Δευτέρα, 5 Αυγούστου 2019

Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and rifaximin for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a network meta-analysis
imageFor the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients with ascites, prophylactic antibiotics are recommended as a standard regimen. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of norfloxacin (N), ciprofloxacin (C), trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (T-S), and rifaximin (R) in the prevention of SBP. We searched the electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science from inception till 1 August 2018. The randomized-controlled trials that compared N, C, T-S, R, and placebo (P) were identified. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was carried out using the software STATA 14.0 and Revman 5.3. We included 16 studies involving 1984 participants in the NMA for SBP prevention. The NMA results showed that, compared with those treated with P (reference), patients treated with C, N, or R had a lower incidence of SBP and mortality. Similarly, the incidences of SBP and mortality for R were lower than those for N. The probabilities of ranking results showed that R ranked first with respect to the outcomes of the incidence of SBP and mortality. According to our results, R seemed to be the optimal regimen for protecting against SBP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, considering the limitations of our study, additional high-quality studies are required in this respect.

The association between functional dyspepsia and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studies
imageConcomitant functional dyspepsia (FD) and psychosocial stressors have been reported; however, the association between FD and depression remains controversial and no quantitative meta-analysis exists. Published articles were identified through a comprehensive review of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to the 8 July 2018. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals and subgroup analyses were calculated using a random-effects model. Findings for a total of 59 029 individuals were pooled across 23 studies and examined. Our analyses showed a positive association between FD and depression, with an OR of 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 2.02–3.81; I2=100%). In the subgroup analysis, FD patients in Europe (OR=6.19) were more likely to have depression compared with Asians (OR=2.47); the overall significance results decreased the most in subgroup which the overall significance of the subgroup analyses results decreased the most in studies that adjusted for BMI (OR=1.42). Our meta‐analysis showed a positive association between FD and depression. Further large‐scale prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the causality between FD and depression.

Budesonide treatment for microscopic colitis: systematic review and meta-analysis
imageMicroscopic colitis (MC), encompassing lymphocytic and collagenous colitis, is a common cause for chronic nonbloody diarrhoea, which impacts significantly on the quality of life for patients. Despite increasing awareness of the condition and its treatment, there is considerable variation in therapeutic approaches. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of budesonide in the treatment of MC. We searched Medline, Embase and Central databases using predefined search methodology for randomised trials using budesonide in the treatment of MC. We extracted data, on the efficacy and safety of budesonide, from studies identified that met the feasibility for analysis criteria. These data were pooled with a fixed effects model. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) for a response to budesonide therapy at induction and maintenance were 7.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.08–13.19] and 8.35 (95% CI: 4.14–16.85) respectively. Histological response rates were superior in budesonide-treated patients compared to placebo following induction (OR: 11.52; 95% CI: 5.67–23.40) and maintenance treatment (OR: 5.88; 95% CI: 1.90–18.17). There was no difference in adverse events. Significant relapse rates (>50%) were observed following treatment cessation with no difference noted between the budesonide or the placebo-treated patients. Budesonide is an effective treatment option for MC for achieving induction and maintenance of both clinical and histological response. High relapse rates on treatment cessation were observed.

Prevalence of dyspepsia in patients with cholecystolithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
imageCholecystolithiasis and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both highly prevalent in the industrialized world and may exist concomitantly. The presence of both conditions impedes identification of the source of symptoms, leading to a risk of ineffective cholecystectomies with lack of symptom resolution. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of dyspepsia in patients with uncomplicated cholecystolithiasis. The electronic databases Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles reporting the prevalence of dyspepsia in adults (≥18 years) with uncomplicated cholecystolithiasis. Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval were calculated. I2 statistics were used to determine heterogeneity and the Methodological Evaluation of Observational Research criteria were applied for quality assessment. The study was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Of the 1696 studies evaluated, 13 reported the prevalence of dyspepsia in a total of 1227 cholecystolithiasis patients seeking medical care. The pooled prevalence of dyspepsia in patients with cholecystolithiasis was 65.7% (95% confidence interval: 51–79%). However, heterogeneity was large across studies. Overall, three studies used validated diagnostic criteria. Variation in diagnostic measures significantly influenced the prevalence of dyspepsia. In conclusion, symptoms similar to those of functional gastrointestinal disorders are common in patients with cholecystolithiasis, obscuring the source of abdominal complaints. Tools to select patients who will benefit from cholecystectomy are paramount to prevent ineffective surgery.

Peroral cholangioscopy with cholangioscopy-directed biopsies in the diagnosis of biliary malignancies: a systemic review and meta-analysis
imageBackground and aim Accurate diagnosis is essential in the appropriate management of biliary strictures. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy of cholangioscopy-directed biopsies in differentiating biliary intraductal malignancies from benign lesions. Materials and methods Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. Pooling was performed by both fixed-effects and random-effects models. Only studies from which a 2×2 table could be constructed for true-positive, false-negative, false-positive, and true-negative values were included. Results Initial search identified 2110 reference articles for peroral cholangioscopy; of these, 160 relevant articles were selected and reviewed. Data were extracted from 15 studies (N=539) that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity of cholangioscopy-directed biopsies in diagnosing malignancy was 71.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 66.1–77.1] and pooled specificity was 99.1% (95% CI: 96.9–99.9). The positive likelihood ratio of cholangioscopy-directed biopsies was 18.1 (95% CI: 9.1–35.8), whereas the negative likelihood ratio was 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.4). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 71.6 (95% CI: 32.8–156.4). All the pooled estimates calculated by fixed-effects and random-effect models were similar. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves showed an area under the curve of 0.98. The χ2 heterogeneity for all the pooled accuracy estimates was 5.62 (P=0.96). Conclusion Peroral cholangioscopy with cholangioscopy-directed biopsies has a high specificity in differentiating intraductal malignancies from benign lesions. Cholangioscopy-directed biopsies should be strongly considered for biliary stricture evaluation.

How to best measure quality of life in coeliac disease? A validation and comparison of disease-specific and generic quality of life measures
imageObjective Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in chronic disease. Generic HRQoL questionnaires may not adequately reflect disease-specific challenges in coeliac disease. We investigated whether disease-specific HRQoL questionnaires add relevant information to generic measures that will better help to identify patients experiencing problems. Patients and methods We performed a cross-cultural validation of the Celiac Disease Quality Of Life-survey (CD-QOL), next we developed and validated a new disease-specific HRQoL questionnaire, and finally compared their predictive validity with the disease-generic RAND SF-36/SF-12 in 825 patients (mean age: 56.1±15.8 years) with (reported) biopsy-proven coeliac disease. Internal consistency and convergent, discriminative and predictive validity of the questionnaires was determined. Results Two Dutch versions of the CD-QOL were validated, consisting of 14 and six items, respectively (CD-QOL-14-NL, CD-QOL-6-NL). We developed and validated the CeliacQ-27, which has 27-items across three subscales (Limitations, Worries and Impact on daily life), and a short seven-item version, the CeliacQ-7. All questionnaires had excellent psychometric properties and differentiated well between active disease and clinical remission and strict versus poor dietary adherence. The added value of the disease-specific questionnaires to the generic HRQoL measure to the explained variance of symptom burden and dietary adherence was limited. Conclusion HRQoL in patients with coeliac disease can easily be assessed by brief generic as well as disease-specific measures. Disease-specific questionnaires, however, provide more explicit information on disease-relevant areas of functioning.

Young age and tobacco use are predictors of lower medication adherence in inflammatory bowel disease
imageBackground Medication adherence is crucial in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) because medication nonadherence in these patients is associated with an increased risk of flare-up, relapse, recurrence, loss of response to anti-tumour necrosis factor agents, morbidity and mortality, and poor quality of life. Data on risk factors are very controversial in the literature. Aim To assess the prevalence of medication nonadherence and to identify predictors of low medication adherence in Spanish patients with IBD. Patients and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study that included consecutive outpatients with IBD attending in our adult tertiary clinic in a 3-month period. Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Scale questionnaire as well as a survey of sociodemographic data were used. Results A total of 181 patients were evaluated. Almost half of the patients (46.4%) had high medication adherence, 30.9% had medium adherence, and 22.7% had low adherence. In relation to predictive factors of medication adherence, multivariate analysis showed that age was associated with high adherence [odds ratio (OR): 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–1.06; P=0.002]. However, being a smoker and presence of Crohn's disease were associated with low adherence (OR: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.36–8.90; P<0.01 and OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.12–5.79; P<0.05, respectively). Conclusion Only half of patients were high medication adherers. Young age, active smoking, and Crohn's disease seems to be predictors of low medication adherence. On the basis of these data, efforts for reinforce medication adherence should be especially directed to young patients and smokers.

Impact of occupational stress on irritable bowel syndrome pathophysiology and potential management in active duty noncombat Greek military personnel: a multicenter prospective survey
imageIntroduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the gut–brain axis interaction disorders. It has global distribution with varying prevalence and particular financial and psychological consequences. IBS has been associated with stress and anxiety, conditions that are usually prevalent in the army. There are scarce data investigating the impact of IBS on noncombat active duty military without reports of Greek military or stress in the occupational environment. Materials and methods The main exclusion criteria in our noncombat military multicenter prospective survey were gastrointestinal pathologies, malignancies, hematochezia, recent infections and antibiotics prescription, and pregnancy. Questionnaires included a synthesis of baseline information, lifestyle, and diet, psychological and stress-investigating scales and the IBS diagnosis checklist. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Rome IV criteria were utilized. Results Among 1605 participants included finally, the prevalence of IBS was 8% and 131 cases were identified. Women were more vulnerable to IBS, although male sex was prevalent at a ratio of 3.5 : 1 (male:female) in the entire sample. The mean age of all participants was 23.85 years; most of the IBS patients were older than thirty. Abnormal anxiety scores and high levels of occupational stress were related to an IBS diagnosis. Discussion This prospective multicenter survey showed, for the first time, the potential impact of occupational stress on IBS in active duty noncombat Greek Military personnel. The diagnosis of IBS by questionnaire is a quick, affordable way that can upgrade, by its management, the quality of life and relieve from the military burden. Our results are comparable with previous studies, although large-scale epidemiological studies are required for the confirmation of a possible causative relationship.

Premedication with corticosteroids does not impact the pharmacokinetics of infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease irrespective of azathioprine cotreatment
imageObjective Loss of infliximab (IFX) effect is a clinical challenge in the management of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), but this can potentially be reduced with azathioprine (AZA) or with corticosteroids (CS). We aimed to study whether CS premedication with or without cotreatment with AZA could reduce antibody formation and affect the IFX elimination rate. Patients and methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at two centers with CD patients receiving maintenance IFX therapy for 12–18 months. In addition to IFX, patients received either CS premedication or not, with or without concominant AZA. Results Fifty-seven patients were included in the study. Thirty-one patients received premedication with CSs, and 11 (35.5%) of these also received AZA, whereas this was the case for 22 of 26 (84.6%) patients in the non-CS group. No difference in IFX trough level (P=0.10) or halftime elimination (P=0.31) was observed with or without CS premedication. Concomitant AZA was associated with significantly longer mean half-life of IFX (P=0.04). Total IFX antibody concentrations were 15.8 and 12.9 with and without CS, respectively, in those not receiving AZA versus 4.3 and 6.1 AU/ml with and without CS, respectively, in those receiving AZA (P=0.004). Premedication with CS did not have any effect on the frequency of antibody formation (P=0.28). Conclusion In patients with CD and in maintenance IFX therapy, premedication with CS did not influence antibody formation, IFX trough levels or IFX halftime elimination, irrespective of concomitant AZA use. However, the use of AZA was associated with higher IFX trough levels and lower total IFX antibody concentrations.

Acute pancreatitis in end-stage renal disease patients in the USA: a nationwide, propensity score-matched analysis
imageBackground Limited data exist regarding the effects of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to evaluate the association between ESRD and outcomes and resource utilization of AP. Materials and methods The 2014 National Inpatient Sample database was used to identify all hospitalized patients with a principal diagnosis of AP. Propensity score matching was performed to create a matched cohort of ESRD and non-ESRD patients. The in-hospital mortality, morbidity, resource utilization and expenditures of AP in ESRD patients were compared to non-ESRD patients. Multivariate analysis was performed for further adjustment for potential confounders. Results Of 382 595 AP patients, 7380 ESRD patients and 8050 non-ESRD patients were created after propensity score matching. ESRD patients had more tendency to have hypercalcemia-related or AP-related to other/unspecified causes, whereas non-ESRD patients had more tendency to have alcohol-related, gallstone-related, and hypertriglyceridemia-related AP. In multivariate analysis, ESRD was associated with increased in-hospital mortality, increased length of hospital stay, and increased hospitalization costs and charges. No differences were observed in inpatient morbidity, imaging study use, and procedures performed during hospitalization. Conclusion In this large nationwide study using inpatient USA database, we demonstrate higher AP-related mortality, and resource utilization among ESRD patients when compared with non-ESRD patients.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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