Δευτέρα, 17 Ιουνίου 2019

Urban Health

Utilization of Advance Care Planning for Homeless Adults: Case Studies


Given the barriers to advance care planning (ACP) and low utilization of outpatient advance directives in hospital settings, it is unclear if ACP in primary care for adults who have experienced homelessness is effective and a valuable use of clinical time. As part of our ACP Project, we examined the feasibility and outcomes of ACP in primary care for patients who have experienced homelessness. We found that such efforts had significant impacts on patients' hospital care and allowed their wishes to be honored when they lost capacity for medical decision-making, particularly at the end of life. Here, we present six case studies demonstrating the outcomes of ACP in primary care for homeless adults and highlight lessons learned. To our knowledge, this is the first case series showing how ACP for homeless adults in primary care has been utilized during hospital care. Based on our findings, we believe that outpatient ACP even for the most socially vulnerable patients is feasible, often impactful, and should be integrated into routine primary care.

Urban Commuter Campus Students' Perspectives on Sexual Violence: Implications for Response and Prevention


Sexual violence victimization is unacceptably common in the US, with nearly half of women and one in five men reporting lifetime sexual coercion and/or unwanted sexual contact; much violence occurs in campus settings. The majority of sexual violence prevention programs designed to date were not developed around the needs of urban commuter campus students. The present study explored qualitatively how these students conceptualize sexual violence and prevention. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with students on how they recognized sexual violence and understood prevention. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed. Commuter students used "gut feelings" to identify sexual violence, reporting minimal direct consent communication. Intersecting social identities and multiple, concurrent roles limit the potential impact of existing prevention programs. Further research to design and evaluate tailored sexual violence prevention programming for urban commuter campus students is needed.

The Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Continuum of Care and Correlates to Initiation Among HIV-Negative Men Recruited at Miami Gay Pride 2018


While the national HIV infection rate is decreasing, the highest rates of infections continue among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly minority MSM. It is important to understand attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors surrounding HIV prevention methods, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In the present study, we created a snapshot of the PrEP continuum of care and identified participant demographic and sources of PrEP awareness factors that were associated with PrEP initiation. Data were collected using anonymous paper–based surveys employing a venue intercept procedure. A total of 188 HIV–negative men completed the survey at Miami Gay Pride 2018. Participants answered questions regarding demographics, PrEP use, and sources of PrEP awareness. The sample was majority Hispanic (55.4%), gay (83.0%), and single (57.7%). The constructed PrEP continuum revealed that a low proportion of those identified as PrEP naïve (n = 143) for HIV infection had PrEP interest (49/143). Moreover, among those who initiated PrEP (n = 45), a high proportion were retained in a PrEP program (37/45), with approximately half achieving medication adherence (25/45). Age group, PrEP knowledge, and source of PrEP awareness were all significantly associated with PrEP initiation. In areas with high HIV infection rates, studies like these offer crucial insight on how public health practitioners should proceed in the goal of decreasing HIV transmission rates. More research is needed to increase PrEP uptake and adherence.

Expanding a Comprehensive Strategy for Overdose Prevention in the USA

Willingness to Use Safe Consumption Spaces among Opioid Users at High Risk of Fentanyl Overdose in Baltimore, Providence, and Boston


Safe consumption spaces (SCS) are evidence-based interventions that reduce drug-related morbidity and mortality operating in many countries. However, SCS are yet to be widely implemented in the USA despite the escalating overdose epidemic. The aim of this multi-city study was to identify the factors associated with willingness to use a SCS among people who use drugs (PWUD) in Baltimore, Providence, and Boston, stratified by injection drug use status. Our secondary aim was to characterize the anticipated barriers to accessing SCS if they were to be implemented in these cities. PWUD were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey in 2017. The analysis was restricted to 326 opioid users (i.e., heroin, fentanyl, and non-medical opioid pill use). The majority (77%) of participants expressed willingness to use a SCS (Baltimore, 78%; Providence, 68%; Boston. 84%). Most respondents were male (59%), older than 35 years (76%), non-white (64%), relied on public/semi-public settings to inject (60%), had a history of overdose (64%), and recently suspected fentanyl contamination of their drugs (73%). A quarter (26%) preferred drugs containing fentanyl. Among injectors, female gender, racial minority status, suspicion of drugs containing fentanyl, and drug use in public/semi-public settings were associated with higher willingness to use a SCS; prior arrest was associated with lower willingness. Among non-injectors, racial minority status, preference for fentanyl, and drug use in public/semi-public settings were associated with higher willingness, whereas recent overdose held a negative association. The most commonly anticipated barriers to accessing a SCS in the future were concerns around arrest (38%), privacy (34%), confidentiality/trust/safety (25%), and cost/time/transportation (16%). These data provide evidence of high SCS acceptability among high-risk PWUD in the USA, including those who prefer street fentanyl. As SCS are implemented in the USA, targeted engagement efforts may be required to reach individuals exposed to the criminal justice system.

Transactional Sex among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Differences by Substance Use and HIV Status


Exchanging money, drugs, and other goods for sex has been associated with sexual risk behaviors and increased STIs/HIV. While female sex work is well described, data on men who exchange sex for money or goods are more limited. This paper examined the prevalence and correlates of transactional sex among young men who have sex with men, especially focusing on substance use and HIV status. We conducted a cohort study of 511 participants recruited between August 2014 and December 2017 in Los Angeles, CA. Eligible participants were: (1) between 18 and 45 years of age; (2) male; and (3) if HIV-negative, reported condomless anal intercourse with a male partner in the past 6 months. By design, half were HIV-positive and half HIV-negative. At baseline and semi-annual follow-up visits, computer-assisted self-interviews were used to collect information on demographics, sexual behaviors including transactional sex which was defined as exchange of money, drugs, or a place to stay for anal intercourse. Laboratory testing was conducted for current STI/HIV status. The average age of participants was 31.4 years with 43% identifying as African American, followed by 36% as Hispanic/Latino. The prevalence of recent transactional sex across 1486 study visits was 17% (n = 255), with 74% of those reporting exchanging sex for drugs. The prevalence of transactional sex was higher among those who reported unstable housing (32 vs. 11%; p value < .01), concurrent sexual partnerships (26 vs. 9%; p value < .01), and transgender sex partners (40 vs. 15%; p value < .01). Those who reported receiving money, drugs, or shelter for sex were also more likely to report giving money, drugs, shelter for sex than men who did not report exchange sex (77 vs. 11%; p value < .01). Based on multivariable analyses after adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, HIV viral load was independently associated with transactional sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.7) per log10 increase]. Additionally, those testing positive for an STI were nearly twice as likely to report transactional sex as compared to those without STIs (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.2–3.5). These findings underscore the relatively high prevalence of transactional sex and its potential role in ongoing HIV transmission among this cohort of high-risk HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

The Prison and Transition Health (PATH) Cohort Study: Study Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Cohort of Men with a History of Injecting Drug Use Leaving Prison in Australia


People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately represented among individuals who experience imprisonment and often have more complex physical and mental health needs than people in prison without injecting histories. The trajectories of PWID after prison release are poorly understood, hampering the development of effective strategies to address their distinct health needs. The Prison and Transition Health (PATH) Cohort Study is characterising the post-release trajectories of incarcerated male PWID in Victoria, Australia. We outline study methodology and baseline characteristics of participants prior to their release. Four hundred participants were recruited from three prisons and completed researcher-administered baseline interviews covering socio-demographics, social supports, physical health, mental health, alcohol and other drug use, and pre-release and transitional service utilisation. The median age among participants was 36 years (IQR 30–42), and they reported a median of five (IQR 3–9) previous adult incarcerations. Almost half (49%) were reliant on government payments prior to incarceration. One quarter (25%) of participants reported removal from their parents' care as children and 64% reported being a parent or primary caregiver to children. Most participants (81%) reported a previous mental health diagnosis and 44% reported three or more diagnoses. The most common drugs injected prior to incarceration were crystal methamphetamine (80%) and heroin (62%), and most (85%) reported being under the influence of drugs at the time of committing offences for which they were currently incarcerated. Injecting drug use during their current sentence was reported by 40% of participants, and 48% reported engaging with some form of drug treatment during their current sentence. Study participants are characterised by significant mental health and substance use morbidities, social disadvantage and criminogenic histories that present challenges for the provision of post-release support services. Data from the PATH Cohort Study will help inform strategies to improve the health and social outcomes of this population.

Beliefs Associated with Pharmacy-Based Naloxone: a Qualitative Study of Pharmacy-Based Naloxone Purchasers and People at Risk for Opioid Overdose


Drug overdose is the leading cause of unintentional death in the USA and the majority of deaths involve an opioid. Pharmacies are playing an increasingly important role in getting naloxone—the antidote to an opioid overdose—into the community. The aim of the current study was to understand, from the perspective of those who had obtained naloxone at the pharmacy, whose drug using status and pain patient status was not known until the interviews were conducted, as well as those who had not obtained naloxone at the pharmacy but were at risk for overdose, factors that impact the likelihood of obtaining pharmacy-based naloxone (PBN). Fifty-two participants from two New England states were interviewed between August 2016 and April 2017. We used a phenomenological approach to investigate participants' beliefs about pharmacy-based naloxone. The social contextual model was chosen to structure the collection and analysis of the qualitative data as it takes into account individual, interpersonal, organizational (pharmacy), community, and societal influences on a specific health behavior. Of the 52 people interviewed, 24 participants had obtained naloxone from the pharmacy in the past year, of which 4% (n = 1) self-disclosed during the interview current illicit drug use and 29% (n = 7) mentioned using prescribed opioid pain medication. Of the 28 people who had not obtained naloxone from the pharmacy, 46% (n = 13) had obtained an over the counter syringe from a pharmacy in the past month and had used an opioid in the past month, and 54% (n = 15) had used a prescribed opioid pain medication in the past month but did not report a syringe purchase. Several main themes emerged from the interview data. Individual-level themes were as follows: helplessness and fear, naloxone as empowerment to help, and past experiences at the pharmacy. Interpersonal-level themes were as follows: concern for family and friends, and sources of harm reduction information. Themes associated with pharmacy-level influence were as follows: perceived stigma from pharmacists, confusion at the pharmacy counter, and receptivity to pharmacists' offer of naloxone; community-level themes were as follows: community caretaking and need for education and training. Finally, themes at the societal-level of influence were as follows: generational crisis, and frustration at lack of response to opioid crisis. Overall our findings reveal factors at multiple levels which may play a role in likelihood of obtaining naloxone at the pharmacy. These factors can be used to inform interventions seeking to increase provision of pharmacy-based naloxone.

Access to Health Care Services among Young People Exchanging Sex in Detroit


Within the related epidemics of sex exchange, drug use, and poverty, access to health care is shaped by intersecting identities, policy, and infrastructure. This study uses a unique survey sample of young adults in Detroit, who are exchanging sex on the street, in strip clubs, and at after-hours parties and other social clubs. Factors predicting access to free or affordable health care services, such as venue, patterns of sexual exchange influence, drug use and access to transportation, were examined using multivariable logistic regression and qualitative comparative analysis. The most significant predictors of low access to health care services were unstable housing and lack of access to reliable transportation. In addition, working on the street was associated with decreased access to services. Coordinated policy and programming changes are needed to increase health care access to this group, including improved access to transportation, housing, and employment, and integration of health care services.

Men in Community Correction Programs and Their Female Primary Sex Partners: Latent Class Analysis to Identify the Relationship of Clusters of Drug Use and Sexual Behaviors and HIV Risks


Existing research indicates that justice-involved individuals use a variety of different drugs and polysubstance use is common. Research shows that different typologies of drug users, such as polydrug users versus users of a single drug, have differing types of individual-, structural-, and neighborhood-level risk characteristics. However, little research has been conducted on how different typologies of drug use are associated with HIV risks among individuals in community corrections and their intimate sex partners. This paper examines the different types of drug use typologies among men in community correction programs and their female primary sex partners. We used latent class analysis to identify typologies of drug use among men in community correction programs in New York City and among their female primary sex partners. We also examined the associations between drug use typologies with sexual and drug use behaviors that increase the risk of HIV acquisition. The final analysis included a total of 1167 participants (822 male participants and 345 of their female primary sex partners). Latent class analyses identified three identical typologies of drug use for both men and their female primary sex partners: (1) polydrug use, (2) mild polydrug users with severe alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) alcohol and marijuana users. Men and women who were classified as polydrug users and mild polydrug users, compared to those who were classified as alcohol and marijuana users, tended to be older and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Polydrug users and mild polydrug users were also more likely to have risky sex partners and higher rates of criminal justice involvement. There is a need to provide HIV and drug use treatment and linkage to service and care for men in community correction programs, especially polydrug users. Community correction programs could be the venue to provide better access by reaching out to this high HIV risk key population with increased rates of drug use and multiple sex partners.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos

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