Κυριακή, 16 Ιουνίου 2019

Behavior Analysis

Why WIBA?

Abstract

Historically, men have dominated the field of behavior analysis; however, recent trends have indicated increased participation by women. As a result of these recent changes to the field of behavior analysis, the inaugural Women in Behavior Analysis Conference (WIBA) was hosted in 2017. WIBA was initially established to highlight the accomplishments of women in the field of behavior analysis, to provide opportunities for early career behavior analysts to obtain mentorship, and to encourage meaningful discourse about gender issues in the field. Since the inaugural conference, WIBA has attempted to establish a platform for promoting gender equality but most recently has incorporated efforts related to the needs surrounding social justice and inclusiveness in the field of behavior analysis. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the WIBA conference. The history of WIBA is discussed, including the impetus for establishing the conference. This paper highlights existing issues on gender equality in the field of behavior analysis and the larger community, serves to demonstrate how WIBA is part of the solution, and shares accomplishments to date. Furthermore, future directions and goals are presented.



Board Certified Behavior Analysts' Supervisory Practices of Trainees: Survey Results and Recommendations

Abstract

The field of behavior analysis relies on supervised fieldwork to shape the repertoires of individuals aspiring to sit for the Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB®) exam. Board Certified Behavior Analysts® (BCBAs®) who are providing supervision to those seeking certification must follow the supervision and ethics requirements as directed by the BACB. We conducted a survey of BCBAs currently providing supervision to gather information about current practices and barriers. The top areas of success and need are presented based on the responses of 284 participants who completed the entire survey, along with recommendations.



On the Standardization of the Functional Analysis

Abstract

The functional analysis procedures described in the seminal Iwata et al. (1982/1994) study are prominent in the applied behavior analytic literature, having been replicated hundreds of times over the past 30 years (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013; Hanley, McCord, Iwata, 2003). However, the extent to which particular components of this functional analysis model have become more or less prominent over time is not clear from these literature reviews. We therefore conducted a review of the functional analysis literature between the years of 1965 and 2016 to determine the trends in the usage of particular components over time and to determine if the published literature reflects a standardization of the manner in which functional analyses of problem behavior are conducted. Furthermore, we discuss whether or not this standardization of a functional analysis model is currently necessary.



Utilizing Peers to Support Academic Learning for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract

The inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder in academic settings is becoming more common. However, most practices focus on increasing social skills even though students also struggle in academic areas. There is a need for strategies that address both social and academic skill deficits, are evidence based, and are easy to implement in the classroom. Peer-mediated interventions have evidence supporting their use in promoting social and academic behavior change and are socially valid and cost-effective. The purpose of this paper is to present examples of how to implement 2 common peer-tutoring strategies: Classwide Peer Tutoring and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Examples for implementing both strategies are provided using a hypothetical student in a general education setting, followed by a brief summary of evidence supporting the peer-mediated academic instruction.



The Potential Role of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Cultural Environment of Māori Mental Health

Abstract

Significant mental health disparity exists in Aotearoa New Zealand between Māori and the non-Māori majority. Although much has been written about mental health and the cultural competence of health professionals, cultural context has not been specifically considered within the behavioral paradigm, and it was placed in the center of practice in multicultural societies by the behavioral community only recently. In this article, we discuss some of the problems encountered by Māori in the mental health system and the role of behavior analysts in addressing the divide in service provision. Dialogue with other disciplines that investigate the importance of indigenous cultural values is necessary. We conclude with some suggestions about strategies that may be implemented across services by behavior analysts in order to improve mental health outcomes for Māori.



Procedures and Accuracy of Discontinuous Measurement of Problem Behavior in Common Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis

Abstract

Discontinuous measurement involves dividing an observation into intervals and recording whether a behavior occurred during some or all of each interval (i.e., interval recording) or at the exact time of observation (i.e., momentary time sampling; MTS). Collecting discontinuous data is often easier for observers than collecting continuous data, but it also produces more measurement error. Smaller intervals (e.g., 5 s, 10 s, 15 s) tend to produce less error but may not be used in everyday practice. This study examined the most common intervals used by a large sample of data collectors and evaluated the effect of these intervals on measurement error. The most commonly used intervals fell between 2 and 5 min. We then analyzed over 800 sessions to evaluate the correspondence between continuous and discontinuous data at each commonly used interval. Intervals of 3 min or less produced the greatest correspondence, and MTS outperformed interval recording.



Correction to: Police Academy Training, Performance, and Learning

The original version of this article was corrected to use the correct version of Fig. 2.



Improving Classroom Appearance and Organization Through a Supervisory Performance Improvement Intervention

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of a supervisory intervention on maintenance of appearance and organization in classrooms at a human services program for children and youths. The intervention combined performance feedback to classroom staff, public posting of performance outcomes, and eligibility for a performance-based incentive. Conducted in a multiple-baseline design, intervention was immediately and consistently effective in all classrooms. These findings support organizational behavior management applications within human services programs to improve performance that is related to environmental care.



Using Pictures Depicting App Icons to Conduct an MSWO Preference Assessment on a Tablet Device

Abstract

Identifying preferred content on tablet devices may be important when using such devices in programming. This study included six adults with disabilities and examined using laminated picture cards depicting application (app) icons to conduct multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments of iPad content. Following identification of preference hierarchies, we conducted reinforcer assessments to validate preference assessment results by demonstrating that selected apps functioned as reinforcers. We identified preference hierarchies for all participants, and the highest preferred app functioned as a reinforcer for a vocational task in five out of six participants' reinforcer assessments.



Considerations of Baseline Classroom Conditions in Conducting Functional Behavior Assessments in School Settings

Abstract

Research has shown that environmental classroom variables affect academic performance and student behavior, and appropriate behavior is often related to the presence of effective teaching practices and classroom management (Moore Partin, Robertson, Maggin, Oliver, & Wehby Preventing School Failure, 54, 172–178, 2010). For behavior analysts consulting in elementary education, some referrals for assessment and treatment of individual student behavior can be resolved by helping teachers establish effective class-wide practices. For this reason, some researchers suggest that behavior analysts should assess baseline classroom conditions as part of a functional behavior assessment (FBA; Anderson & St. Peter Behavior Analysis in Practice, 6(2), 62, 2013; Sutherland & Wehby Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11, 239–248, 2001). Through a literature review on effective classroom practices, we identified four specific classroom variables that have large effects on both learning outcomes and student behavior; we suggest consultants consider these four variables in baseline classroom assessments: (a) rates of active student responding (ASR), (b) appropriateness of the curriculum, (c) feedback and reinforcement, and (d) effective instructions and transitions. In this article, we will discuss each of these variables, describe how they can affect classroom behavior, and provide recommended targets from the research literature. We also provide a data-collection form for practitioners to use in their assessments of baseline classroom ecology, and for situations when these practices are not in place, we suggest potential resources for antecedent- and consequence-based interventions to decrease challenging classroom behavior.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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