Τρίτη, 30 Ιουλίου 2019

Pediatric Radiology

Correction to: Plea for a standardized imaging approach to disorders of sex development in neonates: Consensus proposal from European Society of Paediatric Radiology task force

The above article was published online with an incorrect author name.



Physeal separation in pediatric osteomyelitis

Abstract

In children, acute osteomyelitis, an infection of the bone, is most commonly hematogeneous in origin. Osteomyelitis is most often diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and findings may include marrow signal changes on T1 and T2, with abnormal enhancement after gadolinium. Imaging helps detect any associated intraosseous or subperiosteal abscesses, which may require orthopedic drainage. In this pictorial essay, we demonstrate the association of acute pediatric osteomyelitis with physeal separation, resulting in what may be confused for simple trauma, although there was no known history of trauma in any of the cases we researched. All of the cases had a large subperiosteal fluid collection with marked separation of the epiphysis from the metaphysis. It is important to recognize this potential association in osteomyelitis, as it is readily visible by radiographs and may lead to diagnostic uncertainty.



A portrait of pediatric leadership: Dr. Benjamin Spock


A novel percutaneous approach to retrieve an ingested extra-esophageal foreign body

Abstract

We report a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented to our emergency department with progressive onset of dysphagia and odynophagia after eating barbecued steak that evening. Radiographs revealed a metal bristle from a barbecue brush at the level of the proximal esophagus. The otolaryngologist attempted to retrieve this bristle using flexible esophagoscopy, but unfortunately it pushed the bristle extra-esophageal. In order to avoid major open surgery with associated morbidity, a novel percutaneous image-guided minimally invasive percutaneous approach was used to successfully retrieve the bristle.



Hermes


Plea for a standardized imaging approach to disorders of sex development in neonates: consensus proposal from European Society of Paediatric Radiology task force

Abstract

This consensus article elaborated by the European Society for Paediatric Radiology task force on gastrointestinal and genitourinary imaging is intended to standardize the imaging approach in newborns with disorders of sex development. These newborns represent a difficult and stressful situation necessitating a multidisciplinary team approach. Imaging plays an important role in the work-up but needs to be optimized and customized to the patient. Ultrasound plays the central role in assessing the genital anatomy. The examination must be conducted in a detailed and systematic way. It must include transabdominal and transperineal approaches with adapted high-resolution transducers. The pelvic cavity, the genital folds, the inguinal areas and the adrenals must be evaluated as well as the rest of the abdominal cavity. A reporting template is proposed. The indications of magnetic resonance imaging and cysto- and genitography are discussed as well as they may provide additional information. Imaging findings must be reported cautiously using neutral wording as much as possible.



Pediatric postmortem computed tomography: initial experience at a children's hospital in the United States

Abstract

Postmortem CT might provide valuable information in determining the cause of death and understanding disease processes, particularly when combined with traditional autopsy. Pediatric applications of postmortem imaging represent a new and rapidly growing field. We describe our experience in establishing a pediatric postmortem CT program and present a discussion of the distinct challenges in developing this type of program in the United States of America, where forensic practice varies from other countries. We give a brief overview of recent literature along with the common imaging findings on postmortem CT that can simulate antemortem pathology.



Minimally invasive treatment of pediatric head and neck dermoids: percutaneous drainage and radiofrequency coblation

Abstract

Background

Dermoids are common benign head and neck cysts in children containing a variety of different skin elements. Current standard treatment is surgical removal that sometimes requires extensive dissection to ensure complete resection and often leaves unwanted facial scarring. A minimally invasive treatment alternative should offer a similar rate of success with a decrease in operative complexity, recovery time and postoperative scarring.

Objective

To assess the outcomes of our minimally invasive percutaneous treatment of head and neck dermoids, we reviewed our 9-year interventional radiology (IR) department experience.

Materials and methods

The medical records, imaging and procedural details were reviewed from a cohort of pediatric patients with dermoids treated in our IR department from January 2009 through February 2018. Patients in the study underwent ultrasound (US)-guided cyst puncture, 3% Sotradecol (sodium tetradecyl sulfate [STS]) emulsification of the thick cyst contents allowing complete drainage, and radiofrequency coblation of the cyst wall.

Results

In this retrospective study, we report on 22 dermoids in 21 patients. The average patient age was 3 years. Twenty-one of the 22 dermoids were successfully treated for an overall success rate of 95%. Four intraosseous dermoids were successfully treated using computed tomography (CT) guidance instead of, or in addition to, US. Average follow-up time was 22 months.

Conclusion

The combination of percutaneous cyst drainage using STS as an emulsifying agent followed by radiofrequency coblation is a safe, effective, minimally invasive treatment for pediatric patients with head and neck dermoids.



Proximal radius fractures in children: evaluation of associated elbow fractures

Abstract

Background

Additional fractures occur in association with proximal radius fractures, but the extent of these secondary injuries has not been systematically assessed.

Objective

To ascertain the frequency and nature of additional fractures associated with proximal radius injuries in a large pediatric cohort.

Materials and methods

Radiographs meeting search criteria for proximal radius fracture during a 5-year period were reviewed. Fracture characteristics and the coexistence of additional elbow fractures were recorded and analyzed. The retrospective review was compared with initial interpretation and a blinded review by two pediatric musculoskeletal radiologists.

Results

Four hundred ninety-four proximal radius fractures were included. The radial neck was the most common fracture site (89%). Neck fractures occurred in younger patients (mean: 7.3 years) than head fractures (mean: 13.3 years) (P<0.001). Additional elbow fractures occurred in 39%, most commonly at the olecranon (22%). Additional fractures occurred in younger patients (mean: 7.2 years) than isolated proximal radius fractures (mean: 8.5 years) (P<0.001). Elbow joint effusion and complete or displaced radius fractures were each associated with additional elbow fractures (P<0.001). When compared with initial interpretation, 25% of additional fractures were not identified on initial radiographs, of which 44% were occult retrospectively. Fracture identification demonstrated excellent inter-reader reliability (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.88, 0.94), but joint effusion interobserver agreement was only fair (ICC: 0.52, 0.41).

Conclusion

Proximal radius fractures in children often occur in association with other elbow fractures, most commonly involving the olecranon. Enhanced awareness of these fracture patterns, especially in the setting of joint effusion or complete and displaced radius fractures, may improve detection to guide appropriate management.



Clinico-radiologic features of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis in children

Abstract

Background

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) may be underdiagnosed clinically and radiographically in children with a remote history of cancer, leading to a delay in care and unnecessary lung biopsies.

Objective

To describe the characteristic clinical and radiologic findings of PPFE in a cohort of children to facilitate recognition and noninvasive diagnosis.

Materials and methods

Clinical presentation, history of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, lung or bone marrow transplantation, and lung function testing and outcome were retrospectively extracted from the electronic medical records of eight children treated at our institution's pulmonary medicine clinic with histopathology confirmation of PPFE from 2008 to 2018. Two pediatric radiologists evaluated the chest imaging studies for the presence or absence of published radiologic findings of PPFE in adults, including platythorax, pneumothorax, upper lobe predominant pleural and septal thickening, and bronchiectasis. Platythorax indices were calculated from the normal chest CT exams of eight age- and gender-matched individuals obtained via the radiology search engine.

Results

The mean presentation age was 12.9 years (range: 7–16 years). Seven of the eight had a history of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer. Three of the eight had undergone bone marrow transplantation and none had undergone lung transplantation. The mean time between chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or bone marrow transplantation and the presentation of PPFE was 8.4 years (range: 5.6–12.1 years). Most of the patients presented with dyspnea (63%), cough (50%) and/or pneumothorax (38%). The mean percentage of predicted FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) was 14.1 (range: 7.7–27.5). All eight patients demonstrated platythorax, bronchiectasis, pleural and septal thickening (upper lobes in four, upper and lower lobes in four) and six had pneumothorax. Five underwent lung biopsies, four of whom developed pneumothoraces.

Conclusion

Clinical and radiologic findings of pediatric PPFE are similar to those in adults, although a majority of the former have a history of treated cancer. Clinical presentation of restrictive lung disease, dyspnea, cough or spontaneous pneumothorax years after treatment for childhood cancer combined with platythorax, upper lobe pleural and septal thickening and traction bronchiectasis on chest CT establishes a presumptive diagnosis of PPFE.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις