Τετάρτη, 1 Μαΐου 2019

Chromosome Research

MiR-153 regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting Nrf2/HO-1 signaling

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play various roles in the regulation of human disease, including cardiovascular diseases. MiR-153 has been previously shown to be involved in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, whether miR-153 is involved in I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of miR-153 in the regulation of I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and to investigate the miR-153-mediated molecular signaling pathway responsible for its effect on cardiomyocytes using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) cellular model. We found that OGD/R treatment induced significant upregulation of miR-153 in cardiomyocytes causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell apoptosis signaling activation and subsequently leading to cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Suppression of miR-153 protected cardiomyocytes against OGD/R treatment. We further identified that nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) is a functional target of miR-153. Nrf2/ heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling plays a critical role in miR-153 regulated OGD/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Our study indicates that the inhibition of miR-153 or restoration of Nrf2 may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for ischemia/reperfusion injury prevention.



Genome-wide DNA copy number analysis and targeted transcriptional analysis of canine histiocytic malignancies identifies diagnostic signatures and highlights disruption of spindle assembly complex

Abstract

Canine histiocytic malignancies (HM) are rare across the general dog population, but overrepresented in certain breeds, such as Bernese mountain dog and flat-coated retriever. Accurate diagnosis relies on immunohistochemical staining to rule out histologically similar cancers with different prognoses and treatment strategies (e.g., lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma). HM are generally treatment refractory with overall survival of less than 6 months. A lack of understanding regarding the mechanisms of disease development and progression hinders development of novel therapeutics. While the study of human tumors can benefit veterinary medicine, the rarity of the suggested orthologous disease (dendritic cell sarcoma) precludes this. This study aims to improve the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms using genome-wide DNA copy number and gene expression analysis of spontaneous HM across several dog breeds. Extensive DNA copy number disruption was evident, with losses of segments of chromosomes 16 and 31 detected in 93% and 72% of tumors, respectively. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) evaluation of these regions in numerous cancer specimens effectively discriminated HM from other common round cell tumors, including lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma, resulting in a novel, rapid diagnostic aid for veterinary medicine. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated disruption of the spindle assembly complex, which is linked to genomic instability and reduced therapeutic impact in humans. A key signature detected was up-regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), supported by an immunohistochemistry-based assessment of MMP9 protein levels. Since MMP9 has been linked with rapid metastasis and tumor aggression in humans, the data in this study offer a possible mechanism of aggression in HM.



Fluorescence in situ hybridization in plants: recent developments and future applications

Abstract

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was developed more than 30 years ago and has been the most paradigm-changing technique in cytogenetic research. FISH has been used to answer questions related to structure, mutation, and evolution of not only individual chromosomes but also entire genomes. FISH has served as an important tool for chromosome identification in many plant species. This review intends to summarize and discuss key technical development and applications of FISH in plants since 2006. The most significant recent advance of FISH is the development and application of probes based on synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos). Oligos specific to a repetitive DNA sequence, to a specific chromosomal region, or to an entire chromosome can be computationally identified, synthesized in parallel, and fluorescently labeled. Oligo probes designed from conserved DNA sequences from one species can be used among genetically related species, allowing comparative cytogenetic mapping of these species. The advances with synthetic oligo probes will significantly expand the applications of FISH especially in non-model plant species. Recent achievements and future applications of FISH and oligo-FISH are discussed.



Ribosomal DNA-connecting ribosome biogenesis and chromosome biology

Abstract

Ribosomal DNA, the topic of this special issue, has long fascinated biologists. The RNA products of the ribosomal DNA are the ribosomal RNAs that are part of the ribosome. In this special issue, we focus on the sequence, molecular organization, repair, stability, copy number, and peculiar genetics of this region of the genome. The locus can impact not only the translational capability of cells, but also genome organization, stability and integrity, providing a link between translation and chromosome biology.



Dosage effects of human ribosomal genes (rDNA) in health and disease

Abstract

Human ribosomal RNA genes encoding a pre-transcript of the three major ribosomal RNA (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA) are tandemly repeated in human genome. Their total copy number varies from 250 to 670 per diploid genome with a mean of approximately 420 copies, but only a fraction of them is transcriptionally active. The functional consequences of human ribosomal RNA gene dosage are not widely known and often assumed to be negligible. Here, we review the facts of rRNA gene dosage effects on normal growth and aging, stress resistance of healthy individuals, and survivability of patients with chromosomal abnormalities, as well as on the risk and severity of some multifactorial diseases with proven genetic predisposition. An original hypothesis that rRNA gene dosage can be a modulating factor involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis is put forward.



Keeping ribosomal DNA intact: a repeating challenge

Abstract

More than half of the human genome consists of repetitive sequences, with the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) representing two of the largest repeats. Repetitive rDNA sequences may form a threat to genomic integrity and cellular homeostasis due to the challenging aspects of their transcription, replication, and repair. Predisposition to cancer, premature aging, and neurological impairment in ataxia-telangiectasia and Bloom syndrome, for instance, coincide with increased cellular rDNA repeat instability. However, the mechanisms by which rDNA instability contributes to these hereditary syndromes and tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here, we review how cells govern rDNA stability and how rDNA break repair influences expansion and contraction of repeat length, a process likely associated with human disease. Recent advancements in CRISPR-based genome engineering may help to explain how cells keep their rDNA intact in the near future.



Cytogenetic instability of chromosomal nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in cloned mouse L929 fibroblasts

Abstract

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene codes for 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA form tandem repetitive clusters, which occupy distinct chromosomal loci called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). The number and position of NORs on chromosomes are genetic characteristics of the species although within a cell, the NOR sizes can significantly vary due to loss or multiplication of rDNA copies. In the current study, we used mouse L929 fibroblasts, the aneuploid cells which differ in the FISH- and Ag-NOR numbers, to examine whether the parental NOR variability is inherited in clones. By statistical analysis, we showed that the cloned fibroblasts were able to restore the NOR numerical characteristics of the parental cells after long-term culturing. These results support the idea that mammalian cells may have mechanisms which control the number and activity of NORs at the population level. In L929 fibroblasts, we also regularly observed laterally asymmetry of FISH-NORs that evidenced in an unequal distribution of the mother rDNA copies between the daughter cells in mitosis.



Ribosomal DNA and the nucleolus in the context of genome organization

Abstract

The nucleolus constitutes a prominent nuclear compartment, a membraneless organelle that was first documented in the 1830s. The fact that specific chromosomal regions were present in the nucleolus was recognized by Barbara McClintock in the 1930s, and these regions were termed nucleolar organizing regions, or NORs. The primary function of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is to produce RNA components of ribosomes. Yet, ribosomal DNA also plays a pivotal role in nuclear organization by assembling the nucleolus. This review is focused on the rDNA and associated proteins in the context of genome organization. Recent advances in understanding chromatin organization suggest that chromosomes are organized into topological domains by a DNA loop extrusion process. We discuss the perspective that rDNA may also be organized in topological domains constrained by structural maintenance of chromosome protein complexes such as cohesin and condensin. Moreover, biophysical studies indicate that the nucleolar compartment may be formed by active processes as well as phase separation, a perspective that lends further insight into nucleolar organization. The application of the latest perspectives and technologies to this organelle help further elucidate its role in nuclear structure and function.



Implications of sequence variation on the evolution of rRNA

Abstract

The evolution of the multi-copy family of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is unique in regard to its genetics and genome evolution. Paradoxically, rRNA genes are highly homogenized within and between individuals, yet they are globally distinct between species. Here, we discuss the implications for models of rRNA gene evolution in light of our recent discoveries that ribosomes bearing rRNA sequence variants can affect gene expression and physiology and that intra-individual rRNA alleles exhibit both context- and tissue-specific expression.



Nucleoli in embryos: a central structural platform for embryonic chromatin remodeling?

Abstract

Nucleoli are the site of ribosomal RNA production and subunit assembly. In contrast to active nucleoli in somatic cells, where three basic sub-compartments can be observed, mammalian oocytes and early embryos contain atypical nucleoli termed "nucleolus-like bodies" or "nucleolus precursor bodies", respectively. Unlike their somatic counterparts, these structures are composed of dense homogenous fibrillar material and exhibit no polymerase activity. Irrespective of these unusual properties, they have been shown to be absolutely essential for embryonic development, as their microsurgical removal results in developmental arrest. Historically, nucleolus-like and nucleolus precursor bodies have been perceived as passive storage sites of nucleolar material, which is gradually utilized by embryos to construct fully functional nucleoli once they have activated their genome and have started to produce ribosomes. For decades, researchers have been trying to elucidate the composition of these organelles and provide the evidence for their repository role. However, only recently has it become clear that the function of these atypical nucleoli is altogether different, and rather than being involved in ribosome biogenesis, they participate in parental chromatin remodeling, and strikingly, the artificial introduction of a single NPB component is sufficient to rescue the developmental arrest elicited by the NPB removal. In this review, we will describe and summarize the experiments that led to the change in our understanding of these unique structures.



Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις