Τετάρτη, 1 Μαΐου 2019

Advances in Therapy

Correction to: Safety and Efficacy of Ripasudil in Japanese Patients with Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: 3-month Interim Analysis of ROCK-J, a Post-Marketing Surveillance Study

In the original publication values in the results section are incorrect. Errors were also identified in Fig. 5



Correction to: A Relative Cost of Control Analysis of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Exenatide Extended-Release and Dulaglutide for Bringing Patients to HbA1c and Weight Loss Treatment Targets in the USA

The article "A Relative Cost of Control Analysis of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Exenatide Extended-Release and Dulaglutide for Bringing Patients to HbA1c and Weight Loss Treatment Targets in the USA", written by Pierre Johansen, Barnaby Hunt, Neeraj N. Iyer, Tam Dang-Tan, Richard F. Pollock was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on November 27, 2018 without Open Access.



Reporting Clinical Trial Results of Phytomedicines in Acute Rhinosinusitis: Letter to the Editor Regarding Gottschlich S, Röschmann K, Candler H. Adv Ther (2018); 35:1023–1034. doi: 10.1007/s12325-018-0736-7


Response Letter Addressing Letter to the Editor Regarding Gottschlich S, Röschmann K, Candler H. Adv Ther (2018); 35:1023–1034. doi:10.1007/s12325-018-0736-7


Efficacy of Chondroitin Sulfate in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Exploring Inconsistencies in Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Abstract

Introduction

There are some controversies about treatment modalities in osteoarthritis (OA), including chondroitin sulfate (CS). The objective of this study was to determine whether CS is effective at alleviating pain and improving function in patients with knee OA and to identify the factors that explain inconsistencies in clinical trial results.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, searching the databases Medline, Cochrane central register for controlled trials and Scopus. Random effects meta-analysis was then performed, using tau2 and I2 statistics to assess heterogeneity. The pain and Lequesne index (LI) scores were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMDs), with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was explored by stratifying the analyses according to pre-specified study-level characteristics and assessing the sources of funnel plot asymmetry.

Results

The inclusion criteria yielded 18 trials. Overall, CS significantly but inconsistently reduced pain (SMD: − 0.63; 95% CI: − 0.91, − 0.35; I2 = 94%) and improved function (SMD: − 0.82; 95% CI: − 1.31, − 0.33; I2 = 95%). When limiting the analysis to studies with a low risk of bias, the pharmaceutical grade CS of IBSA origin showed a greater reduction in pain (SMD: − 0.25; 95% CI: − 0.34, − 0.16; I2 = 75%) and function (SMD: − 0.33; 95% CI: − 0.47, − 0.20; I2 = 53%, p = 0.07) compared with the other preparations (SMDPain: − 0.08; 95% CI: − 0.19, + 0.02; I2 = 20%; SMDFunction: − 0.18; 95% CI: − 0.36, +0.01; I2 = 0%). Assessing funnel plot asymmetry in the studies with a low risk of bias, we found strong correlations between the treatment effects and study size (pain: rS = 0.93; LI: rS = 0.86; p < 0.05). Ultimately, there was no residual heterogeneity in the CS effects when the smallest studies were removed from the analyses.

Conclusion

This new meta-analysis suggests that CS provides a moderate benefit for pain and has a large effect on function in knee OA, however with large inconsistency. The risks of bias, brand and study size were the factors explaining heterogeneity among the clinical trial results.



Appropriate Titration of Basal Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes and the Potential Role of the Pharmacist

Abstract

A substantial proportion of patients with suboptimal control of their type 2 diabetes experience delays in treatment intensification. Additionally, patients often experience overuse of basal insulin, commonly referred to as "over-basalization," whereby basal insulin continues to be uptitrated in order to meet targets, when addition of a mealtime bolus insulin dose may be a more appropriate option. In order to overcome these challenges, there is a need to develop the capacity of allied healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support to these patients, such as during initiation or titration of basal insulin. Pharmacists play an integral role in healthcare delivery, with patients seeing their pharmacist, on average, seven times more often than their primary care physician. This places pharmacists in a unique position to provide diabetes education and care, which may help patients avoid clinical inertia. Nevertheless, the management of the disease with basal insulin is becoming increasingly complex, with growing numbers of treatment options (such as recent second-generation longer-acting basal insulin formulations) and frequently updated titration algorithms. The two most common titration schedules specify either increasing doses by a set amount every 2–3 days or a treat-to-target strategy. Neither schedule has been shown to be superior, and the decision to use one or the other should be based on a discussion between the clinician and patient after assessment of mental and physical acumen, comfort of both parties, and follow-up plans. This review article discusses basal insulin therapy options and titration algorithms from the unique perspective of the pharmacist in order to help ensure that optimal antidiabetes therapy is initiated, appropriately titrated, and maintained.

Funding: Sanofi US, Inc.



Assessing the Role of Anti rh-GAA in Modulating Response to ERT in a Late-Onset Pompe Disease Cohort from the Italian GSDII Study Group

Abstract

Introduction

Patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may develop IgG antibodies against alglucosidase alpha (anti-rhGAA) in the first 3 months of treatment. The exact role of these antibodies in modulating efficacy of ERT in this group of patients is still not fully understood. To assess whether anti rh-GAA antibodies interfere with ERT efficacy, we studied a large Italian cohort of LOPD patients.

Methods

We analyzed clinical findings and performed serial measurements of IgG anti rh-GAA antibody titers from 64 LOPD patients treated with ERT. The first examination (T0) was completed on average at 17.56 months after starting ERT, while the follow-up (T1) was collected on average at 38.5 months. Differences in T0–T1 delta of the six-minute walking test (6MWT), MRC sum score (MRC), gait, stairs and chair performance (GSGC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were considered and then related to the antibody titers.

Results

Almost 22% of the patients never developed antibodies against GAA, while 78.1% had a positive titer (31.2% patients developed a low titer, 43.8% a medium titer and 3.1% a high titer). No statistical significance was found in relating the T0–T1 delta differences and antibody titers, except for MRC sum score values in a subgroup of patients treated < 36 months, in which those with a null antibody titer showed a greater clinical improvement than patients with a positive titer.

Conclusion

Our results confirm that in a large cohort of LOPD patients, anti rh-GAA antibody generation did not significantly affect either clinical outcome or ERT efficacy. However, in the first 36 months of treatment, a possible interference of low-medium antibody titers with the clinical status could be present. Therefore, a careful and regular evaluation of antibody titers, especially in cases with evidence of clinical decline despite ERT, should be performed.



Pharmacological Treatment for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most frequently encountered chronic liver disease. NAFLD is associated with increased liver-related morbidity and mortality, but also contributes to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-liver-related malignancy. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered the more severe subtype of NAFLD that drives most of these adverse outcomes. Lifestyle modification and associated weight loss can improve NASH but are not always sufficient and sustained results are difficult to obtain. There is hence an urgent need for pharmacological treatment. In this review we discuss some of the concepts and challenges in the development of pharmacological treatment. We also briefly summarise what can be achieved with some of the drugs that are currently available for other indications but have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of NASH. Finally we present an overview of some of the main drugs or types of drugs, mainly based on their mode of action, that are now being developed specifically to treat NASH and that might soon result in the availability of drugs licensed for NASH.



Economic Burden of Illness Among Commercially Insured Patients with Systemic Sclerosis with Interstitial Lung Disease in the USA: A Claims Data Analysis

Abstract

Introduction

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of scleroderma/systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the direct and indirect economic burdens of SSc-ILD remain unclear. This study assessed and compared healthcare resource utilization (HRU), direct healthcare costs, work loss, and indirect costs between patients with SSc-ILD and matched controls with neither SSc nor ILD in the USA.

Methods

Data were obtained from a large US commercial claims database (2005–2015). Patients (at least 18 years old) had at least one SSc diagnosis in the inpatient (IP) or emergency room (ER) setting or at least two SSc diagnoses in another setting, and at least one diagnosis of ILD in the IP or ER setting or at least two diagnoses of ILD in another setting. Controls with neither SSc nor ILD were matched 5:1 to patients with SSc-ILD. Comparisons were conducted using Wilcoxon signed-rank and McNemar's tests and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs).

Results

A total of 479 SSc-ILD patients and 2395 matched controls were included (52 SSc-ILD patients and 260 matched controls for work loss and indirect cost analyses). Patients with SSc-ILD had significantly higher HRU and costs, IP admissions (adjusted IRR = 5.6), IP hospitalization days (adjusted IRR = 12.0), ER visits (adjusted IRR = 2.8), OP visits (adjusted IRR = 3.1), and days of work loss (adjusted IRR = 4.5). The adjusted difference in annual direct healthcare costs was $28,632 (SSc-ILD, $33,195; controls, $4562) and that in indirect costs was $4735 (SSc-ILD, $5640; controls, $906) (all p < 0.0001).

Conclusion

SSc-ILD patients had significantly higher HRU, work loss, and direct and indirect costs compared to matched controls with neither SSc nor ILD.

Funding

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.



Bloating and Abdominal Distension: Clinical Approach and Management

Abstract

Functional abdominal bloating and distension (FABD) are common gastrointestinal complaints, encountered on a daily basis by gastroenterologists and healthcare providers. Functional abdominal bloating is a subjective sensation that is commonly associated with an objective abdominal distension. FABD may be diagnosed as a single entity (the sole or cardinal complaint) or may overlap with other functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional dyspepsia. The pathophysiology of FABD is not completely understood. Proposed underlying mechanisms include visceral hypersensitivity, behavioral induced abnormal abdominal wall-phrenic reflexes, the effect of poorly absorbed fermentable carbohydrates, and microbiome alterations. Management includes behavioral therapy, dietary interventions, microbiome modulation, and medical therapy. This review presents the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of FABD.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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