Δευτέρα, 5 Αυγούστου 2019

Surgical Laparoscopy Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques

Endoscopic Transgastric Versus Surgical Approach for Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
imageSurgical approach (SA) is the standard treatment for infected necrotizing pancreatitis (INP) and endoscopic transgastric approach (ETA) is a promising alternative treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of ETA versus SA in INP. Several databases were systematically searched for eligible studies that compared ETA with SA for INP. Predefined criteria were used for study selection. Three reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias. Primary outcomes included clinical resolution rate, short-term mortality, major complications, and hospital stay. Study-specific effect sizes and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were combined to calculate the pooled value using fixed-effects or random-effects model. Six studies were included with 295 patients. Major complication rate [odds ratio (OR), 0.13; 95% CI, 0.06-0.29], new-onset organ failure rate (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.12-0.54), postoperative pancreatic fistula rate (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.28), and incisional hernia rate (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.85) were lower in the ETA group. There was a shorter hospital stay (mean difference, −17.72; 95% CI, −21.30 to −14.13) in the ETA group. No differences were found in clinical resolution, short-term mortality, postoperative bleeding, perforation of visceral organ, and endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Compared with SA, ETA showed comparable effectiveness and safety for the treatment of INP based on current evidence.

The Influence of Etoricoxib on Pain Control for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
imageIntroduction: The efficacy of etoricoxib on pain control for laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the impact of etoricoxib on pain intensity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through September 2018 for randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of etoricoxib versus placebo on pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. Results: Four randomized controlled trials involving 351 patients are included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control group for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoricoxib has no important impact on pain scores within 4 hours [mean difference (MD)=−1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI)=−3.54 to 0.58; P=0.16] and 8 hours (MD=−0.65; 95% CI=−1.43 to 0.12; P=0.10), but can significantly decrease pain intensity within 12 hours (MD=−1.16; 95% CI=−1.93 to −0.38; P=0.003) and 24 hours (MD=−1.10; 95% CI=−1.98 to −0.22; P=0.01), as well as postoperative analgesic consumption (standard MD=−1.21; 95% CI=−2.19 to −0.23; P=0.02), with no increase in nausea and vomiting (risk ratio=0.68; 95% CI=0.42-1.10; P=0.11), and headache (risk ratio=0.96; 95% CI=0.44-2.09; P=0.92). Conclusions: Etoricoxib can substantially reduce pain intensity in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Omentopexy in Sleeve Gastrectomy Reduces Early Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms
imageIntroduction: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the surgical procedures indicated in the treatment of obesity. The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in the postoperative period of this surgery is related to a reduction in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tone and the presence of gastric residual fundus (RF) associated with increased gastric intraluminal pressure. Fixation of the remaining gastric reservoir to the gastrosplenic and gastrocolic ligaments (omentopexy) has emerged as a technical option to avoid or decrease GER in the postoperative period of LSG. Objective: To evaluate the presence of GER symptoms, alterations in LES tone, and the presence of RF in obese subjects submitted to LSG with omentopexy. Methods: Twenty obese patients were submitted to LSG with omentopexy from July 2016 to July 2017 at the Hospital Unimed de Teresina, Brazil and was studied prospectively. Clinical evaluations, including a specific questionnaire (clinical score), upper digestive endoscopy and esophageal manometry, were performed preoperatively and on the 90th postoperative day. Contrast x-ray of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were performed after the 90th postoperative day. The Fischer exact test was used to evaluate the correlation between GER symptoms and changes in LES tone or the presence of RF. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the correlation of GER symptoms with the 2 variables together. All analyses adopted a level of significance for α errors >5% (P-value <0.05). Results: The mean clinical score of GER reduced from 6.7 in the preoperative period to 2.7 in the postoperative period. By manometry, there were no significant changes in the LES tone with mean values of 26.04 and 27.07 mm Hg before and after the procedure. RF was identified in 3 cases by contrast radiology. There was no statistical correlation between the changes in the LES tone or the presence of RF with the increase in the clinical score of GER (in cases where this occurred), even when the variables were evaluated together. Conclusions: LSG with omentopexy improved the clinical score of GER in most cases and did not cause significant changes in the LES tone. The presence of RF did not exacerbate the clinical score of GER.

Impact of Sleep Deprivation on Surgical Laparoscopic Performance in Novices: A Computer-based Crossover Study
imageObjective: The 24-hour work shifts are newly permitted to first-year surgical residents in the United States. Whether surgery novices' motor activity is affected by sleep deprivation is controversial. Materials and Methods: This study assesses sleep deprivation effects in computer-simulated laparoscopy in 20 surgical novices following 24 hours of sleep deprivation and after resting using a virtual-reality trainer. Participants were randomly assigned to perform simulator tests either well rested or sleep deprived first. Results: Of 3 different tasks performed, no significant differences in total time to complete the procedure and average speed of instruments were found. Instrument path length was longer following sleep deprivation (P=0.0435) in 1 of 3 tasks. Error rates (ie, noncauterized bleedings, perforations, etc.), as well as precision, and accuracy rates showed no difference. None of the assessed participants' characteristics affected simulator performance. Conclusions: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation does not affect laparoscopic performance of surgical novices as assessed by computer-simulation.

Complications After Endoscopic Stenting for Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Cohort Study
imageBackground: Gastric stenting has become a common place in clinical practice. The aim of our study was to evaluate the factors influencing the clinical outcome in patients who received endoscopic stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). Materials and Methods: We prospectively evaluated the clinical course of 87 patients who presented to our attention with malignant GOO. Results: There was neither mortality nor major morbidity after endoscopic stenting. Survival was reduced (average, 2 mo) in patients with an obstruction due to no resectable pancreatic cancer. In patients with primary no resectable pyloric adenocarcinoma, the crude survival was >1 year. Almost half of the patients required a new endoscopy. Food obstruction was common after 6 months from stent placement, limiting the quality of life of the patients. Conclusions: Endoscopic stenting represents a valid treatment in patients with symptoms of GOO from metastatic cancer. Patients with metastatic pyloric adenocarcinoma and normal liver function tests have survival rates longer than 1 year. In this selected group of patients, laparoscopic surgical gastrojejunostomy can be a valid alternative to avoid a close and exhausting follow-up, with the possibility of a better quality of life (res Registry 808).

Iatrogenic Colonic Perforations: Changing the Paradigm
imagePurpose: The purpose of our study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of colonoscopic perforations in patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied patients with perforations secondary to diagnostic/therapeutic colonoscopy between 2009 and 2015 at the Pontevedra Hospital Complex. We analyzed age, closure method, length of hospitalization, and long-term progress. Results: Of the 34 perforations detected, 67.6% occurred in patients aged below 75 years. Most perforations occurred in the descending colon (55%). Perforations occurred in 55.9% of outpatients and 45% of inpatients. Diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopies caused perforations in 20.6% and 79.4% of patients, respectively. Conservative treatment alone was performed in 5.9%, complete or partial endoscopic closure in 14.7%, and surgery in 79.4% of patients. Patients treated only conservatively or with concomitant endoscopic closure showed no mortality. The mortality rate was 14.8% in those treated surgically, and 55% of these patients required a subsequent ostomy. Conclusions: Conservative management with antibiotics and parenteral nutrition concomitant with complete/partial endoscopic closure effectively treats perforations, provided intraprocedural diagnosis is possible with immediate administration of antibiotics after the procedure. Nevertheless, studies with larger number of patients and statistical analysis are necessary in the near future.

Laparoscopic Splenectomy Versus Open Splenectomy In Massive and Giant Spleens: Should we Update the 2008 EAES Guidelines?
imageThe objective of this study was to derive some useful parameters to define the feasibility of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) in massive [spleen longitudinal diameter (SLD)>20 cm] and giant spleens (SLD>25 cm). Between December 1996 and May 2017, 175 patients underwent an elective splenectomy. A laparoscopic approach was used in 133 (76%) patients. Massive spleens were treated in 65 (37.1%) patients, of which 24 were treated laparoscopically. In this subset of massive spleens, the results of laparoscopic splenectomy in massive spleens (LSM) and open splenectomy in massive spleens (OSM) were compared. The clinical outcome of a subgroup of patients with giant spleens was also analyzed. The LSM group resulted in significant longer operative times (143±31 vs. 112±40 min; P=0.001), less blood loss (278±302 vs. 575±583 mL; P=0.007), and shorter hospital stay (6±3 vs. 9±4 d; P=0.004). No conversions were experienced in the LSM group, and the morbidity rate was similar in both the LSM and OSM groups (16.6% vs. 20%; P=0.75). When considering the subset of 9 LSM patients and 26 OSM patients with giant spleens, the same favorable tendency of the laparoscopic group as regards surgical conversion, blood loss, and hospital stay was maintained. The laparoscopic approach can be successfully proposed in the presence of massive splenomegaly also after a careful preoperative evaluation of the expected abdominal "working space." In experienced hands, LS is safe, feasible, and associated with better outcomes than open splenectomy for the treatment of massive and giant spleen, with a maximum SLD limit of 31 cm.

Symptomatic, Radiological, and Quality of Life Outcome of Paraesophageal Hernia Repair With Urinary Bladder Extracellular Surgical Matrix: Comparison With Primary Repair
imageIntroduction: Paraesophageal hernia repairs are prone to recurrence and mesh reinforcement is common. Both biologic and prosthetic meshes have been used. We report a comparison of a new type of biologically derived graft, Gentrix Surgical Urinary Bladder Matrix (UBM). Methods: The medical records of 65 patients who underwent paraesophageal hernia repair (PEHR) were reviewed. Primary data points included demographics, first-time or recurrent hernia, operative approach, graft or primary repair, operative time, and postoperative complications. Patients then underwent upper gastrointestinal series, completed the GERD-HRQL symptom severity questionnaire, and the SF-36 generic quality of life instrument. Results: A total of 32 patients underwent graft-reinforced repair, 33 underwent primary repair. More patients in the UBM group were being treated for recurrent PEH. Demographic data and postoperative complications were similar. There was no difference in recurrence rates, size of recurrence, postoperative symptomatic or quality of life improvement. Patients who suffered recurrence in the primary repair group had more severe symptoms and a higher rate of dissatisfaction. Of the 3 patients with recurrences after Gentrix placement, reoperation demonstrated anterior failure where no reinforcement had occurred because of the posteriorly placed U-shaped graft. Conclusions: The use of UBM was not associated with an increased complications despite use in more difficult patients. Although there appeared to be no difference in recurrence rate or size, it was associated with less severe symptomatic recurrences. The U-shape configuration is prone to recurrence at the site of the repair not covered by the graft, suggesting that a keyhole configuration may be superior.

Laparoscopic Multiple Parenchyma-sparing Concomitant Liver Resections for Colorectal Liver Metastases
imageBackground: Parenchyma-sparing concept in liver surgery has received a new incitement with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques. Multiple concomitant liver resections are a major component in the parenchyma-sparing concept. Materials and Methods: In total, 689 patients underwent laparoscopic liver resection for colorectal liver metastases from August 1998 to 2017, and 171 patients were eligible for this study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: group I with single liver resection (36 patients); group II with multiple concomitant liver resections (104 patients); group III with liver resection(s) combined with concomitant liver ablation (31 patients). Perioperative outcomes and survival were compared between the groups I and II, whereas variables of group III were presented as complementary information, avoiding statistically exigent multiple comparisons. Results: There were 6 conversions, 0, 3 (2.9%), and 2 (6.5%), respectively in the groups I, II, and III. Median operative time was 161, 186, and 224 minute in the groups I, II, and III, respectively. Median blood loss was 300 mL in groups I and II, and 200 mL in group III. It was a tendency to higher rate of postoperative complications in the group of single resections with morbidity rate of 31%, 19%, and 23% in group I, II, and III, respectively. Median postoperative stay was 3 days in all groups. Tumor-free margin resection was achieved in 92%, 86%, and 93%, respectively in the groups I, II, III. The median weight of resected specimen was significantly lower in group II (90 vs. 257 g; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in survival between the groups. The 5-year overall survival was 31%, 42%, and 43% for groups I, II, and III, respectively. Conclusions: Laparoscopic multiple concomitant parenchyma-sparing liver resections provide surgical and oncologic outcomes comparable with single greater resections for multiple lesions. This approach could be recommended for a wide application in specialized hepatopancreatobiliary centers.

Diaphragmatic Hernia After Totally Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer
imageThis study aimed to investigate the occurrence of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) after totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG) for gastric cancer. We reviewed retrospectively collected data from 490 consecutive patients who underwent TLTG (functional method, 365; overlap method, 125) for upper body gastric cancer, between January 2011 and May 2017, performed by a single surgeon. The median follow-up period was 40.6 months. Of 490 patients, 8 (1.63%) developed DH at a mean interval after TLTG of 7.3 (range, 3.4 to 12.8) months. All 8 patients were from the functional group, and presented with abdominal pain or vomiting. They were managed with emergency surgery (5 laparoscopic hernia reduction, 3 open hernia reduction). The grade of complication according to Clavien-Dindo classification (CDC) was CDC-III in 7 cases and CDC-IV in 1 case. There was no death associated with DH complications. None of the patients in the overlap group developed DH. The incidence of DH after TLTG is negligible in the overlap method. Therefore, the overlap method may be a safe reconstruction technique that can reduce the occurrence of DC after TLTG for gastric cancer.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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