Τρίτη, 7 Μαΐου 2019

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Regulating nitrate excess in lettuce-planted greenhouse soil with available carbon addition through irrigation

Abstract

Nitrate excess is common in greenhouse soils, imposing environmental risks and degrading vegetable quality. In this study, the effectiveness of adding sucrose as available carbon through irrigation to cut nitrate excess in lettuce-planted soil was investigated under impacts of soil texture and irrigation type. In the pot experiment using two loam soils of same origin with different clay to sand ratios (50.2% and 39.8%) and nitrate excess (116.1 and 417.7 mg/kg N), three-time sucrose addition through flood irrigation was more effective in lowering net formation of nitrate-based inorganic N and increasing lettuce yield in the soil with the higher clay to sand ratio, and sucrose addition at 150–450 mg/kg reduced nitrate accumulation and leaching, and nitrate content of lettuce at harvest by 62.5–89.6%, 19.3–36.1%, and 11.4–76.0%, respectively. In the micro-plot field experiment with two-time sucrose addition at 0.6–1.2 g/L through furrow irrigation (42 mm) into two other soils of same origin with different clay to sand ratios (56.9%, 48.4%), nitrate accumulation at 0–30-cm depth at the prone-leaching furrow location at harvest decreased by 30.9–36.0% under the higher clay to sand ratio but increased by about 35% under the lower clay to sand ratio. The nitrate content and yield of ridge-planted lettuce was less affected in either soil. Hence, carbon addition rate, irrigation type, and clay to sand ratio all affected the effect of available carbon addition on nitrate accumulation in vegetable-planted soil, and their joint impacts need better quantification for cutting nitrate excess in soil and improving vegetable quality and even yield.



Exogenous application of ascorbic acid mitigates cadmium toxicity and uptake in Maize ( Zea mays L.)

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soils is a prevalent environmental issue and poses potential threats to food security. Foliar ascorbic acid might prove a potent tool to alleviate toxicity of Cd toxicity in maize. An experiment was conducted with objectives to study exogenous ascorbic acid–modulated improvements in physiochemical attributes of maize under Cd toxicity. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized design. Treatments were comprised of varying concentrations of foliar ascorbic acid viz. 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mM of AsA. Toxicity of Cd decreased the maize growth, increased lipid peroxidation, disturbed protein metabolism, and reduced the antioxidant defense capabilities compared with the control. However, foliar AsA significantly improved maize growth and development, photosynthetic capabilities, and protein concentrations in Cd-stressed maize plants. Meanwhile, the malondialdehyde contents and hydrogen peroxide accumulation levels in Cd-stressed maize plants decreased remarkably with increasing AsA concentrations. Furthermore, the combined treatments conspicuously boosted activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase under the Cd stress alone. In addition, the application of AsA reduced the Cd uptake by 10.3–12.3% in grains. Conclusively, foliar ascorbic acid alleviated the negative effects of Cd stress in maize and improved photosynthetic processes, osmolytes, and antioxidant defense systems.



Body size variation of the ant Lasius niger along a metal pollution gradient

Abstract

The phenotypic diversity of ant workers plays a fundamental role in their biology. In this study, we asked if the body size variation of monomorphic workers of the ant Lasius niger (Formicidae) responds adaptively to metal pollution in a post-mining metal-polluted area. Nest samples of workers were collected along a pollution gradient to calculate the within-colony variance in body size (expressed as maximum head width, HW). The results showed that the body size variation of L. niger was unrelated to the pollution index but demonstrated considerable variation between colonies even within the same study site. We suggest that the differences in morphological diversity between the colonies of L. niger could be shaped by colony personality traits, i.e., by colony-specific foraging and/or the feeding efficiency of nursing workers. The study supports previous findings, showing that morphological traits in Lasius ants are weakly related to environmental metal pollution.



Impact of affluence and fossil energy on China carbon emissions using STIRPAT model

Abstract

Using the extended STIRPAT model, this research examines the influence of various factors on China carbon emission from 1971 to 2014, including total nuclear and alternative energy, total fossil energy, GDP per capita, total population, total urban population, merchandise trade of GDP, and services value added of GDP. Ridge regression was employed to perform the study. The research results show the positivity and significance of all factors on carbon emission. The estimated elastic coefficients reveal the most important factor influencing carbon emission is GDP per capita. Total fossil energy, total urban population, and nuclear energy of total energy use are also prominent influencing factors, while other factors such as value-added services of GDP and merchandise trade of GDP have less significant impacts on carbon emission in China. These findings of the research will be of great significance for China to control its carbon emission in the future and to mitigate global warming to some extent.



The evaluation of resistance to Co 2+ of lawn plant at seedling stage and its concentration property at adult stage

Abstract

In order to evaluate the resistance of lawn plant to Co2+ at germination stage and discuss its concentration property at adult stage, four kinds of lawn plant which have some growth advantages in Co2+ polluted environment were selected as experimental materials in this research. They are tall fescue, timothy grass, inflorescences, and annual ryegrass. The results show that the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of tall fescue's seed is the highest; the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of annual ryegrass seed is the lowest. The low consistence Co2+ could improve the seed germination. With Co2+ concentration increase, the accumulation coefficient of four plants increased at first and decreased later; the accumulation coefficient of underground portion is higher than the accumulation coefficient of aboveground; with Co2+ concentration increase, the transfer coefficient of four plants have a remarkable decline. In these plants, the accumulation coefficient of tall fescue and annual ryegrass is bigger than other two plants. As the concentration of Co2+ treatment increased to 100 mg/kg, the aboveground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 75 mg/kg, followed by L. multiflorum (68.9 mg/kg), P. pratense (48.8 mg/kg), and D. glomerata (27.2 mg/kg).The highest underground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elatareached 836.46 mg/kg, in contrast to the lowest underground enrichment in D. glomerata, 264.67 mg/kg. It shows that fescue and annual ryegrass have a better enrichment property to Co2+ and have a better prospect for the treatment of cobalt-contaminated soil. This research could provide some scientific basis and main technical approach for the soil contaminated by Co2+.



Optimization of process parameters for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Piper betle leaf aqueous extract, and evaluation of their antiphytofungal activity

Abstract

Biological methods offer eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The present study highlights a green process where AgNPs were synthesized and optimized by using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and the aqueous extract of Piper betle (Pbet) leaf as the reducing and capping agent. The stable and optimized process for the synthesis of Pbet-AgNPs was exposure of reaction mixture into the sunlight for 40 min, pH 9.0, and 2 mM AgNO3 using 1:4 diluted Pbet leaf aqueous extract. The optimized Pbet-AgNPs were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared Pbet-AgNPs were spherical in shape with size in the range of 6–14 nm. These nanoparticles were stable for 6 months in aqueous solution at room temperature under dark conditions. The biogenic synthesized Pbet-AgNPs are found to have significant antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi, Alternaria brassicaeand Fusarium solani. Synthesized Pbet-AgNPs potentially reduced the fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner. Microscopic observation of treated mycelium showed that Pbet-AgNPs could disrupt the mycelium cell wall and induce cellular permeability. Protein leakage assay supports these findings. Overall, this study revealed the efficacy of green synthesized AgNPs to control the plant fungal pathogens. Pbet leaves are a rich source of phenolic biomolecule(s). It was hypothesized that these biomolecule(s) mediated metal reduction reactions. In this context, the present work investigates the phytobiomolecule(s) of the aqueous extract of Pbet leaves using high-resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (HR-LCMS) method. The analysis revealed that eugenol, chavicol, and hydroxychavicol were present in the Pbet aqueous extract.



Air-water PCB fluxes from southwestern Lake Michigan revisited

Abstract

From simultaneous air and water polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) measurements collected in September 2010, we re-evaluated the direction and magnitude of net air-water exchange of PCBs in southwest Lake Michigan and compared them with estimations made using similar approaches 15 years prior. Air and water samples were collected during a research expedition on Lake Michigan at 5 km off the coast of Chicago, with prevailing winds from the southwest of our location. Gas-phase ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 190 to 1100 pg m−3 with a median of 770 pg m−3, which is similar to the concentrations measured in the City of Chicago at the same time and similar to concentrations measured in this part of the lake over the last 20 years. Water dissolved-phase ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 150 to 170 pg L−1 with a median of 160 pg L−1, which is one-tenth of that measured in the 1990s. ƩPCB net fluxes showed a slightly absorptive behavior, with a median of (−) 21 ng m−2 day−1 and an interquartile range of (−) 47 to (+) 5 ng m−2 day−1, where (−) and (+) fluxes indicate absorption and volatilization, respectively. Airborne PCB concentrations were higher when the winds were coming from Chicago and drive the deposition. Our fluxes are not significantly different from estimations from 1994 and 1995 and suggest that absorption of PCBs into the waters is slightly more prevalent than 15 years ago. It was confirmed that Chicago remains an important atmospheric source of PCBs to Lake Michigan.



Comparison of metabolomic responses of earthworms to sub-lethal imidacloprid exposure in contact and soil tests

Abstract

Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to sub-lethal levels of imidacloprid for 48 h via contact filter paper tests and soil tests. After the exposure, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses by analyzing the changes in the polar metabolite profile. Maltose, glucose, malate, lactate/threonine, myo-inositol, glutamate, arginine, lysine, tyrosine, leucine, and phenylalanine relative concentrations were altered with imidacloprid exposure in soil. In addition to these metabolites (excluding leucine and phenylalanine), fumarate, ATP, inosine, betaine, scyllo-inositol, glutamine, valine, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, and isoleucine relative concentrations shifted with imidacloprid exposure during contact tests. Metabolite changes in E. fetida earthworms exposed to imidacloprid showed a non-linear concentration response and an upregulation in gluconeogenesis. Overall, imidacloprid exposure in soil induces a less pronounced response in metabolites glucose, maltose, fumarate, adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), inosine, scyllo-inositol, lactate/threonine, and tyrosine in comparison to the response observed via contact tests. Thus, our study highlights that tests in soil can result in a different metabolic response in E. fetida and demonstrates the importance of different modes of exposure and the extent of metabolic perturbation in earthworms. Our study also emphasizes the underlying metabolic disruption of earthworms after acute sub-lethal exposure to imidacloprid. These observations should be further examined in different soil types to assess the sub-lethal toxicity of imidacloprid to soil-dwelling earthworms.



Toxicological effect of Parthenium hysterophorus and milk processing industry sludge on earthworms, Eisenia fetida

Abstract

Production of large quantities of organic waste all over the world poses major environmental and disposal problems. The present study was conducted to explore the deleterious effects of Parthenium hysterophorus and milk processing industry sludge on the health of earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Earthworms were allowed to grow in the mixture of cow dung:Parthenium hysterophorus (75:25) and cow dung:milk processing industry sludge (60:40) for 60 days. The biochemical markers viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and histological changes in earthworm's intestine were assessed after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of exposure. The results revealed increased MDA level, while SOD, CAT, and GPx activities showed variation in both treatments. Furthermore, histopathological changes revealed damage in the intestinal tissue in both treatments during all intervals. More severe effects were registered in P. hysterophorus treatment. Obtained results may contribute to the understanding of P. hysterophorus and milk processing industry sludge induced toxic effects on earthworms and to identify defense mechanism of Eisenia fetida.



Fish assemblage structure and spatial gradients of diversity in a large tropical reservoir, Panchet in the Ganges basin, India

Abstract

Fish assemblage structure in Panchet, a large tropical reservoir along river Damodar, major tributary of river Ganga in India, was studied along the spatial gradient of the impoundment. Fish samples were collected bimonthly from October 2014 to September 2016. Fish community structure in terms of species composition, relative abundance, and trophic and conservation status was recorded. Spatial fish diversity was analyzed from riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. Sixty-two fish species were recorded wherein the family Cyprinidae dominated in number of species (26) followed by Bagridae (5). Shannon diversity index, evenness index, and species richness did not reveal significant variation (p > 0.05) across different zones. Relative abundance of individuals and species richness were maximum in the transitional zone and minimum in the lacustrine zone. Multi-dimensional scaling of fish assemblage revealed similar pattern in the riverine and transitional zones. Trophic guild of fishes indicated dominance of carnivorous species followed by planktivores. Conservation status (IUCN 2017.3) showed 4 fish species in Near Threatened category. The study suggests conservation of fish habitats to maintain diversity and sustained production. The baseline information generated in the study will be beneficial for monitoring the alteration in fish assemblage, conservation of fish diversity, and management planning.



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