Τετάρτη, 12 Ιουνίου 2019

Anaesthesiology

A systematic review of randomised controlled trials investigating prehabilitation before major intra-abdominal cancer surgery: An analysis of prehabilitation content and outcome measures
BACKGROUND Although prehabilitation programmes for patients undergoing major intra-abdominal cancer surgery have been shown to improve pre-operative physical fitness, the conclusions regarding any postoperative benefits are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of and the outcome measures used in studies of prehabilitation programmes for these patients. It was hypothesised that the content of prehabilitation programmes is often therapeutically invalid, and that the postoperative outcomes assessed are inadequate to evaluate the impact of complications. DESIGN A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES Studies published between January 2009 and January 2019 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase and PEDro. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Studies were included when they investigated the effects of prehabilitation in patients undergoing intra-abdominal surgery for cancer, reported pre-operative and/or postoperative outcome measures and were conducted as a randomised controlled trial. Studies for which the full text was not available were excluded, as were studies of patients undergoing nonabdominal cancer surgery. RESULTS Eight studies (565 patients) were included. Therapeutic validity was low in five studies. Most studies included low-risk surgical patients and considerable variation was observed between prehabilitation programmes in terms of supervision, training context, frequency, intensity, duration and training type. Objective monitoring of training progression was typically not performed, and most trials did not include nutritional or psychological support. Postoperative complications were reported in seven studies, but no study reported the impact of postoperative complications, nor on long-term postoperative outcomes. CONCLUSION The content of prehabilitation programmes was heterogeneous. Studies with a high therapeutic validity found unequivocal evidence that prehabilitation had beneficial effects on postoperative outcomes. Future research should focus on adequate selection and inclusion of high-risk surgical patients and provide personalised and probably multimodal (partly) supervised prehabilitation, with objective monitoring of progress. Measuring the incidence and impact of postoperative complications may contribute to demonstrating the clinical value of prehabilitation. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 Correspondence to Bart C. Bongers, PhD, Maastricht University, Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands Tel: +0031433882236; e-mail: bart.bongers@maastrichtuniversity.nl Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Ultrasound-assisted vs. landmark-guided paramedian spinal anaesthesia in the elderly: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Neuraxial ultrasound might improve the efficacy of spinal anaesthesia but this has not been tested for the paramedian approach in the elderly. OBJECTIVE The current study aims to assess whether the ultrasound-assisted paramedian technique can decrease the number of needle passes required for success compared with the landmark-guided paramedian technique in the elderly. DESIGN Prospective randomised controlled study. SETTING Single-institution, tertiary-level hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea from October 2017 to January 2018. PATIENTS Eighty patients aged at least 60 years undergoing orthopaedic surgery. INTERVENTION All received paramedian spinal anaesthesia by either the landmark-guided or preprocedural ultrasound-assisted technique. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The number of needle passes required for successful dural puncture. RESULTS The number of needle passes (median [interquartile range]) was significantly lower (1.0 [1.0 to 2.0] vs. 4.5 [2.0 to 7.0]) and the success rate at first pass significantly higher at 65.0 vs. 17.5% in the ultrasound compared with the landmark group (both P < 0.001). The ultrasound-assisted technique required a longer time for establishing landmarks 117.5 [85.5 to 150.7] vs. 17.5 [14.0 to 23.0] s, and for total procedure 181.5 [133.5 to 212.5] vs. 92.5 [62.5 to 176.5] s, but a shorter time for administering spinal anaesthesia 39.5 [31.5 to 71.3] vs. 77.0 [45.8 to 136.5] s (all P < 0.001) than the landmark-guided technique. The ultrasound group showed lower periprocedural pain scores 3 [2 to 4] vs. 4 [4 to 6] (P = 0.009) and discomfort scores 2 [0 to 3] vs. 5 [2 to 6] (P = 0.003) than the landmark group. CONCLUSION Compared with the landmark-guided paramedian technique, the ultrasound-assisted paramedian technique decreases the number of needle manipulations and periprocedural pain and discomfort scores in the elderly. Our results suggest that neuraxial ultrasonography facilitates the performance of spinal anaesthesia in the elderly. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT03316352. Correspondence to Jin-Tae Kim, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea E-mail: jintae73@gmail.com Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Bilateral subcostal transversus abdominis plane block does not improve the postoperative analgesia provided by multimodal analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised placebo-controlled trial
BACKGROUND Laparoscopic cholecystectomy might be considered minor surgery, but it may result in severe postoperative pain. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, which produces long-lasting supra-umbilical parietal analgesia, might improve analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether subcostal TAP block would reduce opioid consumption and pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients provided with multimodal analgesia. DESIGN A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. SETTING The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital from December 2017 to June 2018. PATIENTS Sixty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. Anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia (etoricoxib, paracetamol, ketamine and dexamethasone) were standardised. INTERVENTION After induction of anaesthesia, patients were allocated into two groups: ultrasound-guided bilateral subcostal TAP block with 20 ml of levobupivacaine 0.375% and epinephrine 5 μg ml−1 or 0.9% saline with epinephrine 5 μg ml−1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Opioid consumption in the recovery room and during the first 24 h after surgery were recorded. Postoperative somatic and visceral pain scores, fatigue and nausea were measured. Intra-operative end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane (FETSEVO) were also recorded. RESULTS Twenty-four hour postoperative opioid consumption were similar in both groups: 21.2 mg (95% CI 15.3 to 27.1) vs. 25.2 (95% CI 15.1 to 35.5) oral morphine equivalent in the levobupivacaine and 0.9% saline groups, respectively; P = 0.48. No significant between-group differences were observed with regards to parietal (P = 0.56) and visceral (P = 0.50) pain scores, fatigue and nausea. FETSEVO was slightly lower in the levobupivacaine group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Subcostal TAP block does not improve the analgesia provided by multimodal analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It allows for a small reduction in intra-operative sevoflurane requirements. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT0339153 Correspondence to Jean L. Joris, MD, PhD, Department of Anaesthesiology, CHU Liège, Domaine du Sart Tilman, Avenue de l'hôpital Bat B35, Liège B-4000, Belgium. Tel: +32 4 3667180; fax: +32 4 3667636; e-mail: jean.joris@chuliege.be © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Effects of goal-directed crystalloid vs. colloid fluid therapy on microcirculation during free flap surgery: A prospective randomised clinical trial
BACKGROUND Macro, and microcirculatory effects of crystalloids and colloids are difficult to compare, because interventions to achieve haemodynamic stability seldom follow similar criteria. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to compare the effects of crystalloids and colloids on the microcirculation during free flap surgery when management was guided by detailed haemodynamic assessment. DESIGN A prospective randomised, controlled clinical trial. SETTINGS The investigation was performed at the University of Szeged, Hungary. PATIENTS Patients undergoing maxillofacial tumour resection and free flap reconstruction were randomised into groups treated with either intra-operative crystalloid (Ringerfundin, n = 15) or colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch, HES, n = 15) solutions. INTERVENTIONS Macrohaemodynamics were monitored by a noncalibrated device (PulsioFlex-PULSION). Central venous oxygen saturation, venous-to-arterial PCO2-gap, lactate levels and urine output were measured hourly. Maintenance fluid was Ringerfundin (1 ml kg−1 h−1), and a multimodal, individualised, approach-based algorithm was applied to guide haemodynamic support. Hypovolaemia was treated with Ringerfundin or HES fluid boluses, respectively. The microcirculatory effects were assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry (PeriFlux 5000 LDPM), with the probe placed on the flap and on a control area. Measurements were performed after the flap was prepared, then 1 and 12 h later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary end-point was microcirculatory perfusion as determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry. RESULTS There was no difference between the groups regarding patient characteristics. Both groups remained haemodynamically stable throughout due to the use of approximately a 1.5 times higher total fluid volume in the Ringerfundin group than in the HES group: mean ± SD: 2581 ± 986 and 1803 ± 497) ml, respectively, (P = 0.011). There was no significant difference in the microcirculatory blood flow between the groups. CONCLUSION Our results showed that when fluid management was guided by detailed haemodynamic assessment, more crystalloid than colloid was needed to maintain haemodynamic stability, but there was no difference between the effects of crystalloids and colloids on the microcirculation. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03288051). Correspondence to Ildikó László, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, University of Szeged, 6 Semmelweis St., Szeged 6725, Hungary; E-mail: laszlo.ildiko@med.u-szeged.hu © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Allogeneic red cell transfusion and its influence on relevant humoral and cellular immunological parameters: A prospective observational trial
BACKGROUND It is assumed that transfusion of allogeneic red cells is associated with increased peri-operative mortality and morbidity. Also assumed is the theory of transfusion-related immunomodulation. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that red cell transfusion specifically leads to an immunological response in surgical patients. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Anaesthesia, University Hospital, Thailand. PATIENTS Low-risk, noncancer patients, aged 18 to 75 years undergoing elective major spine surgery, with and without red cell transfusion therapy. INTERVENTIONS Blood specimens were withdrawn four times (prior to surgery and on days 1, 3 and 5). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Assessment of immunocompetent cells and cytokines in transfused and nontransfused patients using flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA. RESULTS From a total of 78 patients, 61 met the requirements and were analysed in three groups: 19 with no transfusion and 26 and 16 transfused intra-operatively and on day 1 or 2, respectively. No patient experienced peri-operative haemorrhage. Postoperative infection or thrombosis occurred in 5.5% of nontransfused patients and 16.6% of transfused patients; the difference was not significant. There was no significant immunomodulatory effect of red cell transfusion: of 45 immunological parameters, only five little-relevant cytokines were significantly affected, although slightly and nonspecifically. CONCLUSION Our data indicate that red cell transfusion alone does not create an immunological response in otherwise healthy surgical patients. Our findings do not generally contradict the transfusion-related immunomodulation phenomenon, which has, however, primarily been observed in patients with an already weakened or procedure-deteriorated immune system, such as from malignant disease, significant comorbidity, extensive abdominal/thoracic surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was registered on 15 May 2014, before enrolment of the first patient, at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02140216. Correspondence to Benno von Bormann, Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkok 10700, Thailand Tel: +66 918825723/+66 24197990; e-mail: bvb@jodu.de © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on gastric insufflation during induction of anaesthesia when using pressure-controlled ventilation via a face mask: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Face mask ventilation (FMV) during induction of anaesthesia is associated with risk of gastric insufflation that may lead to gastric regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to reduce gastric regurgitation. We therefore hypothesised that CPAP followed by FMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during induction of anaesthesia would reduce the risk of gastric insufflation. OBJECTIVE The primary aim was to compare the incidence of gastric insufflation during FMV with a fixed PEEP level or zero PEEP (ZEEP) after anaesthesia induction. A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of FMV with or without PEEP on upper oesophageal sphincter (UES), oesophageal body and lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressures. DESIGN A randomised controlled trial. SETTING Single centre, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS Thirty healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS Pre-oxygenation without or with CPAP 10 cmH2O, followed by pressure-controlled FMV with either ZEEP or PEEP 10 cmH2O after anaesthesia induction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES A combined impedance/manometry catheter was used to detect the presence of gas and to measure oesophageal pressures. The primary outcome measure was the cumulative incidence of gastric insufflation, defined as a sudden anterograde increase in impedance of more than 1 kΩ over the LES. Secondary outcome measures were UES, oesophageal body and LES pressures. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of gastric insufflation related to peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), was significantly higher in the PEEP group compared with the ZEEP group (log-rank test P < 0.01). When PIP reached 30 cmH2O, 13 out of 15 in the PEEP group compared with five out of 15 had shown gastric insufflation. There was a significant reduction of oesophageal sphincter pressures within groups comparing pre-oxygenation to after anaesthesia induction, but there were no significant differences in oesophageal sphincter pressures related to the level of PEEP. CONCLUSION Contrary to the primary hypothesis, with increasing PIP the tested PEEP level did not protect against but facilitated gastric insufflation during FMV. This result suggests that PEEP should be used with caution after anaesthesia induction during FMV, whereas CPAP during pre-oxygenation seems to be safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02238691. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 Correspondence to Per Cajander, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Örebro University Hospital, Södra Grev-Rosengatan, 701 85, Örebro, Sweden Tel: +46 19 602 03 53; e-mail: per.cajander@regionorebrolan.se © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Effect of sevoflurane-based or propofol-based anaesthesia on the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury: A retrospective propensity score-matched analysis
BACKGROUND Propofol may help to protect against ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI); however, research on this topic is sparse. OBJECTIVE The current study aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the incidence of postoperative AKI after lung resection surgery between patients who received propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and those who received sevoflurane-based inhalational anaesthesia. DESIGN A retrospective observational study. SETTING A single tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS Medical records of patients aged 19 years or older who underwent curative lung resection surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer between January 2005 and February 2018 were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES After propensity score matching, the incidence of AKI in the first 3 postoperative days was compared between patients who received propofol and those who received sevoflurane. Logistic regression analyses were also used to investigate whether propofol-based TIVA lowered the risk of postoperative AKI. RESULTS The analysis included 2872 patients (1477 in the sevoflurane group and 1395 in the propofol group). After propensity score matching, 661 patients were included in each group; 24 (3.6%) of the 661 patients in the sevoflurane group developed AKI compared with 23 (3.5%) of the 661 patients in the propofol group (95% confidence intervals of difference in incidence −0.019 to 0.022, P = 0.882). The logistic regression analyses revealed that the incidence of AKI was not different in the two groups (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 1.71, P = 0.882). CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, no significant difference was found in the incidence of postoperative AKI after lung resection surgery between patients who received propofol-based TIVA and those who received sevoflurane-based inhalational anaesthesia. Considering the methodological limitation of this retrospective study, further studies are required to confirm these results. Correspondence to Tak Kyu Oh, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 166, Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si 13620, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Tel: +82 31 787 7501; fax: +82 31 787 4063; e-mail: airohtak@hotmail.com Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Colour Doppler ultrasound after major cardiac surgery improves diagnostic accuracy of the pulmonary infection score in acute respiratory failure: A prospective observational study
BACKGROUND Postoperative pneumonia is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery, and its diagnosis is difficult. Little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the detection of pneumonia in cardiac surgical patients. The substitution of chest radiography by colour Doppler LUS (LUS-sCPIS) in the simplified clinical pulmonary infection score (sCPIS) could improve the diagnosis of pneumonia following cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of LUS-sCPIS and of sCPIS alone in the detection of postoperative pneumonia after cardiac surgery. DESIGN A prospective study of diagnostic accuracy. SETTING A Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a French University Hospital. PATIENTS Fifty-one patients with acute respiratory failure within 72 h after cardiac surgery were enrolled between January and May 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The two index tests, LUS-sCPIS and sCPIS, were calculated for all patients at the onset of acute respiratory failure. The reference standard for the diagnosis of pneumonia was based on the consensus of three physicians, blind to the sCPIS and LUS-sCPIS data, based on a posthoc review of all the clinical, radiological and microbiological evidence. The diagnostic accuracy of LUS-sCPIS was compared with that of sCPIS in the detection of postoperative pneumonia. RESULTS Pneumonia was diagnosed in 26 out of 51 patients. The LUS-sCPIS detected the presence of pneumonia with a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI 0.85 to 0.99) and a specificity of 68% (95% CI 0.55 to 0.81). The sCPIS detected the presence of pneumonia with a sensitivity of 35% (95% CI 0.22 to 0.48) and a specificity of 84% (95% CI 0.74 to 0.94). The area under the curve (AUC) of LUS-sCPIS at 0.80 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.91) was higher than the AUC of sCPIS at 0.59 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.71; P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION Compared with sCPIS, LUS-sCPIS improved diagnostic accuracy in the detection of postoperative pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery. It could be a useful bedside tool to guide pneumonia management. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03279887. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03279887?term=bougl%C3%A9&rank=4 Correspondence to Adrien Bouglé, MD, PhD, Département d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation, Réanimation de Chirurgie Cardiaque, Institut de Cardiologie, Hôpital Universitaire La Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47–83 boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris 75013, France; e-mail: adrien.bougle@aphp.fr Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.ejanaesthesiology.com). © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Reintubation in the ICU following cardiac surgery: is it more difficult than first-time intubation in the operating room?: A prospective, observational study
BACKGROUND After cardiac surgery, a patient's trachea is usually extubated; however, 2 to 13% of cardiac surgery patients require reintubation in the ICU. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare the initial intubation in the cardiac operating room with reintubation (if required) in the ICU following cardiac surgery. DESIGN A prospective, observational study. SETTING Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Clinical Hospital of Santiago, Spain. PATIENTS With approval of the local ethics committee, over a 44-month period, we prospectively enrolled all cardiac surgical patients who were intubated in the operating room using direct laryngoscopy, and who required reintubation later in the ICU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary endpoint was to compare first-time success rates for intubation in the operating room and ICU. Secondary endpoints were to compare the technical difficulties of intubation (modified Cormack–Lehane glottic view, operator-reported difficulty of intubation, need for support devices for direct laryngoscopy) and the incidence of complications. RESULTS A total of 122 cardiac surgical patients required reintubation in the ICU. Reintubation was associated with a lower first-time success rate than in the operating room (88.5 vs. 97.6%, P = 0.0048). Reintubation in the ICU was associated with a higher incidence of Cormack–Lehane grades IIb, III or IV views (34.5 vs. 10.7%, P < 0.0001), a higher incidence of moderate or difficult intubation (17.2 vs. 6.5%, P = 0.0001) and a greater need for additional support during direct laryngoscopy (20.5 vs. 10.7%, P = 0.005). Complications were more common during reintubations in the ICU (39.3 vs. 5.7%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION Compared with intubations in the operating room, reintubation of cardiac surgical patients in the ICU was associated with more technical difficulties and a higher incidence of complications. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER Ethics committee of Galicia number 2015-012. Correspondence to Dr Manuel Taboada, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Servicio de Anestesiología y Reanimación del Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana sn, CP:15706 Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, España Tel: +00 34 678195618; e-mail: manutabo@yahoo.es © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Propofol intravenous anaesthesia with desflurane compared with desflurane alone on postoperative liver function after living-donor liver transplantation: A randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Propofol is an anaesthetic that resembles α-tocopherol and it has been suggested that it protects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in liver transplantation. Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) presents an opportunity to test this hypothesis in both donors and recipients. OBJECTIVES We compared clinical outcomes after LDLT following anaesthesia with propofol and desflurane against desflurane alone. DESIGN A prospective, randomised, parallel study. SETTING Single-centre trial, study period June 2014 and May 2017. PATIENTS Sixty-two pairs of adult donors and recipients who underwent LDLT. INTERVENTION Patients were randomised to receive either desflurane balanced anaesthesia or propofol total intravenous anaesthesia combined with desflurane anaesthesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was peak liver transaminase levels during the first 7 days after surgery. Liver function was assessed at 10 different time-points (before surgery, 1 h after reperfusion, upon arrival in the ICU, and daily until postoperative day 7). Creatinine was measured to evaluate the incidence of acute kidney injury. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1 were assessed in 31 donors after induction, at hepatectomy and at the end of surgery and in 52 recipients after induction, and 1, 3 and 24 h after reperfusion. RESULTS Peak liver transaminase levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Liver function tests and creatinine were also similar between groups at all time-points. There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications, including acute kidney injury. With the exception of higher TNF-α in donors of the Propofol group at hepatectomy (0.60 ± 0.29 vs. 1.03 ± 0.53, P = 0.01) cytokine results were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION Despite the simultaneous administration of propofol infusion in both donors and recipients, no improvement in laboratory or surgical outcome was observed after LDLT compared with patients who received desflurane anaesthesia alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02504138 at clinicaltrials.gov. Correspondence to Young C. Yoo, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Severance Hospital, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, South Korea Tel: +82 2 2228 2420; fax: +82 2 2227 7897; e-mail: seaoyster@yuhs.ac © 2019 European Society of Anaesthesiology

Alexandros Sfakianakis
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