Τρίτη, 7 Μαΐου 2019

Supportive Care

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw incidence in patients exposed concomitantly to bone resorption inhibitors and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: is it generalizable to all solid tumors?


Factors influencing magnesium infusions in hematopoietic cell transplants


A review of the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program in patients with advanced cancer referred for palliative radiotherapy over two decades

Abstract

Introduction

The Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP) is an outpatient radiotherapy clinic for palliative cancer patients where consultation, planning, and radiation treatment can take place in 1 day, allowing for rapid access to care. The objective of this study was to compare the patient population and overall survival of patients seen in the RRRP from 2014 to 2017 to that of patients seen in 1999.

Method

Patient characteristics including sex, primary cancer site, sites of metastases, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) were recorded at each clinic visit. Date of death (DOD) was retrieved from the Patient Care System (PCS) and Excelicare. To show overall survival from the first clinic visit, a Kaplan-Meier overall survival curve was generated in all patients from 2014 to 2017.

Results

Five hundred ninety-six patients were included in the final analysis. Most patients were male (n = 347) with a primary cancer site of the lung (n = 165) and metastases to the bone (n = 475). Actuarial median overall survival was 15.3 months. In 1999, 395 patients were analyzed, in which a primary of the lung (n = 143) and metastases to the bone (n = 277) were the most prevalent. An additional 72 patients in this population had brain metastases. The actuarial median survival of the 1999 population was 4.5 months.

Conclusion

The changing patient population in the RRRP has resulted in visible changes in survival. This may reflect differences in the proportion of patients with specific primaries and sites of metastases, as well as improvements in the availability of palliative radiation over the last two decades.



Moving Cancer Care Ontario's Exercise for People with Cancer guidelines into oncology practice: using the Theoretical Domains Framework to validate a questionnaire

Abstract

Evidence supporting the benefits of exercise surrounding cancer treatment has led to internationally published guidelines, with minimal uptake by oncology care providers (OCPs). There is a need to understand how to implement research evidence into practice. Our team developed a questionnaire to assess OCPs' knowledge of exercise guidelines and barriers/facilitators to exercise counseling and program referral. We validated the questionnaire using the Theoretical Domains Framework, a knowledge translation (KT) framework used to implement evidence-based guidelines into practice. In this commentary, we describe this process and the rationale for integrating a KT framework into intervention development and implementation in oncology practice. The revised questionnaire, entitled Clinicians Perspectives on Exercise in Patients with Cancer (CliPEC), is shared to facilitate the implementation process and allow for comparison across oncology practices.



Cancer survivorship care plans, financial toxicity, and financial planning alleviating financial distress among cancer survivors

Abstract

Concomitant with the increasing use of cancer care plans has been an increasing awareness of the potential for oncology care to result in long-term financial burdens and financial toxicity. Cancer survivors can benefit from information on support and resources to help them navigate the challenges after acute cancer treatment. While cancer survivorship plans could be a vehicle for patients to receive information on how to mitigate financial toxicity, cancer survivorship plans have typically not dealt with the financial impact of cancer treatment or follow-up care. Embedding information into cancer survivorship plans on how to reduce or avoid financial toxicity presents an opportunity to address a highly prevalent patient need. Patient-centered qualitative studies are needed to assess the type, format, and level of detail of the information provided.



A systematic review of psychological interventions for patients with head and neck cancer

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this systematic review is to identify psychological interventions that have been effective at improving quality of life and reducing psychological distress (depression and anxiety) in patients with head and neck cancer.

Methods

All relevant peer-reviewed articles published between March 1980 and March 2017 were identified through an electronic search of five databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Academic Search Complete. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two reviewers using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool (CCAT). Following this, a narrative synthesis of the findings was completed.

Results

Twenty-one unique intervention studies were identified. Interventions tested included cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), psychoeducation, meditation/mindfulness, group therapy, and telehealth initiatives. Ten studies utilised a randomised controlled design. Five of these investigated CBT and three examined psychoeducation, with the greatest empirical support found for these intervention types. However, the majority of studies were underpowered to detect significant effects and did not examine whether improvements in quality of life and psychological well-being were sustained over time.

Conclusions

Further research is needed to investigate the effects of psychological interventions among patients with head and neck cancer, using randomised controlled designs, adequately powered samples, and long-term follow-up. This would allow evidence-based recommendations to be made regarding the most appropriate interventions to implement in clinical practice.

Trial registration

CRD42017069851



The efficacy of oral piroxicam fast-dissolving tablets versus sublingual fentanyl in incident breakthrough pain due to bone metastases: a double-blinded randomized study

Abstract

Purpose

Breakthrough pain (BTP) is a transient exacerbation of pain occurring in a patient with chronic, persistent pain. The most common type is incident pain that is mostly related to bone metastases. The oral mucosa is an attractive route for drug delivery. Sublingual fentanyl preparations are a very attractive agent in controlling attacks of BTP due to its rapid absorption through the oral mucosa. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a key role as a first step in treatment of cancer pain; piroxicam sublingual formulations could be a useful alternative in controlling incident pain. Our study hypothesis is to evaluate the efficacy of sublingual fentanyl versus oral piroxicam fast-dissolving tablets in patients with incident pain and its impact on functional status.

Patients and methods

A cohort of 100 adults of both genders suffering from bone metastases. Patients were assigned to receive either sublingual fentanyl tablet (group 1) or oral piroxicam fast-dissolving tablets (group 2). The pain intensity reduction on a 0–10 visual analog scale (VAS), frequency of BTP attacks, and onset of pain relief. Secondary end points included the functional interference items of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI).

Results

There is no significant difference between the two groups regarding the patients' demographics. Significant decline of the VAS in each group in comparison to the pretreatment values (p = 0.001). Non-significant changes of the VAS, duration of pain attacks, and number of rescue doses in comparing both groups were measured. There was significant reduction in group 2 BPI regarding the relation with others, sleep pattern and enjoyment of life parameters at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.001).

Conclusion

Our study demonstrated that oral piroxicam fast-dissolving tablet is an analgesic alternative to sublingual fentanyl in patients with bone metastasis to control incidental BTP attacks with more favorable cost-benefit values.



Trajectory of insomnia symptoms in older adults with lung cancer: using mixed methods

Abstract

Context

A knowledge gap exists in our understanding of the illness and insomnia symptom treatment trajectory in adults with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Objectives

Compare valid and reliable sleep-wake measures for insomnia to interpretations of narrative descriptions of sleep to improve our comprehension of sleep-wake disturbances in adults with NSCLC.

Methods

This study employed mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) in a longitudinal design to study adults (n = 26) from ambulatory thoracic clinics. Valid and reliable surveys (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), 7-day sleep diary, and actigraphy were obtained with interview narrative interpretations of sleep experiences in the context of lung cancer. Data collection occurred at four-time points: baseline (before chemotherapy), pre-second chemotherapy, pre-third chemotherapy, and 6 months from baseline. Sleep measures were compared to interpretations from interview narratives to understand context of survey measures.

Results

Objective quantitative results were congruent with interview narrative interpretations that reflected participants' sleep-wake experiences. Objective sleep-wake measures for insomnia over-time described increasing sleep latency and decreasing sleep duration. The interview narratives provided context and insight into participants' subjective insomnia experiences. While participants' insomnia symptoms were present, they were resigned to endure insomnia, and the subjective measures reflected a more positive perception of sleep outcomes.

Conclusion

A mixed methods approach provides a deeper understanding of sleep-wake disturbances and the differing quantitative objective and subjective results of sleep measures in the context of the participants' experience of the trajectory of insomnia symptoms before, during, and after lung cancer treatment.



Understanding patient choices regarding breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer

Abstract

Purpose

In Australia, about 40% of patients undergo mastectomy to treat breast cancer, with negative impacts on body image, sexual function and quality of life. Whilst breast reconstruction is associated with increased patient self-esteem and a greater sense of wholeness and well-being, the national reconstruction rate is low at 18%.

This study aimed to compare demographics, treatment factors and information provision about breast reconstruction in women who had and did not have breast reconstruction following mastectomy treatment and identify goals and concerns underpinning women's reconstruction decisions.

Methods

Female patients who had a mastectomy to treat breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 in a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and socially disadvantaged region participated in a cross-sectional study, completing a questionnaire in their language of choice (English, Vietnamese, Chinese or Arabic).

Results

Completed surveys were returned by 168 women (42% response rate; 77% English-speaking), of whom only 19.0% (n = 32) reported having had breast reconstruction. Reconstruction rates were significantly lower in women who reported speaking a language other than English at home versus only English (37.5% vs 62.5%, p = 0.03). However, all women expressed a desire for more information about breast reconstruction and more support to make their decision about breast reconstruction.

Conclusions

Patients identified a need for greater information provision on breast reconstruction, highlighting an urgent need for resources specifically about breast reconstruction, particularly for non-English-speaking patients. Greater provision of information prior to mastectomy is critical to underpin breast cancer patients' decisions about breast reconstruction, especially for non-English speaking patients.



Joint pain and falls among women with breast cancer on aromatase inhibitors

Abstract

Purpose

Arthralgia is common among women with breast cancer on adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Pain is associated with falls in the general population; however, little is known about the relationship between arthralgia and falls among AI users. Our objective was to determine whether joint pain severity and interference predict future falls.

Methods

We conducted a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women with stage I-III estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who were prescribed a third-generation AI. Arthralgia symptoms were measured at baseline using a modified version of the Brief Pain Inventory. Fall occurrence was obtained at 24-month follow-up.

Results

Among 667 participants (median age 63 years, interquartile range 57–69 years), 232 (35%, 95% CI 31 to 39%) reported falls 12–24 months after baseline. Among women who fell, 65 (28%) reported seeking medical assistance. After controlling for multiple fall risk factors, we found significant non-linear associations between baseline joint pain severity and risk of falls (p = 0.001). Women with joint pain severity scores ≥ 4 had a more than twofold increase in fall risk compared to those without pain (41% vs. 20%). We observed a similar relationship for pain interference and fall risk (p < 0.001). Fewer than half of participants reported having been asked about falls in the past 12 months by their primary care physician (44%) or oncologist (36%).

Conclusion

Joint pain increases the risk of falls among women with breast cancer on adjuvant AI therapy. Health care providers should evaluate and manage arthralgia symptoms and implement fall-prevention strategies for those who are at increased risk.



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