Τετάρτη, 7 Αυγούστου 2019

Gynecological Pathology

SATB2 is Consistently Expressed in Squamous Morules Associated With Endometrioid Proliferative Lesions and in the Stroma of Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma
imageSo-called squamous morules are closely associated with endometrioid proliferative lesions, in the endometrium and the ovary. Morules have an unusual immunophenoptype, typically exhibiting nuclear staining with β-catenin, positivity with CDX2, CD10, and p16 and are negative with hormone receptors and p63. We report the previously undescribed occurrence of consistent SATB2 nuclear positivity within morules. Nuclear positivity was present in 38/43 (88%) cases of morules (24 focal; 14 diffuse) while all cases of nonmorular squamous metaplasia in endometrioid proliferative lesions (n=13) were SATB2 negative, except for occasional positive nuclei in 1 case. We also observed that the stromal cells of atypical polypoid adenomyoma typically exhibited diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity with SATB2 while the stromal cells of other endometrial polypoid lesions (endometrial polyp, adenomyoma, adenosarcoma) were usually negative, although there was focal weak staining in occasional cases. Pathologists should be aware of this previously undescribed phenomenon which represents a further example of the unusual immunophenotype of so-called squamous morules. The reasons underlying SATB2 nuclear positivity in squamous morules and the stroma of atypical polypoid adenomyoma are unknown.

Expression of Immunomodulatory Molecules PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2, and their Relationship With Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Endometrial Cancer
imageChemotherapeutic agents are not very effective in treating advanced endometrial cancers (ECs). Recent studies have demonstrated the immune evasion mechanism of tumors and possible remedies. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) are immunomodulator molecules that have been the focus of research in lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell cancer. However, there are few studies concerning EC. This retrospective study aimed to determine PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 expression immunohistochemically in EC, and to study their correlation with clinicopathologic tumor characteristics. This study comprised 127 patients with EC. Anti PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 antibodies were examined immunohistochemically on sections obtained from tissue microarray paraffin blocks. No staining with PD-1 in tumor cells was seen; however, we found positive staining in tumor cells at 36.2% with PD-L1 and 64.4% with PD-L2, and at 61.6% with PD-1, 36.2% with PD-L1, and 93.2% with PD-L2 in immune cells. When comparing staining and clinicopathologic findings, most of the PD-L1 negative tumors (both in tumor and immune cells) were FIGO Stage I, which was significantly higher than stage II-III-IV tumors (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant association between the FIGO grade and the PD-L1 score in immune cells (P=0.009), and between staining of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 and age (P=0.004, 0.013, and 0.043, respectively). Interaction between PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 may be a potential target for immunotherapy in elderly and advanced stage EC patients.

Clinicopathologic Features and Genetic Alterations of a Primary Osteosarcoma of the Uterine Corpus
imagePrimary osteosarcoma (OS) of the uterus is distinctly rare. We report a case of primary uterine OS with pulmonary metastasis in a 74-yr-old woman. Histopathologic features of the uterine tumor were in keeping with a pure chondroblastic OS composed of neoplastic cells with osteoblastic/chondroblastic differentiation and neoplastic bone formation. Despite treatment with Doxorubicin and Olaratumab and later with palliative radiation therapy, the patient died 7 mo after hysterectomy due to multiple distant metastases. A targeted next-generation sequencing assay based on a 637-gene panel was performed to analyze genetic alterations in this highly aggressive tumor, but no somatic mutations that are amenable to targeted therapy were detected. Rather, a 51-nucleotide deletion mutation including partial exon 2 of mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12), a gene commonly mutated in leiomyoma, breast fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor, was identified. Given the MED12 mutation in this uterine OS, we propose possible mechanisms that account for the origin and development of this tumor.

ZC3H7B-BCOR-Rearranged Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas: A Distinct Subset Merits its Own Classification?
imageA 41-yr-old lady with abnormal uterine bleeding underwent total abdominal hysterectomy. Histologic assessment revealed an endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) with minimal cytologic atypia and low mitotic count (up to 7/10 high-power fields) with only focal myxoid areas, morphologically corresponding to a low-grade ESS. Immunohistochemical stains showed cyclin D1 and CD10 positivity, and negative staining for CD117 and progesterone receptor. This tumor was clinically aggressive and recurred 6 mo later. The patient died 19 mo following initial diagnosis. Molecular analysis revealed a ZC3H7B(exon 10)-BCOR (exon 7) gene fusion. Subsequent BCOR immunohistochemistry was weakly positive. ESS with ZC3H7B-BCOR gene fusion is classified as a low-grade ESS in some classification schemes, and is also characterized as being typically myxoid. This report supports emerging evidence that ESS with ZC3H7B-BCOR gene fusion may have an aggressive clinical course in spite of its low-grade histology. This report further expands the morphologic spectrum of ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion ESS to include nonmyxoid histology. Finally, this report underlines the value of molecular analysis in the proper classification of this aggressive tumor with deceptive low-grade histology.

Ectopic Fetal Hepatic Tissue in the Placenta
imageWhen an unusual intraplacental lesion is identified during pathologic examination, it becomes of substantial import to determine whether it represents a normal structure, metastasis from the mother, or a primary benign tumor, including those secondary to abnormal embryologic development versus a primary malignant placental tumor. In this case report, we identified an incidental nest of intraplacental cells with nondiagnostic morphology and negative initial Glypican-3 stain in a healthy 35-wk gestation. This negative result prompted a broadening of the differential before ultimately determining this lesion was indeed ectopic liver with positive Arginase-1 and HepPar-1 staining. This may represent the mature hepatocyte phenotype within the lesional cells of this near-term birth, a dichotomy not previously discussed in the literature, which focuses on the fetal hepatocyte phenotype, also rarely seen. In this report, we summarize the previous literature regarding intraplacental ectopic liver, and we propose a sensitive approach to suspected ectopic liver of the placenta that may be sufficient to capture both the fetal and mature hepatocyte immunophenotypes. This approach may extend to other related pathologies including assessment of suspected intraumbilical hepatocytes.

Acute Pancreatitis Caused by Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis From Uterine Choriocarcinoma
imageChoriocarcinoma is an aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia known for its widely metastatic potential. However, isolated pancreatic metastasis is an extremely rare occurrence and has not been documented in the English literature to the best of our knowledge. The metastatic deposits in the index case led to widespread hemorrhage and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma, causing severe acute pancreatitis. The patient succumbed to her illness before chemotherapy was administered. Thus, we present an autopsy case of a uterine choriocarcinoma with isolated pancreatic metastasis presenting as severe acute pancreatitis in a 27-yr-old woman following a molar pregnancy.

Endometriosis-associated Ovarian Cancer is a Subset With a More Favorable Outcome and Distinct Clinical-pathologic Characteristics
imageThere is a controversy about whether endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) might represent a different entity from the corresponding ovarian cancer occurring de novo, in the absence of endometriosis. This study investigated the clinical-pathologic characteristics and outcome of EAOC compared with other ovarian carcinomas that are not associated with endometriosis (non-EAOC) in a large cohort. Seven hundred two patients meeting the inclusion criteria were further subclassified as group I when patients had ovarian carcinoma associated with or arising within endometriosis (EAOC) and group II when patients had non-EAOC. Age, gross features, histologic type, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between the groups. One hundred sixty-eight (23.9%) patients had EAOC, whereas 534 (76.1%) patients had non-EAOC. EAOCs were mostly endometrioid and clear cell type. Patients with EAOC were younger, present early, and had a lower rate of recurrence when compared with patients with non-EAOC, P<0.001. Patients with EAOC had longer DFS time, 51.9 mo (95% confidence interval, 44.9–58.8) versus 30.5 mo (95% confidence interval, 27.7–33.3) in non-EAOC patients. The 5 yr Kaplan-Meier estimate of DFS rate was 70% in 166 patients of group I and was 39.3% in 532 patients of group II, P<0.001. On multivariate analysis, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging, histologic type, and treatment were the only significant factors affecting the hazards of recurrence. Patients with tumors associated with endometriosis are usually, younger, present early, have lower rate of recurrence, longer DFS, and their tumors are of lower grade and are more likely endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma.

Evidence of a Monoclonal Origin for Bilateral Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Neoplasia
imageSerous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is found in 10% to 60% of cases of tuboovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and is presumed to be the site of origin, linking many HGSCs to the fallopian tube. Bilateral STIC is present in ∼20% of cases. Because clonal Tp53 mutations are a defining feature of HGSC, including their associated STICs, we analyzed 4 cases of bilateral serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia (STIN), including STIC and Tp53-mutated serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs), associated with HGSC to determine whether they contained the same or different p53 mutations. Extracted DNA from STINs, concurrent HGSCs and control tissues was analyzed for mutations in all exons of Tp53. Sequencing was successful in 3 of the 4 cases, and an identical Tp53 mutation was detected in the HGSC and bilateral STINs in 2 of these 3 cases. One STIN was morphologically a STIL. These findings confirm that a subset of bilateral STINs share the same Tp53 mutation, implying that at least one of the STINs is an intraepithelial metastasis from either the contralateral STIN or HGSC. This study complements others addressing the multiple origins of STIN in the setting of existing HGSC. It further underscores the fact that potential overlap in biologic behavior between STILs and STICs as well as timing and direction of metastatic spread has yet to be resolved.

A Cell Line–based Immunohistochemical p53 Expression Pattern Control Panel
imageTP53 gene mutations are known to manifest in distinct p53 immunohistochemical staining patterns; overexpression, wild-type, and null. These stratified staining patterns are routinely utilized in subtyping ovarian cancer subtypes. Three ovarian cancer cell lines were used in the construction of an immunohistochemical p53 expression pattern control panel that highlight respective TP53 mutation status. The cell line control panel sections demonstrated consistent clean and easily interpretable p53 immunohistochemical staining. Procured resection, biopsy, and cytologic specimens were submitted along with either standard control tissue or a p53 cell line control panel to pathologists of varying experience for interrater reliability analysis. Individual interrater reliability was near-perfect and was improved with the p53 cell line control panel when compared with the tissue control. The cell line control panel demonstrated decreased misinterpretation of null expression pattern as wild-type. Next-generation sequencing analysis was performed on the cell lines and select cases, in which there was discordance in p53 expression pattern interpretation. Next-generation sequencing analysis demonstrated low-frequency variant mutations in some cases in which there was reviewer discordance. This study suggests the addition of a p53 cell line expression pattern control panel could potentially increase p53 interpretation accuracy for ovarian cancer subtypes. We developed a cell line–based p53 control panel that has the potential to increase individual interrater reliability for p53 immunohistochemical expression pattern determination, support immunohistochemical optimization, and direct submission of difficult to interpret p53 staining cases to next-generation sequencing.

Papilloma of the Fallopian Tube: A Rare Gynecologic Neoplasm Harboring a BRAF (c.1799T>A) Mutation (V600E)
imagePapillomas of the fallopian tube are exceedingly rare benign tumors, and only very few cases have been reported in the literature. Clinically, they may present as a mass lesion or occur without symptoms. Histomorphologically, they are papillary tumors covered by nonatypical epithelium with occasional ciliated or goblet cells growing in the lumen, and they are most frequently located in the infundibular region of the fallopian tube. They require a number of differential diagnostic evaluations and can be mistaken for either other benign tumors or malignant neoplasms. Because of their rare occurrence, molecular data about this entity have been lacking so far. Herein, a case of a papilloma with a BRAF (c.1799T>A) mutation (V600E) in a 45-yr-old woman with tumor-like dilation of the fallopian tube is presented.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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