Δευτέρα, 5 Αυγούστου 2019

Coronary Artery Disease

Beneficial effect of ticagrelor on microvascular perfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing a primary percutaneous coronary intervention
imageBackground Ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) intended for reperfusion with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). However, the effects of this drug on microvascular perfusion in patients presenting with STEMI have not been evaluated completely. Patients and methods A total of 298 patients presenting with STEMI were randomized to either ticagrelor 180 mg loading, followed by 90 mg twice daily, or clopidogrel 600 mg loading, followed by 75 mg daily. The primary endpoint was ST-segment resolution at 90 min after pPCI. The secondary endpoints included myocardial blush grade and corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count after the procedure. Left ventricular ejection fraction and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at the 1- and 6-month follow-up time points were also recorded. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Ticagrelor administration resulted in a higher rate of completed ST-segment resolution (58.67 vs. 39.86%, P=0.001), higher myocardial blush grade (2.63±0.64 vs. 2.41±0.71, P=0.005), and lower corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (19.68±7.38 vs. 22.35±8.30, P=0.004). At 6 months, left ventricular ejection fraction was higher (55.01±8.44 vs. 52.34±9.05%, P=0.009) in the ticagrelor group. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that MACE-free survival had also improved in the ticagrelor group during the 1- and 6-month follow-up time points. Conclusion Compared with clopidogrel, ticagrelor improves myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction, and reduces the incidence of MACE for STEMI patients undergoing pPCI, with no significant increase in major bleeding.

Ticagrelor and microvascular perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction: hype or hope?
No abstract available

Outcomes of a routine invasive strategy in elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction from 2005 to 2014: results from the PL-ACS registry
imageBackground Elderly patients (≥75 years old) with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) represent a large subgroup of all cases. They are rarely included in randomized trials because of comorbidities and concerns about complications. Furthermore, invasive treatments are used less frequently in this patient group. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in invasive procedures and outcomes in elderly patients with NSTEMI from 2005 to 2014. Patients and methods We analyzed 68 978 elderly patients with NSTEMI enrolled in the prospective, nationwide Polish Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes from 2005 to 2014. Results Elderly patients accounted for 34.9% of all patients with NSTEMI. There was an increase in the rate of coronary angiography from 19.1% in 2005–2007 to 83.5% in 2012–2014 among women (P<0.05) and from 26.0 to 87.5% among men (P<0.05). Simultaneously, there was an increase in percutaneous coronary intervention usage from 12.9% in 2005–2007 to 56.3% in 2012–2014 among women (P<0.05) and from 17.6 to 60.5% among men (P<0.05). On comparing the periods of 2005–2007 and 2012–2014, in-hospital mortality decreased considerably from 9.6 to 5.3% among women (P<0.05) and from 9.1 to 4.7% among men (P<0.05). In the same time period, the 12-month mortality ratio decreased: from 30.5 to 22.0% among women (P<0.05) and from 32.0 to 22.8% among men (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, age was one of the most important factors associated with poorer outcome. With each increased decade of life, the outcomes worsened – the relative risk of mortality was 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59–1.68] for the in-hospital prognosis and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.55–1.59) for the 12-month prognosis. Invasive treatment strategy was the strongest factor associated with improved outcome, with a relative risk of 0.31 (95% CI: 0.29–0.33) for in-hospital mortality and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.49–0.52) for 12-month mortality, respectively. Conclusion Patients with NSTEMI benefit considerably from invasive procedures independent of age. In-hospital as well as 12-month outcomes in elderly patients improved markedly in the last decade as a result of the wide implementation of an invasive treatment strategy.

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer presenting with acute myocardial infarction
imageBackground Limited data are available regarding the optimal management of patients with cancer in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) setting. Patients and methods We studied consecutive patients with AMI included in a national registry (years 2010, 2016) with the diagnosis of past or active malignancy and followed them for 1 year. Results Our cohort consisted of 2937 cancer-naive patients and 152 patients with cancer, of whom 35% presented with active malignancies. Compared with cancer-naive patients, patients with cancer were older, with female predominance, and presented more often with a history of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The rate of ST-elevation AMI was comparable (P=0.067). GRACE score more than 140 was more common in the cancer group (P<0.001). Most patients with cancer were referred to coronary angiography, though less than cancer-naive patients (87 vs. 93%; P=0.004). The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was similar (P=0.265). Propensity score matching demonstrated similar rates of in-hospital complications between groups, and no mortality or major cardiac adverse event differences were noted at 30 days. Moreover, short-term mortality was similar between patients with active versus past malignancies, and between patients with solid and nonsolid tumors. However, cancer in patients with AMI was found to predict an increased mortality risk at 1 year by multivariable analysis (hazard ratio=2.52; P<0.001). Conclusion Patients with cancer and AMI have a more complicated clinical presentation, yet their short-term prognosis is similar to cancer-naive patients. Nevertheless, 1-year outcome is worse.

Path analysis for key factors influencing long-term quality of life of patients following a percutaneous coronary intervention
imageObjectives This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the long-term quality of life (QOL) influencing of patients following a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as well as its influencing factors. Patients and methods From June 2013 to April 2014, 428 PCI patients were enrolled in this questionnaire survey. The demographic and clinical data, Social Support Rating Scale, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, Social Disability Screening Schedule, and Short Form 36 Health Status Questionnaire were collected. Statistical analyses for data and path analyses for influencing factors were then carried out. Results PCI patients received considerable social support from family and society, and most PCI patients adopted negative coping styles (avoidance and acceptance-resignation). Approximately 70.3% of PCI patients had a serious functional defect, and 96.97% of patients had an average (79.91%) or better (17.06%) QOL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that long-term QOL of PCI patients was correlated positively with social support and sleep quality, but correlated negatively with the acceptance-resignation coping style, social function defects, and number of adverse cardiac events. Path analysis further showed that social support, acceptance-resignation coping style, social function defects, number of adverse cardiac events, and sleep quality exerted important effects on long-term QOL of PCI patients in descending order. Conclusion Most PCI patients had an average medium-term or better long-term QOL. Social support, acceptance-resignation coping style, social function defects, number of adverse cardiac events, and sleep quality were key influencing factors.

Ultra-low-contrast angiography in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and previous coronary artery bypass surgery
imageObjective We sought to describe a technique for ultra-low-contrast angiography (ULCA) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and previous coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Background Patients with advanced CKD and previous CABG are at high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) because of the additional contrast often required to identify bypass grafts. Apart from hydration, reduced contrast administration is the only established method to minimize the risk of CIN. Patients and methods Ten patients underwent ULCA, whereby an intracoronary injection of saline and coronary guidewires were used instead of test injections of contrast for engagement of bypass grafts with catheters. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before and 30 days following angiography were recorded as was the need for renal replacement therapy 1 year after the procedure. Results All patients completed a diagnostic angiogram without complications. The median volume of contrast delivered was 13.5 ml (interquartile range: 10.5–17.8). The median eGFR was 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range: 16.5–28.2). There was no statistically significant difference in eGFR before the procedure and 30 days after the procedure (P=0.79). No patient required dialysis 30 days after the procedure. Two patients required initiation of dialysis at 1 year after the procedure. Conclusion In patients with advanced CKD and previous CABG, ULCA may be performed with high procedural success and without complications, minimizing the risk of CIN in these high-risk patients.

A novel safe method for treatment of giant coronary artery aneurysm: Wire Looping Technique
imageNo abstract available

Off-pump onlay-patch grafting using the left internal mammary artery for a diffusely diseased left anterior descending artery: in-hospital and mid-term outcomes
imageBackground The aims of this study were to evaluate the in-hospital and mid-term outcomes of the off-pump onlay-patch grafting procedure using the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) for a diffusely diseased left anterior descending artery (LAD) and to identify the risk factors for postoperative LIMA graft failure in a single-center retrospective study. Patients and methods A total of 63 patients (52 males, 65.7±9.0 years) undergoing LAD arteriotomy with or without concomitant endarterectomy, followed by reconstruction using LIMA onlay-patch at the time of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting at our institute from January 2014 to December 2016 were reviewed. The operative mortality, major postoperative morbidity, follow-up all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiac events at follow-up, and postoperative LIMA graft patency were analyzed. The risk factors for postoperative LIMA graft failure on the basis of baseline and surgical characteristics were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Eighteen (28.6%) patients underwent concomitant open LAD endarterectomy. The operative mortality rate was 1.6%. Major postoperative morbidity included perioperative myocardial infarction (3.2%), low cardiac output (1.6%), and reoperation for bleeding (1.6%). During the follow-up period of 24.2±9.5 months, all-cause mortality was 1.7% and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was 6.8%. No repeat revascularization was recorded. In total, 88.1% of LIMA grafts showed FitzGibbon grade A patency determined by noninvasive coronary computed tomography angiography during follow-up. In addition, concomitant LAD endarterectomy and intraoperative LIMA graft flow were found to be independent risk factors for mid-term LIMA graft failure by multivariable logistic regression analysis (odds ratio=2.681, 95% confidence interval: 1.314–9.856, P=0.007 and odds ratio=0.932, 95% confidence interval: 0.791–0.976, P=0.021, respectively). Conclusion Revascularization of a diffusely diseased LAD using the off-pump LIMA onlay-patch technique results in encouraging clinical outcomes with favorable angiographic results. Concomitant LAD endarterectomy and intraoperative LIMA graft flow are associated with the risk of postoperative LIMA graft failure.

Traditional Chinese medicine training for cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized comparison with aerobic and resistance training
imageBackground The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of different exercise regimens in the rehabilitation of patients with stable coronary heart disease. Patients and methods This study was a randomized controlled trial to screen 141 patients with stable coronary heart disease who were admitted to the General Administration of Sport of China Sports Medical Science Institute from January 2018 to September 2018. They were randomly divided into the aerobic and resistance training (ART) group for 12 weeks (36 cases), the traditional Chinese medicine training (TCMT) group 12 weeks (37 cases), and the control (CON) group (39 cases). We analyzed the baseline parameters of all participants and the 12-week exercise plate test parameters and related physical and body parameters. Result After 12 weeks of intervention, volume of oxygen (VO2), VO2/kg, metabolic equivalents, VO2/heart rate, stroke volume, and peaked grip strength and flexibility parameters of the ART group and the TCMT group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Resting heart rate of the TCMT group was significantly lower than the CON group, but there was no significant difference between the ART and CON groups (P>0.05). Ventilation/VO2 of the TCMT group was significantly higher than that of the CON group. BMI of the ART group was significantly lower than that of the TCMT group and the CON group, and body fat mass of the TCMT group was significantly smaller than that of the ART group, but there was no difference between the TCMT group and the CON group for BMI and body fat mass. Conclusion Both ART and TCMT can improve the cardiopulmonary aerobic exercise capacity and physical fitness of patients with stable coronary heart disease. Although the degree of improvement is different, they all have certain effects on the rehabilitation of patients with stable coronary heart disease and the application is safe.

Impact of smoking on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients after coronary revascularization with a percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft: a systematic review and meta-analysis
imageAlthough cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, inconsistent results have been published in the literature on its impacts on the cardiovascular health of patients after coronary revascularization with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). We performed a comprehensive electronic database search through July 2018. Studies reporting the risk estimates of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients after coronary revascularization with PCI or CABG on the basis of smoking status were selected. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random-effects models with inverse variance weighting. Data from 37 records including 126 901 participants were finally collected. Overall, the pooled RR (95% CI) associated with cigarette smoking was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09–1.47) for all-cause mortality, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.92–1.28) for major adverse cardiovascular events, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.69–1.35) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.81–1.64) for myocardial infarction. The increased risk of all-cause mortality was also observed in former smokers compared with those who had never smoked (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03–1.38). Furthermore, the negative effects of cigarette smoking on all-cause mortality were also observed in most subgroups. Cigarette smoking has been shown to increase the likelihood of all-cause mortality in patients after coronary revascularization with PCI or CABG. Smoking cessation is essential for PCI or CABG patients to manage their coronary artery disease.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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