Τρίτη, 6 Αυγούστου 2019

Diabetologia

CD40-targeted peptide proposed for type 1 diabetes therapy lacks relevant binding affinity to its cognate receptor


CD40-targeted peptide proposed for type 1 diabetes therapy lacks relevant binding affinity to its cognate receptor. Reply to Pagni PP, Wolf A, Lo Conte M et al [letter]


Blood Mg 2+ is more closely associated with hyperglycaemia than with hypertriacylglycerolaemia: the PREVEND study


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Endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cell-specific expression of human NOX5 exacerbates renal inflammation, fibrosis and albuminuria in the Akita mouse

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a detrimental role in the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Renal oxidative stress activates proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and profibrotic factors in DKD. Increased expression of the prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX) 5 in kidneys of diabetic individuals has been hypothesised to correlate with renal injury and progression of DKD. Since the gene encoding NOX5 is not expressed in the mouse genome, we examined the effect of inducible human NOX5 expression in renal cells, selectively in either endothelial cells or vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)/mesangial cells in a model of insulin-deficient diabetes, the Akita mouse.

Methods

Renal structural injury, including glomerulosclerosis, mesangial expansion and extracellular matrix protein accumulation, as well as renal inflammation, ROS formation and albuminuria, were examined in the NOX5 transgenic Akita mouse model of DKD.

Results

Expression of NOX5 in either endothelial cells or VSMCs/mesangial cells in diabetic Akita mice was associated with increased renal inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, NF-κB and toll-like receptor-4) and glomerulosclerosis, as well as upregulation of protein kinase C-α and increased expression of extracellular matrix genes (encoding collagen III, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin) and proteins (collagen IV), most likely mediated via enhanced renal ROS production. The effect of VSMC/mesangial cell-specific NOX5 expression resulted in more pronounced renal fibrosis in comparison with endothelial cell-specific NOX5 expression in diabetic mice. In addition, albuminuria was significantly increased in diabetic VEcad+NOX5+ mice (1192 ± 194 μg/24 h) when compared with diabetic VEcad+NOX5 mice (770 ± 98 μg/24 h). Furthermore, the regulatory components of NOX5 activation, including heat shock protein 90 and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 6, were upregulated only in the presence of both NOX5 and diabetes.

Conclusions/interpretation

The findings from this study highlight the importance of NOX5 in promoting diabetes-related renal injury and provide the rationale for the development of a selective NOX5 inhibitor for the prevention and/or treatment of DKD.



Biomarker panels associated with progression of renal disease in type 1 diabetes

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

We aimed to identify a sparse panel of biomarkers for improving the prediction of renal disease progression in type 1 diabetes.

Methods

We considered 859 individuals recruited from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource (SDRNT1BIO) and 315 individuals from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study. All had an entry eGFR between 30 and 75 ml min−1[1.73 m]−2, with those from FinnDiane being oversampled for albuminuria. A total of 297 circulating biomarkers (30 proteins, 121 metabolites, 146 tryptic peptides) were measured in non-fasting serum samples using the Luminex platform and LC electrospray tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). We investigated associations with final eGFR adjusted for baseline eGFR and with rapid progression (a loss of more than 3 ml min−1[1.73 m]−2 year−1) using linear and logistic regression models. Panels of biomarkers were identified using a penalised Bayesian approach, and their performance was evaluated through 10-fold cross-validation and compared with using clinical record data alone.

Results

For final eGFR, 16 proteins and 30 metabolites or tryptic peptides showed significant association in SDRNT1BIO, and nine proteins and five metabolites or tryptic peptides in FinnDiane, beyond age, sex, diabetes duration, study day eGFR and length of follow-up (all at p < 10−4). The strongest associations were with CD27 antigen (CD27), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and α1-microglobulin. Including the Luminex biomarkers on top of baseline covariates increased the r2 for prediction of final eGFR from 0.47 to 0.58 in SDRNT1BIO and from 0.33 to 0.48 in FinnDiane. At least 75% of the increment in r2 was attributable to CD27 and KIM-1. However, using the weighted average of historical eGFR gave similar performance to biomarkers. The LC-MS/MS platform performed less well.

Conclusions/interpretation

Among a large set of associated biomarkers, a sparse panel of just CD27 and KIM-1 contains most of the predictive information for eGFR progression. The increment in prediction beyond clinical data was modest but potentially useful for oversampling individuals with rapid disease progression into clinical trials, especially where there is little information on prior eGFR trajectories.



New insights into the mechanisms of diabetic complications: role of lipids and lipid metabolism

Abstract

Diabetes adversely affects multiple organs, including the kidney, eye and nerve, leading to diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy, respectively. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, tissue damage is organ specific and is secondary to a combination of multiple metabolic insults. Hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension combine with the duration and type of diabetes to define the distinct pathophysiology underlying diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy. Only recently have the commonalities and differences in the metabolic basis of these tissue-specific complications, particularly those involving local and systemic lipids, been systematically examined. This review focuses on recent progress made using preclinical models and human-based approaches towards understanding how bioenergetics and metabolomic profiles contribute to diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy. This new understanding of the biology of complication-prone tissues highlights the need for organ-specific interventions in the treatment of diabetic complications.



Targeting gut microbiota and barrier function with prebiotics to alleviate autoimmune manifestations in NOD mice

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Adopting a diet containing indigestible fibre compounds such as prebiotics to fuel advantageous bacteria has proven beneficial for alleviating inflammation. The effect of the microbial changes on autoimmunity, however, remains unknown. We studied the effects of prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on pancreatic islet and salivary gland inflammation in NOD mice and tested whether these were mediated by the gut microbiota.

Methods

Mother and offspring mice were fed an XOS-supplemented diet until diabetes onset or weaning and were compared with a control-fed group. Diabetes incidence was monitored, insulitis and sialadenitis were scored in histological sections from adult mice, and several metabolic and immune variables were analysed in mice before the development of diabetes. Gut barrier function was assessed using an in vivo FITC-dextran permeability test. The importance of XOS-mediated gut microbial changes were evaluated in antibiotic-treated mice fed either XOS or control diet or given a faecal microbiota transplant from test animals.

Results

Diabetes onset was delayed in the XOS-fed mice, which also had fewer cellular infiltrations in their pancreatic islets and salivary glands. Interestingly, insulitis was most reduced in the XOS-fed groups when the mice were also treated with an antibiotic cocktail. There was no difference in sialadenitis between the dietary groups treated with antibiotics; the mice were protected by microbiota depletion regardless of diet. Faecal microbiota transplantation was not able to transfer protection. No major differences in glucose–insulin regulation, glucagon-like peptide-1, or short-chain fatty acid production were related to the XOS diet. The XOS diet did, however, reduce gut permeability markers in the small and large intestine. This was accompanied by a more anti-inflammatory environment locally and systemically, dominated by a shift from M1 to M2 macrophages, a higher abundance of activated regulatory T cells, and lower levels of induction of natural killer T cells and cytotoxic T cells.

Conclusions/interpretation

Prebiotic XOS have microbiota-dependent effects on salivary gland inflammation and microbiota-independent effects on pancreatic islet pathology that are accompanied by an improved gut barrier that seems able to heighten control of intestinal diabetogenic antigens that have the potential to penetrate the mucosa to activate autoreactive immune responses.



Discovery of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes: descriptive characteristics of the epidemiological studies within the IMI DIRECT Consortium

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up).

Methods

From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6–24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at ~18 months (both cohorts) and at ~48 months (cohort 1) or ~36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe.

Results

Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean ± SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enrolment. Fifty-eight per cent of participants in cohort 2 was male. Cohort 2 participants had the following characteristics at baseline: age 62 (8.1) years; BMI 30.5 (5.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 7.2 (1.4) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 8.6 (2.8) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination, the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 7.9 (2.0) mmol/l; 2 h mixed-meal tolerance test glucose 9.9 (3.4) mmol/l.

Conclusions/interpretation

The IMI DIRECT cohorts are intensely characterised, with a wide-variety of metabolically relevant measures assessed prospectively. We anticipate that the cohorts, made available through managed access, will provide a powerful resource for biomarker discovery, multivariate aetiological analyses and reclassification of patients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.



The impact of GDF-15, a biomarker for metformin, on the risk of coronary artery disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a Mendelian randomisation study

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a suggested biomarker for metformin use, may explain the potential cardioprotective and anti-cancer properties of metformin. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation study to examine the role of GDF-15 in risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and breast and colorectal cancer. Secondary analyses included examination of the association of GDF-15 with type 2 diabetes, glycaemic traits, BP, lipids and BMI.

Methods

We obtained SNPs strongly (p value <5 × 10−8) predicting GDF-15 from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) (n = 5440) and applied them to genetic studies of CAD (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes-based GWAS [n = 184,305]), type 2 diabetes (DIAGRAM [DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis; n = 898,130]), glycaemic traits (MAGIC [the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium; HbA1cn = 123,665; fasting glucose: n = 46,186]), BP, breast cancer and colorectal cancer (UK Biobank [n ≤ 401,447]), lipids (GLGC [Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; n ≤ 92,820]) and adiposity (GIANT [Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits Consortium; n = 681,275]). Causal estimates were obtained using inverse variance weighting, taking into account correlations between SNPs. Sensitivity analyses included focusing on the lead SNP (rs888663) and validation for CAD in the UK Biobank and for breast cancer in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Results

Using 5 SNPs, increased GDF-15 was associated with lower CAD (OR 0.93 per SD increase, 95% CI 0.87, 0.99) and breast cancer (OR 0.89 per SD increase, 95% CI 0.82, 0.96), with similar results from lead SNP analysis. However, the associations with CAD (OR 0.99 per SD increase, 95% CI 0.93, 1.04) and breast cancer (OR 0.97 per SD increase, 95% CI 0.94, 1.01) in the validation studies were not as apparent. GDF-15 was not associated with type 2 diabetes, glycaemic traits, CAD risk factors or colorectal cancer.

Conclusions/interpretation

There is no convincing evidence that GDF-15 reduces risk of CAD or breast or colorectal cancer. Whether the observed inverse association of metformin use with cancer risk is via other unexplored mechanistic pathways warrants further investigation.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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