were glutathione-dependent mercapturic acids. The parent compounds of these metabolites included acrylonitrile, 1,3 butadiene, styrene, acrylamide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Significant associations were only found in those with no reported noise exposure.

Conclusions

Urinary metabolites may help to explain susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced hearing loss.



Is otitis media with effusion associated with oxidative stress? Evaluation of thiol/disulfide homeostasis

Publication date: March–April 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology, Volume 40, Issue 2

Author(s): Eda Şimşek, Cemile Koca Bicer, Muhammed Recai Mazlumoğlu, Soner Sertan Kara, Ozcan Erel, Ayşe Çarlıoğlu

Abstract
Background

We evaluated the relationship between otitis media with effusion and thiol/disulfide homeostasis using a novel marker of oxidative stress.

Methods

The study group consisted of 30 patients (mean age 8.33 ± 3.30 years) with bilateral otitis media with effusion admitted to our hospital. The control group consisted of 35 (mean age 7.40 ± 3.97 years) age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was measured using a newly developed method.

Results

Native and total thiol levels were lower in the study than the control group (native thiols 421.37 ± 72 μmol/L vs. 464.46 ± 46.42 μmol/L, p < 0.05; total thiols 468.42 ± 77.89 μmol/L vs. 501.32 ± 50.30 μmol/L, respectively). Disulfide levels and the disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratios were higher in the study group (disulfides 23.56 ± 4.68 μmol/L vs. 18.43 ± 4.94 μmol/L; disulfide/native thiol ratio 5.65 ± 1.05 vs. 3.97 ± 1.03%; disulfide/total thiol ratio 5.06 ± 0.83 vs. 3.66 ± 0.88%, respectively).

Conclusion

Oxidative stress may be the major cause of the increase in oxidized thiols in patients with bilateral otitis media with effusion, however, this relationship requires further investigation.



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