Τρίτη, 30 Ιουλίου 2019

Pediatric Orthopaedics

Bone maturation of MRI residual developmental dysplasia of the hip with discrepancy between osseous and cartilaginous acetabular index
imageQuality of spontaneous amelioration of residual developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is nowadays not possible to predict. Normal age-related values of the osseous acetabular index (OAI), cartilaginous acetabular index and labral acetabular index have been established on MRI. In this study, MRI of dysplastic hips has been evaluated, and further osseous acetabular maturation was followed-up over time on pelvic radiography to find a correlation between MRI findings and radiological evolution. This is a retrospective single-centre study. Children with DDH who had a pelvic MRI between February 2007 and June 2014 were included. AI was measured for osseous (OAI), cartilaginous (cartilaginous acetabular index) and labral (labral acetabular index) values on MRI. OAI was thereafter recorded on each available radiograph during follow-up. A total of 20 hips were included. The mean age at MRI diagnosis was 3.55 years. Two types of DDH were observed: harmonious dysplasia, associated with an osseous and cartilaginous defect (group A, n = 14), and divergent dysplasia, associated with an osseous defect but with sufficient cartilaginous coverage (group B, n = 6). The mean age at final radiological follow-up was 7.6 and 8.3 years (P = 0.7408), respectively. In group A, four (28.6%) children older than 6 years had an OAI of less than 18°, whereas only two (33.3%) children older than 6 years had an OAI less than 18° in group B (P = 0.0117). This study shows that, in one-third of cases, divergent dysplasia leads to a spontaneous recovery. MRI should be used early to accurately diagnose and follow-up DDH cases and allow surgeons to justify the required surgical treatment. Level of Evidence: IV.

Spica MRI predictors for epiphyseal osteonecrosis after closed reduction treatment of dysplasia of the hip
imageSpica MRI with intravenous gadolinium contrast after closed reduction for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) helps to determine successful reduction and attempts to identify patients at risk for epiphyseal osteonecrosis. The objective of our study was to evaluate spica MRI predictors for epiphyseal osteonecrosis after closed reduction. This was a retrospective study of all patients undergoing closed reduction for DDH followed by gadolinium-enhanced spica MRI between July 2011 and November 2014. Patient demographics and clinical follow-up through 2017, including the development of epiphyseal osteonecrosis and need for reintervention after the initial reduction, were recorded. MRI data included hip abduction angles and quantifying the percentage of femoral head enhancement. Twenty-five hips in 21 patients (16 girls, five boys, mean age: 0.99 years, range: 0.4–3.1 years) were included in our study. The mean follow-up period was 3 ± 1.5 years (range: 0.65–6.1 years). Eight (32%) of 25 hips went on to develop osteonecrosis. Epiphyseal osteonecrosis was more likely with less than 80% enhancement (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 88.25%, positive predictive value 78%, negative predictive value 94%). The mean contrast enhancement for patients developing osteonecrosis compared with those who did not was 37.5 and 86.5%, respectively; P = 0.001. Immediate postspica MRI with gadolinium is a useful prognostic tool for determining future risk for epiphyseal osteonecrosis in children treated for DDH. Our data complement existing literature and suggest that even in cases with partial epiphyseal enhancement, osteonecrosis may still develop. When the epiphyseal enhancement is less than 80%, it is recommended that spica cast revision is considered.

MRI reveals unrecognized treatment failures after application of Fettweis plaster in children with unstable hip joints
imageWe evaluated the success of treatment of unstable hip joints with the Fettweis plaster followed by MRI to detect potential treatment failures. A total of 132 ultrasound-detected unstable hips of type D, III, or IV according to Graf were treated with closed reduction and Fettweis plaster, followed by MRI. We examined 19 type D, 55 type III, and 58 type IV. Mean age at diagnosis was 84.5 days (SD: ± 55.4). Treatment period was 63.2 days (SD: ± 22.2). In 13 cases, the MRI showed a poor reduction. After repetition of this treatment, all 13 showed a concentric reduction. The use of MRI detects 9.8% of treatment failures. We recommend an MRI examination after each closed reduction to ensure the success of the therapy.

Traction does not decrease failure of reduction and femoral head avascular necrosis in patients aged 6–24 months with developmental dysplasia of the hip treated by closed reduction: a review of 385 patients and meta-analysis
imageThis study aimed to investigate the effects of preliminary traction on the rate of failure of reduction and the incidence of femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with late-detected developmental dysplasia of the hip treated by closed reduction. A total of 385 patients (440 hips) treated by closed reduction satisfied the inclusion criteria. Patients were divided in two groups according to treatment modality: a traction group (276 patients) and a no-traction group (109 patients). Tönnis grade, rate of failure reduction, AVN rate, acetabular index, center-edge angle of Wiberg, and Severin's radiographic grade were assessed on plain radiographs, and the results were compared between the two groups of patients. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed based on the existing comparative studies to further evaluate the effect of traction on the incidence of AVN. Tönnis grade in the traction group was significantly higher than in the no-traction group (P = 0.021). The overall rate of failure reduction was 8.2%; no significant difference was found between the traction (9.2%) and no-traction groups (5.6%) (P = 0.203). The rates of failure reduction were similar in all Tönnis grades, regardless of treatment modality (P > 0.05). The rate of AVN in the traction group (14%) was similar to that of the no-traction group (14.5%; P = 0.881). Moreover, the rates of AVN were similar in all Tönnis grades, regardless of treatment modality (P > 0.05). The meta-analysis did not identify any significant difference in the AVN rate whether preliminary traction was used or not (odds ratio = 0.76, P = 0.32). At the last follow-up visit, the two groups of patients had comparable acetabular indices, center-edge angles, and Severin's radiographic grades (P > 0.05). In conclusion, preliminary traction does not decrease the failure of reduction and the incidence of AVN in developmental dysplasia of the hip treated by closed reduction between 6 and 24 months of age.

Oligohydramnios: should it be considered a risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip?
imageBreech, family history, first born and female sex are the main risk factors described for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Foot abnormalities and oligohydramnios have also been listed. Recent studies have discredited torticollis, multiple gestation pregnancy, mode of delivery and prematurity as risk factors. Definition of oligohydramnios in the literature is inconsistent. Our aim was to investigate the term oligohydramnios and evaluate whether it should be considered a risk factor for DDH. All live births in our institution between 2001 and 2014 were included. We identified all pregnancies classed as reduced amniotic fluid (AF) or oligohydramnios over that period. Data on DDH, breech presentation, female sex and positive family history were collected. The significance level was set to 5%. We identified 73 990 live births, 3408 pregnancies were classed as reduced AF or oligohydramnios. The incidence of DDH (Graf type IIb and higher) was 1: 1000 (75 babies, 18 bilateral). Oligohydramnios/reduced AF was found in 12 (16%) DDH babies. Breech presentation was found in 24 (32%), positive family history in 19 (25%) and female sex in 71 (94.7%). Oligohydramnios was found to be associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for DDH [OR = 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1–7.3] as were breech presentation (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 6.5–17.1) and female sex (OR = 19.1, 95% CI: 7–52.4). All examined risk factors showed statistical significance (P < 0.05). A regression analysis was performed to control for interactions and confounding factors and confirmed the findings. On the basis of our findings the diagnosis of reduced AF/oligohydramnios in consecutive antenatal sonographic scans should be regarded as an independent risk factor for DDH and be considered in any future studies regarding DDH. Level of evidence: Level IV: Case series.

Developmental dysplasia of the hip and clubfoot treated by Pavlik and Ponseti methods
imageChildren having both typical developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and clubfoot are rare, and early treatments of both conditions are recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Ponseti method of clubfoot treatment on hips with DDH. After institutional review board approval, we identified children treated by the Ponseti and Pavlik methods between 2003 and 2016. During the Ponseti method treatment, the duration of manipulations, number of casts, tenotomies performed, and days in clubfoot orthosis were recorded. During DDH treatment, we registered duration for Pavlik and hip brace usage. Hips had dynamic sonography and radiographic evaluations. The cases were grouped according to the combination of DDH and clubfoot treatments: (a) concurrent, (b) sequential, and (c) hip observation. Seven cases of DDH and clubfoot were identified. The average number of Ponseti casts was 5.8 (range: 4–8 casts). The average number of days following the post-Achilles-tenotomy casting to the end of clubfoot bracing was 870 days (range: 90–1605 days). Eleven (four bilateral cases and three unilateral) clubfeet were corrected initially by the Ponseti method. The average number of days for Pavlik harness treatment was 74 (range: 10–126 days). Additionally, a hip orthosis was utilized in three children for an average of 131 days. At follow-up, all children had a high femoral neck-shaft angle averaging 152° (range: 144°–164°). One child (case 5) developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head, Kalamchi type I. Children with typical and nonsyndromic DDH and clubfoot treated by Pavlik harness and Ponseti methods are associated with abnormal hip development (coxa valga).

The outcome of in-situ fixation of unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis
imageThere is limited information regarding the outcome of in-situ fixation of unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (U-SCFE). We aimed to report the outcome of a cohort of patients with U-SCFE that were treated with in-situ fixation, by comparing it to the outcome of patients with stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (S-SCFE). After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective analysis of patients with SCFE that were treated with in-situ fixation at a single institution between 2005 and 2016 was performed. Preoperative and postoperative clinical and radiographic data was collected. The rate of complications, including avascular necrosis (AVN), and the presence of impingement were recorded. The outcome of U-SCFEs was compared to that of S-SCFEs. A total of 184 SCFEs in 154 patients (64% male; mean age 11.9 years) with a mean follow-up of 27 months were included. The SCFE was classified as stable in 90.2% of cases, and unstable in 9.8% of. The mean duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 3.2 months. The mean Southwick slip angle at the time of presentation was 33°. A single screw was used to fix all S-SCFEs, while U-SCFEs were treated with either one (66.7%) or two (33.3%) screws. For U-SCFEs, the joint was decompressed at the time of surgery by either needle aspiration or small capsular incision. The final range of motion of the affected hip was comparable in both groups. The overall rate of impingement was 29%. The rate of impingement in S-SCFE and U-SCFE was 27.6 and 44.4%, respectively (P = 0.1). Eight patients required a subsequent surgery (4.4%), all of whom originally have had a S-SCFE. Radiographic signs of AVN of the femoral head were seen in 2.2% of cases. The incidence of AVN of the femoral head in S-SCFEs and U-SCFEs was 1.2 and 11.1%, respectively (P = 0.04). The results of this study support previous findings that the risk of AVN is significantly higher in U-SCFE as compared to S-SCFEs.

The unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis: does the rate of osteonecrosis really depend on the timing of surgery and surgical technique?
imageThe aim of this study was to investigate whether the timing of surgery and surgical technique affect the rate of osteonecrosis in unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). This is a retrospective review of all unstable slips that were treated at our institution over 8.5 years with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Patients with stable slips were excluded from this analysis. Demographic data, time to surgery, and surgical technique were analyzed. Twenty-three unstable slips were included for study after excluding 40 stable slips. There were 17 males and six females, with an average age of 11.9 years; 13 patients had right SCFEs. The average time from diagnosis to surgery was 57.7 h. Nine (39.1%) surgeries were performed within 24 h of admission, whereas 14 (60.9%) surgeries were performed after 24 h. Minimum follow-up was 23 months. Two patients developed osteonecrosis: one underwent surgery within 24 h of admission and the other after 24 h. Both underwent in-situ screw fixation. In the group that did not develop osteonecrosis, 76.2% underwent in-situ screw fixation and 23.8% underwent manipulative reduction. The rate of developing osteonecrosis following screw fixation in unstable SCFE was unrelated to whether surgery was performed before or after 24 h of admission (P = 1.0), or whether in-situ screw fixation or manipulative reduction pre-fixation was performed (P = 0.605). The results of this small series challenge the practice of stabilizing unstable SCFEs emergently and the belief that gentle manipulative reduction pre-fixation is not recommended because it may increase the rate of osteonecrosis. Level of Evidence: Level IV Evidence.

The effect of femoral orientation on the measurement of the head shaft angle: an ex-vivo study
imageThis laboratory study evaluates head shaft angle (HSA) reliability using ranges of simulated femoral orientation often seen in children with cerebral palsy. A dry femur was mounted in a jig that enabled the bone to be positioned in a range of internal and external rotation (−40° to + 40°) and flexion (0°–60°), alone or in combination. A metal wire was placed as a surrogate physis to give two HSA angles of 140° and 160°. Radiographs were taken of the femur in differing combinations of rotation, flexion and the two HSA angles. The HSA was measured by four independent observers on two separate occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The HSA was accurately measured within ± 5° when the femur was positioned between 20° internal rotation and 40° external rotation. Flexion up to 60° did not affect the accuracy of the measurement. The interobserver reliability for the HSA was excellent with an ICC of 0.9970 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9995–0.9983] for the first measurement and 0.9988 for the second (95% CI: 0.9979–0.9993, all P < 0.01). The intraobserver reliability was also excellent with an ICC of not less than 0.990 for all four observers (95% CI: 0.9806–0.9986, all P < 0.01). There was excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability when measuring the HSA in an experimental model provided femoral rotation lay within 20° internal and 40° external rotation and less than 60° of flexion.

A nationwide analysis of failed irrigation and debridement for pediatric septic arthritis of the hip
imageIrrigation and debridement (I&D) is the gold standard for treatment of pediatric septic arthritis of the hip. If the index surgery fails, subsequent surgery may be required to eradicate the infection, resulting in substantial increases in morbidity, healthcare costs, and psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of failed I&D for pediatric septic arthritis of the hip, defined by the need for at least one subsequent surgical intervention, and potential risk factors for failed initial I&D. The Kids' Inpatient Database was used to extract data for pediatric patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the hip from 1997 to 2012. Factors such as patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities, inpatient variables, and hospitals variables were assessed for associations with successful versus failed I&Ds. During the period examined, 3341 (94.3%) children were successfully treated with a single I&D, whereas 203 (5.7%) children required at least one additional surgery during the same hospitalization. Univariate analysis found anemia, coagulopathy, and electrolyte disorders to be associated with repeat surgery. Patients who required multiple surgeries had significantly longer lengths of stay (11.3 vs. 6.9 days), higher likelihood of being discharged with home health (39 vs. 25%), and higher total overall inpatient costs ($58 400 vs. $31 900). On the basis of the results of this study, the nationwide incidence of patients requiring multiple I&Ds was 5.7%. Patient preoperative comorbidities such as coagulopathy, and hospital characteristics such as government ownership and teaching status were significantly associated with failed initial I&D for septic arthritis of the hip. We believe this data can be useful in guiding future research efforts and providing clearer anticipatory guidance to patients and guardians. Level of evidence: Level III: Retrospective comparative study.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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