Τρίτη, 7 Μαΐου 2019

CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

Intratumoral Injection of Hypertonic Glucose in Treating Refractory Pneumothorax Caused by Microwave Ablation: a Preliminary Study

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this technical report is to describe the technique of intratumoral injection of hypertonic glucose combined with low-negative pressure drainage to treat refractory pneumothorax (RP) after microwave ablation (MWA) of lung tumors.

Materials and Methods

Between September 2016 and May 2018, four patients who developed RP after MWA of peripheral lung cancer were managed by a combined method, including intratumoral injection of hypertonic glucose and catheter drainage under low-negative pressure. Blood gas values were recorded and compared before the treatment and one-week posttreatment. All patients were followed up for at least one month to monitor the possible recurrence of pneumothorax by chest CT.

Results

All patients were successfully treated. One patient received the intratumoral injection of hypertonic glucose twice, while the remaining three patients received a single injection. The technical success rate was 100%. Dyspnea related to RP was significantly relieved in all patients, and PaO2 and SaO2 values were higher than those measured before treatment. No patient suffered a recurrence of pneumothorax during the follow-up.

Conclusion

The combined method of intratumoral injection of hypertonic glucose and continuous catheter drainage under low-negative pressure might be an effective method to manage RP caused by MWA.



Imaging Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases Following 90 Y-Radioembolization: Is It Time to Implement Routine Use of PET Molecular/Metabolic Probes?


Patient Reported Outcomes in Interventional Radiology: Time to Measure What We Do


Combined Y-Shaped Covered Metallic Stents for Gastrobronchial Fistulas Involving the Right Intermediate Bronchus

Abstract

Gastrobronchial fistula that involves the right intermediate bronchus is an extremely rare complication of esophagectomy. In this report, two patients with gastrobronchial fistulas around the secondary right carina were treated by combined Y-shaped covered metallic stents. Four covered stents were inserted successfully at the first attempt with no complications. The gastrobronchial fistula was fully sealed in each patient, and they were able to eat without coughing.



Recycling in IR, What IR Specialists Can Do to Help


Balloon-Occluded Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (b-TACE) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Performed with Polyethylene-Glycol Epirubicin-Loaded Drug-Eluting Embolics: Safety and Preliminary Results

Abstract

Purpose

To report technical success, safety profile and oncological results of balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using a balloon micro-catheter and epirubicin-loaded polyethylene-glycol (PEG) microsphere (100 ± 25 µm and 200 ± 50 µm) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials and Methods

This is a single-centre, single-arm, retrospective study with 6-month follow-up. Twenty-two patients (Child–Pugh A 68% [15/22], B in 32% [7/22]; age 67.05 ± 14 years) with 29 HCC were treated in 24 procedures. Technical success is defined: ability to place the balloon micro-catheter within the required vascular segment, balloon-occluded arterial stump pressure drops and assessment of microsphere deposition. Laboratory assessment pre/post-procedural and complications were analysed, respectively, according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAEv5) and CIRSE system. Postembolization syndrome (PES) was defined as fever and/or nausea and/or pain onset. Oncological results were evaluated using m-RECIST criteria with CT/MRI imaging at 1 and 3–6 months. In partial responder patients, pre/post-procedural tumour volume was compared.

Results

Pre-planned feeder was reached in all cases. Pressure drop average was 51.1 ± 21.6 mmHg. Exclusive target embolization was achieved in 14/24 procedures (58.3%). Laboratory test modifications were all grade 1. 4/24 adverse events occurred (17%): pseudo-aneurysm of the feeder (grade 3), liver abscess (grade 2) and 2 asymptomatic segmentary biliary tree dilatations (grade 2). PES occurred in 8/24 (33%). The complete response at 1 and 3–6 months was 44.8% (13/29) and 52.9% (9/17), respectively. The partial response at 1 and 3–6 months was 55% (16/29) and 4/17 (23.5%), respectively. Among partial responder patients, the average percentage of tumour volume reduction was 64.9 ± 27.3%.

Conclusion

Epirubicin-loaded PEG microsphere b-TACE is technically feasible, safe and effective procedure for HCC treatment.



Transarterial (Chemo-)Embolization and Lipiodolization for Hepatic Haemangioma

Abstract

Background

Transarterial (chemo-)embolization/lipiodolization (TAE/TAL) might be an attractive minimally invasive alternative to surgery in the treatment of symptomatic hepatic haemangioma. This review assesses the efficacy and safety of TAE/TAL as primary treatment for symptomatic hepatic haemangioma.

Methods

A systematic search of the literature was performed by two reviewers following the PRISMA guidelines. Cohort studies and case reports were identified; outcomes of cohort studies were reported. The primary efficacy outcome was tumour size before and after TAE/TAL. Improvement of symptoms and quality of life (QoL) were secondary outcomes; the primary safety outcome was complications. The Downs and Black statement was used for quality assessment.

Results

Eighteen cohort studies were identified, including 1284 patients. TAE/TAL led to a decrease in tumour size in 1100/1223 (89.9%) patients and to improvement or disappearance of symptoms in 1080/1096 (98.5%) patients. A significant decrease in tumour size from 9.79 ± 0.79 cm to 4.00 ± 1.36 cm (p < 0.001) was shown. Grade 3 complications occurred in 37/1284 (2.9%) patients. Surgical treatment was necessary in 35/1284 (2.7%) of patients.

Conclusion

TAE/TAL appears to be a promising and safe treatment to decrease tumour size of hepatic haemangioma. The technique might also provide partial relief of symptoms, although no randomized clinical trials or prospective studies using validated QoL questionnaires are available. TAE/TAL may be considered as a viable alternative to resection.



Lymphangiography and Lymphatic Embolization for the Management of Pelvic Lymphocele After Radical Prostatectomy in Prostatic Cancer

Abstract

Purpose

To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes of lymphangiography and lymphatic embolization in the treatment of pelvic lymphocele after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods

The data of nine, consecutive patients who underwent lymphangiography and lymphatic embolization for pelvic lymphocele after radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) between January 2016 and May 2018, were retrospectively reviewed. Lymphangiography was performed through inguinal lymph nodes in order to identify the lymphatic leakage. When a leakage was found, lymphatic embolization was performed using a directly punctured fine needle at the closest upstream lymph node or lymphopseudoaneurysm and with N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue.

Results

Lymphangiography demonstrated extravasation and/or lymphopseudoaneurysm in all of these patients. A total of 13 sessions of lymphangiography and lymphatic embolization were performed. The median number of lymphangiography and lymphatic embolizations required to achieve clinical success was one (range, 1–3). Three patients underwent repeated embolization with successful results. The technical and clinical success rates were 100%, respectively. The median time to resolution was 7 days (range, 2–19 days). There was no recurrence and no procedure-related complications during the follow-up period (mean, 26 weeks; range, 8–77 weeks) in all patients.

Conclusions

Lymphangiography and lymphatic embolization are safe and effective for the management of pelvic lymphoceles after radical prostatectomy with PLND.



Does Drug-Eluting Bead TACE Enhance the Local Effect of IRE? Imaging and Histopathological Evaluation in a Porcine Model

Abstract

Objectives

We conducted an in vivo trial on swine to compare the ablation volumes of irreversible electroporation (IRE) followed by drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) versus IRE only.

Materials and Methods

Nine swine underwent CT-guided IRE in one liver lobe and IRE immediately followed by DEB-TACE in a different liver lobe. For DEB-TACE, 100–300 µm beads (DC-Beads®) were loaded with 50 mg doxorubicin. For IRE, the NanoKnife® was used employing two electrodes according to the vendor's protocol. Imaging follow-up was performed including CT-based lesion volume assessment using contrast-enhanced CT (venous phase) on days 1, 3, and 7 after the procedure. Three animals were killed for histopathological analysis after each follow-up.

Results

Ablation volumes in CT in the IRE + DEB-TACE group were 15.4 ± 10.5 ml on day 1, 8.7 ± 5.6 ml on day 3, and 1.6 ± 0.7 ml on day 7. In the IRE group, the corresponding values were 5.2 ± 5.2 ml on day 1, 1.0 ± 1.2 ml on day 3, and 0.1 ± 0.1 ml on day 7. On day 1 and day 3, ablation volumes of IRE + TACE group were significantly larger than in the IRE group (p < 0.05). 96% of beads were depicted in or around ablative lesions. 69% of these beads were found in the surrounding hemorrhagic infiltration and 31% within the ablative lesion itself.

Conclusions

Combination of IRE immediately followed by DEB-TACE resulted in larger ablation volumes compared to IRE alone, suggesting that local efficacy of IRE can be enhanced by post-IRE DEB-TACE.



Endovascular Recanalization of Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease) in Twenty-Eight Consecutive Patients and Combined Antegrade–Retrograde Intervention in Eight Patients

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical success of the procedure and the clinical efficacy of treatment in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) (Buerger's disease) based on a change in the Rutherford classification.

Materials and Methods

A total of 28 consecutive patients (26 males, 2 females, mean age 43.3 ± 5.32 years) underwent endovascular recanalization with a diagnosis of TAO, between April 2015 and July 2018. After unsuccessful attempts using the antegrade approach, retrograde approaches were used in 8 patients under ultrasound guidance. Clinical follow-up was routinely performed at 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year intervals.

Results

A total of 28 TAO patients underwent 40 procedures in 32 limbs. Technical success was achieved in 28 of the 32 limbs (87.5%). In total, 45 of 59 (76.2%) below the knee arteries were treated successfully. One major amputation was performed, providing a 96.8% rate for limb salvage both at 12 and 24 months. Amputation-free survival estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis was 84% at 12 and 24 months. Primary patency rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 84%, 78%, and 75%, respectively. Secondary patency rates were 87.5% both at 12 and 24 months.

Conclusion

Endovascular treatment is a technically feasible and potentially effective treatment modality for Buerger's disease. Combined antegrade and retrograde interventions in TAO patients may improve technical success and clinical recovery, especially in cases where the antegrade approach has failed.



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