Τετάρτη, 1 Μαΐου 2019

Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

Arch of cricoid cartilage anatomical variation: morphological and radiological aspects

Abstract

The cricoid cartilage serves as an anatomical reference for several surgical procedures for access to the airway. Additionally, it serves as an attachment point for muscles that move the vocal folds. We present a case where the cricoid cartilage arch is divided into distinct superior and inferior arches, with a fibrous membrane between them. We did not find any similar description to this case in the literature, which makes it unique to date. This type of variation is important knowledge for clinicians and surgeons during airway management in the anterior neck region. The presence of this variation could induce an error during a palpation of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, realized in clinical examination and surgical or emergency procedures.



Using the zygomatic arch as a reference line for clinical applications and anthropological studies

Abstract

Purpose

The Frankfurt line is the most frequently and widely used reference line in cephalometric analysis, but has shortcomings including the difficulty of landmark identification. This study investigated using the superior border of the zygomatic arch as a new external bony landmark, including measuring the angle between the new reference line and the Frankfurt line.

Methods

Facial computed tomography scans were obtained from 170 patients (100 males and 70 females) hospitalized at Konkuk University Chungju Hospital. After three-dimensional reconstruction, the locations of the porion and the inferior orbital rim and the superior border of the zygomatic arch were identified twice by two observers using software. A horizontal line parallel to the superior border of the zygomatic arch was established. The angle between the Frankfurt line and new reference line was then measured on each side.

Results

There was no significant intraobserver or interobserver bias. The angle between the Frankfurt line and the superior border of the zygomatic arch was 4.5° ± 2.5° (mean ± SD), and it was somewhat larger in females than males, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated the good reproducibility of the location of the superior border of the zygomatic arch and found that the angle between the new reference line and the Frankfurt line is relatively constant. The superior border of the zygomatic arch therefore has potential as an alternative reference line to the Frankfurt line in specific clinical applications and anthropological studies, since it is a more accessible bony landmark on the external skull.



Multiple muscular abnormalities in a fetal cadaver with CHARGE syndrome

Abstract

The CHARGE syndrome characterized by coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth, genitourinary hypoplasia, and ear anomalies is one of the rare syndromes. Although certain clinical issues (scapular winging, sloping shoulder, Sprengel's deformity, kyphosis and scoliosis) which could be related to abnormalities in musculoskeletal structures of the neck and shoulder have been identified in CHARGE syndrome, data on details of muscle anomalies seem to be quite limited in the literature. In this case report, bilateral multiple muscular abnormalities (agenesis of the trapezius, presence of the rhombo-atloid muscle, and presence of the bipartite rhomboid minor with superficial and deep parts) was presented in a fetus cadaver with atypical CHARGE syndrome to attract the attention of clinicians for definitive diagnoses and surgical reconstruction of the shoulders deformity such as scapular winging and Sprengel's deformity. By considering the previous studies, we propose that the absence of the trapezius, as well as the other muscle abnormalities around the neck and shoulder, should be revised as being a component of CHARGE syndrome.



Differences in the strain applied to Achilles tendon fibers when the subtalar joint is overpronated: a simulation study

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the strain applied to each of the tendon fiber bundles of the medial head of the gastrocnemius (MG), the lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG), and the soleus muscle (Sol) that compose the Achilles tendon (AT) when the subtalar joint is pronated and supinated.

Methods

Three AT twist types (least, moderate, extreme) were investigated. Using the MicroScribe system, the AT and the talocrural and subtalar joints were digitized to reconstruct three-dimensional models. Using this system, subtalar joint rotations in the pronation (20°) and supination (20°) directions were simulated, and the degrees of strain (%) on each tendon were calculated.

Results

For all twist types, when the subtalar joint was pronated, MG, LG, and Sol stretched, and when supinated, MG, LG, and Sol shortened. In particular, the least and severe twist types had large degrees of strain of Sol when the subtalar joint was pronated, and furthermore, each tendon fiber composing Sol had different degrees of strain.

Conclusions

The study results suggest that the degree of strain applied within the AT with subtalar joint pronation is not constant, and that, especially in least and extreme twist types, the risk of developing AT disorders may increase.



The diaphragma sellae, diaphragm opening, and subdiaphragmatic cistern: an anatomical study using magnetic resonance imaging

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies have explored the detailed morphology of the diaphragma sellae (DS), diaphragm opening (DO) or stoma, and subdiaphragmatic cistern (SDC) using neuroimages. The aim of the present study was to characterize these structures using magnetic resonance imaging.

Methods

Thin-sliced, sagittal and coronal T2-weighted imaging was performed for a total of 84 outpatients.

Results

The DS, DO, SDC, and relevant structures were consistently delineated in all patients. In 66% of patients, all three structures appeared to be highly variable, and were classifiable as six distinct morphological types. In 4% of patients, the DS presented as a complete sheet lacking a discernible DO. In addition, 30% of the patients presented with undiscernible SDCs. In the coronal sections of 11% of patients, the pituitary glands extended laterally, reaching or extending beyond the center line on the sectional image of the cavernous internal carotid artery.

Conclusions

Thin-sliced, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted sequences are useful for delineating the DS, DO, and SDC. Morphological variation of these structures among individuals may considerably influence the direction of pituitary tumor expansion.



Unusual and multiple variations of head and neck veins: a case report

Abstract

We report an unusual and multiple variation involving the right head and neck veins which were found during routine dissection in a 50-year-old male cadaver, facial vein draining into both external and internal jugular veins, fenestration in external jugular vein transmitting the supraclavicular nerve trunk, the anterior division of the retromandibular vein draining into anterior jugular vein and the absence of the common facial vein. The knowledge about these variations is important during various surgical and diagnostic procedures involving head and neck region.



An undescribed venous pathway intervening between the olfactory fossa and nasal vestibule

Abstract

Purpose

A curvilinear pathway intervening between the olfactory fossa and nasal vestibule has not been well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine its structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods

In total, 84 patients underwent thin-sliced, contrast MRI. Among these patients, 31 underwent additional thin-sliced, sagittal T2-weighted imaging.

Results

A curvilinear pathway intervening between the olfactory fossa and nasal vestibule was delineated on sagittal and coronal imaging in 98% and 82% of patients, respectively. All of these pathways demonstrated communication with the lower limit of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) or fine venous channels connecting to the SSS in the vicinity of the crista galli. The pathway was identified in the parasagittal regions on both sides with varying lengths, diameters, and curvatures. In 94% of the patients who underwent sagittal T2-weighted imaging, the pathways appeared as linear high-intensity signals. Most pathways were delineated as a single channel coursing extracranially adjacent to the olfactory fossa. In 38% of the patients, post-contrast sagittal images showed variable filling defects between the olfactory bulb and floor of the olfactory fossa, furthermore traversing the venous pathway. Additionally, in 73% of the patients, post-contrast images identified diploic venous channels, variably in the nasal bone and communicating with the venous pathway.

Conclusions

A curvilinear pathway intervening between the olfactory fossa and nasal vestibule is a consistent venous structure and may function as an extracranial route of cerebrospinal fluid drainage.



Complete bilateral Tessier's facial cleft number 5: surgical strategy for a rare case report

Abstract

The oro-ocular cleft number 5 according to the Tessier classification is one of the rarest facial clefts and few cases have been reported in the literature. Although the detailed structure of rare craniofacial clefts is well established, the cause of these pathological conditions is not. There are no existing guidelines for the management of this particular kind of cleft. We describe the case of a 19-month-old girl with a complete bilateral facial cleft. We describe the surgical steps taken to achieve the primary correction of the soft tissue deformation. Embryologic development and radiological approach are discussed, as are also the psychological and social aspects of severe facial deformities.



Anatomical variations of anterior ethmoidal artery and their significance in endoscopic sinus surgery: a systematic review

Abstract

Purpose

Anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) is at risk of injury in endoscopic sinus surgery due to its location. The aim of this review was to assess the anatomical variations of AEA and their significance.

Methods

A literature search was performed on PUBMED, SCOPUS AND EMBASE. The following keywords were used: ethmoidal artery; anterior ethmoidal artery; anterior ethmoidal canal; ethmoid sinus; ethmoid roof; skull base. The search was conducted over a period of 6 months between October 2016 and April 2017.

Results

105 articles were retrieved. 76 articles which were either case reports or unrelated topics were excluded. Out of the 29 full text articles retrieved, 16 articles were selected; 3 were cadaveric dissection, 5 combined cadaveric dissection and computed tomography (CT) and the rest were of CT studies. All studies were of level III evidence and a total of 1985 arteries were studied. Its position at the skull base was influenced by the presence of supraorbital ethmoid cell (SOEC) and length of the lateral lamella of cribriform plate (LLCP). Inter population morphological variations contribute to the anatomical variations.

Conclusions

The average diameter of AEA was 0.80 mm and the intranasal length was 5.82 mm. 79.2% was found between the second and third lamellae, 12.0% in the third lamella, 6% posterior to third lamella and 1.2% in the second lamella. Extra precaution should be taken in the presence of a well-pneumatized SOEC and a long LLCP as AEA tends to run freely below skull base.



Anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa: an innovative metrical assessment based on 3D segmentation on head CT-scan

Abstract

Purpose

The pterygopalatine fossa is an important anatomical structure for several surgical and anaesthesiologic procedures; yet, very few data are available about its size. This study aims at providing a metrical assessment of pterygopalatine fossa through an innovative 3D segmentation procedure on head CT-scans.

Methods

CT-scans from 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) aged between 18 and 85 years were chosen for the study. Right and left pterygopalatine fossae were segmented through ITK-SNAP open source software. Height and volume were calculated on the acquired 3D models. In addition, anterior–posterior nasal spine distance, upper facial height (nasion–prosthion) and biorbital breadth (ectoconchion–ectoconchion) were measured as well. Statistically significant differences of height and volume according to sex and side were assessed through two-way ANOVA test: sexually dimorphic measurements were further assessed through one-way ANCOVA test using the three cranial measurements as covariates (p < 0.05).

Results

On average pterygopalatine fossa height was 24.1 ± 3.5 mm in males, and 22.8 ± 3.4 mm in females, whereas volume was 0.930 ± 0.181 cm3 in males and 0.817 ± 0.157 cm3 in females, with statistically significant differences according to sex (p < 0.05), but not to side (p > 0.05); interaction was negligible for both the measurements. ANCOVA test verified that sexual dimorphism of both measurements is independent from general cranial size (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The present study highlighted the sexual dimorphism of pterygopalatine fossa: results may improve the knowledge of this anatomical structure difficult to explore, but crucial in several fields of clinics and surgery.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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